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Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(12): 124208    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac0039
ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS Prev   Next  

Asymmetric coherent rainbows induced by liquid convection

Tingting Shi(施婷婷)1,2, Xuan Qian(钱轩)1,2, Tianjiao Sun(孙天娇)1,3, Li Cheng(程力)1,2, Runjiang Dou(窦润江)1,4, Liyuan Liu(刘力源)1,4, and Yang Ji(姬扬)1,2,†
1 State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China;
2 College of Materials Science and Opto-Electronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3 College of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
4 Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract  Coherent rainbows can be formed by focusing white-light laser into liquids. They are bilaterally symmetric interference rings with various shapes. Such interference rings arise from the temperature distribution of the liquid induced by laser heating, i.e., thermal lens effect, which changes the refractive index locally and thus the optical path difference. The up-down asymmetry of the interference rings is caused by convection in the liquid. With the increase of the viscosity, the interference rings change their shape from oval to circular shape. After a shutter is opened and the laser shines into the liquid, the interference rings are circular at the beginning. As time goes on, they gradually turn into an oval shape. Let the liquid go a free-fall at the beginning, the interference rings remain circular. All the three experiments have confirmed that the asymmetric interference rings are due to convection in the liquid associated with thermal lens effect. We also numerically simulate the two-dimensional heat conduction with and without convection, whose results agree well with our experimental observations.
Keywords:  coherent interference      thermal lens effect      convection      numerical simulation  
Received:  13 April 2021      Revised:  07 May 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  12 May 2021
PACS:  42.25.-p (Wave optics)  
  42.25.Hz (Interference)  
  44.25.+f (Natural convection)  
  02.70.-c (Computational techniques; simulations)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0301202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11674311 and U20A20205).
Corresponding Authors:  Yang Ji     E-mail:  jiyang@semi.ac.cn

Cite this article: 

Tingting Shi(施婷婷), Xuan Qian(钱轩), Tianjiao Sun(孙天娇), Li Cheng(程力), Runjiang Dou(窦润江), Liyuan Liu(刘力源), and Yang Ji(姬扬) Asymmetric coherent rainbows induced by liquid convection 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 124208

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