The extended symmetry approach is used to study the
general Korteweg-de Vries-type (KdV-type) equation. Several
variable-coefficient equations are obtained. The solutions of
these resulting equations can be constructed by the solutions of
original models if their solutions are well known, such as the
standard constant coefficient KdV equation and the standard compound
KdV--Burgers equation, and so on. Then any one of these
variable-coefficient equations can be considered as an original
model to obtain new variable-coefficient equations whose solutions
can also be known by means of transformation relations between
solutions of the resulting new variable-coefficient equations and the
original equation.

A proposition based on the fluctuation theorem in
thermodynamics is formulated to quantitatively describe molecular
evolution processes in biology. Although we cannot give full proof
of its generality, we demonstrate via computer simulation its
applicability in an example of DNA in vitro evolution.
According to this theorem, the evolution process is a series of
exponentially rare fluctuations fixed by the force of natural
selection.

This paper reports that the directional temperature is
used to present a scheme for deducing the velocity of the reference
frame where the black-body which produces the 2.7~K radiation
background is at rest. The new renormalized relativistic
thermodynamics lays the foundations of the method.

This paper studies a new type of conserved quantity which
is directly induced by Lie symmetry of the Lagrange system. Firstly, the
criterion of Lie symmetry for the Lagrange system is given. Secondly,
the conditions of existence of the new conserved quantity as well as
its forms are proposed. Lastly, an example is given to illustrate
the application of the result.

Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of a general
holonomic system with variable mass are studied. The definition and
the determining equation of conformal invariance for a general
holonomic system with variable mass are provided. The conformal
factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie
symmetry. The relationship between the conformal invariance and the
Lie symmetry is discussed, and the necessary and sufficient
condition under which the conformal invariance would be the Lie
symmetry of the system under an infinitesimal one-parameter
transformation group is deduced. The conserved quantities of the
system are given. An example is given to illustrate the application
of the result.

In this paper, a new lattice hydrodynamic model based on
Nagatani's model [Nagatani T 1998 Physica A 261 599] is
presented by introducing the flow difference effect. The stability
condition for the new model is obtained by using the linear
stability theory. The result shows that considering the flow
difference effect leads to stabilization of the system compared
with the original lattice hydrodynamic model. The jamming
transitions among the freely moving phase, the coexisting phase, and
the uniform congested phase are studied by nonlinear analysis.
The modified KdV equation near the critical point is derived to
describe the traffic jam, and kink--antikink soliton solutions
related to the traffic density waves are obtained. The simulation
results are consistent with the theoretical analysis for the new
model.

The bilinear form of two nonlinear evolution equations are
derived by using Hirota derivative. The B\"{a}cklund transformation
based on the Hirota bilinear method for these two equations are
presented, respectively. As an application, the explicit solutions
including soliton and stationary rational solutions for these two
equations are obtained.

Using the Weyl ordering of operators expansion formula (Hong-Yi
Fan, \emph{ J. Phys.} A {\bf 25} (1992) 3443) this paper finds a
kind of two-fold integration transformation about the Wigner
operator $\varDelta \left( q',p'\right) $
($\mathrm{q}$-number transform) in phase space quantum mechanics,
$$\iint_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{{\rm d}p'{\rm d}q'}{\pi
}\varDelta \left( q',p'\right) \e^{-2\i\left(
p-p'\right) \left( q-q'\right) }=\delta \left(
p-P\right) \delta \left( q-Q\right),$$
and its inverse%
$$
\iint_{-\infty}^{\infty}{\rm d}q{\rm d}p\delta \left( p-P\right)
\delta \left( q-Q\right) \e^{2\i\left( p-p'\right) \left(
q-q'\right) }=\varDelta \left(
q',p'\right),$$ where $Q,$ $P$ are the coordinate
and momentum operators, respectively. We apply it to study mutual
converting formulae among $Q$--$P$ ordering, $P$--$Q$ ordering and Weyl
ordering of operators. In this way, the contents of phase space
quantum mechanics can be enriched. The formula of the Weyl
ordering of operators expansion and the technique of integration within the Weyl
ordered product of operators are used in this discussion.

A detailed procedure based on an analytical transfer matrix
method is presented to solve bound-state problems. The derivation is
strict and complete. The energy eigenvalues for an arbitrary
one-dimensional potential can be obtained by the method. The
anharmonic oscillator potential and the rational potential are two
important examples. Checked by numerical techniques, the results for
the two potentials by the present method are proven to be exact and
reliable.

In this paper, the analytical transfer matrix method
(ATMM) is applied to study the properties of quantum reflection in
three systems: a sech$^{2}$ barrier, a ramp potential and an inverse
harmonic oscillator. Our results agree with those obtained by Landau
and Lifshitz [Landau L D and Lifshitz E M 1977 \wx{Quantum Mechanics
(Non-relativistic Theory)}{} (New York: Pergamon)], which proves
that ATMM is a simple and effective method for quantum reflection.

In quantum information theory, von Neumann entropy plays
an important role; it is related to quantum channel capacities.
Only for a few states can one obtain their entropies. In a
continuous variable system, numeric evaluation of entropy is not easy
due to infinite dimensions. We develop the perturbation theory for
systematically calculating von Neumann entropy of a non-degenerate
system as well as a degenerate system.

We propose two simple and resource-economical schemes for
remote preparation of four-partite atomic as well as cavity field
cluster states. In the case of atomic state generation, we utilize
simultaneous resonant and dispersive interactions of the two
two-level atoms at the preparation station. Atoms involved in these
interactions are individually pair-wise entangled into two different
tri-partite GHZ states. After interaction, the passage of the atoms
through a Ramsey zone and their subsequent detection completes the
protocol. However, for field state generation we first copy the
quantum information in the cavities to the atoms by resonant
interactions and then adapt the same method as in the case of atomic
state generation. The method can be generalised to remotely generate
any arbitrary graph states in a straightforward manner.

We propose schemes to generate an $n$-coherent-pulse
GHZ state and a cluster state via the interaction between $n$
coherent pulses and a two-sided cavity. In these schemes, a strong
coupling condition is not needed, which makes the protocols possibly
able to be implemented based on the current experiment technology.

This paper studies the possible dynamical property of the
Tsallis distribution from a Fokker--Planck equation. For the
Langevin dynamical system with an {arbitrary} potential function,
Markovian friction and Gaussian white noise, it shows that the
current form of Tsallis distribution cannot describe any
nonequilibrium dynamics of the system, and it only stands for a
simple isothermal situation of the system governed by a potential
field. So the form of Tsallis distribution and many existing
applications using the Tsallis distribution need to be
reconsidered.

By using the multiple-scale method, this paper analytically
studies the effect of a barrier potential on the dynamical
characteristics of the soliton in Bose--Einstein condensates. It
is shown that a stable soliton is exhibited at the top of the
barrier potential and the region of the absence of the barrier
potential. Meanwhile, it is found that the height of the barrier
potential has an important effect on the dark soliton dynamical
characteristics in the condensates. With the increase of height of
the barrier potential, the amplitude of the dark soliton becomes
smaller, its width is narrower, and the soliton propagates more slowly.

This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance
in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and
mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio
in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker--Planck
equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived
through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental
harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise
intensity $Q$, multiplicative noise intensity $D$, static asymmetry
$r$ and delay time $\tau$ on the signal-to-noise ratio are
discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the
static asymmetry $r$ can restrain stochastic resonance, and the
delay time $\tau $ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the
longer the delay time $\tau $ is, the larger the additive noise
intensity $Q$ and the multiplicative noise intensity $D$ are, when
the stochastic resonance appears.

Spatial coherence resonance in a two-dimensional neuronal network
induced by additive Gaussian coloured noise and parameter diversity
is studied. We focus on the ability of additive Gaussian coloured
noise and parameter diversity to extract a particular spatial
frequency (wave number) of excitatory waves in the excitable medium
of this network. We show that there exists an intermediate noise
level of the coloured noise and a particular value of diversity,
where a characteristic spatial frequency of the system comes forth.
Hereby, it is verified that spatial coherence resonance occurs in
the studied model. Furthermore, we show that the optimal noise
intensity for spatial coherence resonance decays exponentially with
respect to the noise correlation time. Some explanations of the
observed nonlinear phenomena are also presented.

Based on a coupled nonlinear dynamic filter (NDF), a novel
chaotic stream cipher is presented in this paper and employed to
protect palmprint templates. The chaotic pseudorandom bit generator
(PRBG) based on a coupled NDF, which is constructed in an inverse
flow, can generate multiple bits at one iteration and satisfy the
security requirement of cipher design. Then, the stream cipher is
employed to generate cancelable competitive code palmprint
biometrics for template protection. The proposed cancelable
palmprint authentication system depends on two factors: the
palmprint biometric and the password/token. Therefore, the system
provides high-confidence and also protects the user's privacy. The
experimental results of verification on the Hong Kong PolyU Palmprint
Database show that the proposed approach has a large template
re-issuance ability and the equal error rate can achieve 0.02%.
The performance of the palmprint template protection scheme proves the
good practicability and security of the proposed stream cipher.

Taking the interaction between a DNA damage repair module, an ATM
module, and a P53--MDM2 oscillation module into account, this paper
presents a mathematical model of a P53 oscillation network triggered
by a DNA damage signal in individual cells. The effects of the DNA
damage signal and the delay time of P53-induced MDM2 expression on
the behaviours of the P53 oscillation network are studied. In the
oscillatory state of the P53--MDM2 oscillator, it is found that the
pulse number of P53--P oscillation increases with the increase of the
initial DNA damage signal, whereas the amplitude and the period of
P53--P oscillation are fixed for different initial DNA damage
signals, and the period numbers of P53--P oscillations decrease
with the increase of time delay of MDM2 expression induced by P53.
These theoretical predictions are consistent with previous
experimental results. The combined negative feedback of P53--MDM2
with the time delay of P53-induced MDM2 expression causes oscillation
behaviour in the P53 network.

The synchronization of hyperchaotic Chen systems is
considered. An adaptive synchronization approach and a cascade
adaptive synchronization approach are presented to synchronize a
drive system and a response system. By utilizing an adaptive
controller based on the dynamic compensation mechanism, exact
knowledge of the systems is not necessarily required, and the
synchronous speed is controllable by tuning the controller
parameters. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of
the two synchronization schemes are derived. Numerical simulation
results demonstrate that the adaptive synchronization scheme with
four control inputs and the cascade adaptive synchronization scheme
with only one control signal are effective and feasible in chaos
synchronization of hyperchaotic systems.

The stochastic resonance in paced time-delayed scale-free
FitzHugh--Nagumo (FHN) neuronal networks is investigated. We show
that an intermediate intensity of additive noise is able to
optimally assist the pacemaker in imposing its rhythm on the whole
ensemble. Furthermore, we reveal that appropriately tuned delays can
induce stochastic multiresonances, appearing at every integer
multiple of the pacemaker's oscillation period. We conclude that
fine-tuned delay lengths and locally acting pacemakers are vital for
ensuring optimal conditions for stochastic resonance on complex
neuronal networks.

This paper presents the finding of a novel chaotic system
with one source and two saddle-foci in a simple three-dimensional
(3D) autonomous continuous time Hopfield neural network. In
particular, the system with one source and two saddle-foci has a
chaotic attractor and a periodic attractor with different initial
points, which has rarely been reported in 3D autonomous systems. The
complex dynamical behaviours of the system are further investigated
by means of a Lyapunov exponent spectrum, phase portraits and
bifurcation analysis. By virtue of a result of horseshoe theory in
dynamical systems, this paper presents rigorous computer-assisted
verifications for the existence of a horseshoe in the system for a
certain parameter.

This paper presents a cellular automaton traffic flow
model with an open boundary condition to describe the traffic flow at
a roundabout crossing with an inner roundabout lane and an outer
roundabout lane. The simulation results show that the boundary
condition, bottlenecks and the self-organization affect the traffic
flow at the roundabout crossing. Because of the effect of
bottlenecks, jams easily appear on the inner roundabout lane. To
improve the capacity of the roundabout system, proper values of the
enter probability α and the out probability $\beta $ can be
chosen.

The ionization rate of Rydberg lithium atoms in a static
electric field is examined within semiclassical theory which involves
scattering effects off the core. By semiclassical analysis, this
ionization process can be considered as the promoted valence
electrons escaping through the Stark saddle point into the ionization
channels. The resulting escape spectrum of the ejected electrons
demonstrates a remarkable irregular electron pulse train in
time-dependence and a complicated nesting structure with respect to
the initial launching angles. Based on the Poincaré} map and homoclinic
tangle approach, the chaotic behaviour along with its corresponding
fractal self-similar structure of the ionization spectra are
analysed in detail. Our work is significant for understanding the
quantum-classical correspondence.

We study geometric phases of the ground states of
inhomogeneous XY spin chains in transverse fields with
Dzyaloshinski--Moriya (DM) interaction, and investigate the effect
of the DM interaction on the quantum phase transition (QPT) of such
spin chains. The results show that the DM interaction could
influence the distribution of the regions of QPTs but could not
produce new critical points for the spin-chain. This study extends
the relation between geometric phases and QPTs.

Due to the heterogeneity of the structure on a scale-free
network, making the betweennesses of all nodes become homogeneous by
reassigning the weights of nodes or edges is very difficult. In
order to take advantage of the important effect of high degree nodes
on the shortest path communication and preferentially deliver
packets by them to increase the probability to destination, an
adaptive local routing strategy on a scale-free network is proposed,
in which the node adjusts the forwarding probability with the dynamical
traffic load (packet queue length) and the degree distribution of
neighbouring nodes. The critical queue length of a node is set to be
proportional to its degree, and the node with high degree has a
larger critical queue length to store and forward more packets. When
the queue length of a high degree node is shorter than its critical
queue length, it has a higher probability to forward packets. After
higher degree nodes are saturated
(whose queue lengths are longer
than their critical queue lengths), more packets will be delivered
by the lower degree nodes around them. The adaptive local routing
strategy increases the probability of a packet finding its
destination quickly, and improves the transmission capacity on the
scale-free network by reducing routing hops. The simulation results
show that the transmission capacity of the adaptive local routing
strategy is larger than that of three previous local routing
strategies.

In order to perform data acquisition and avoid unwanted
over-current damage to the power supply, a convenient and real-time
method of experimentally investigating repetitive nanosecond-pulse
breakdown in polymer dielectric samples is presented. The
measurement-acquisition and control system not only records
breakdown voltage and current, and time-to-breakdown duration, but
also provides a real-time power-off protection for the power supply.
Furthermore, the number of applied pulses can be calculated by the
product of the time-to-breakdown duration and repetition rate. When
the measured time-to-breakdown duration error is taken into account,
the repetition rate of applied nanosecond-pulses should be below
40~kHz. In addition, some experimental data on repetitive
nanosecond-pulse breakdown of polymer films are presented and
discussed.

Two phase extraction methods which are based separately on
phase-stepping and shifting curve are mainly used in
phase-sensitive imaging in gating interferometry to determine the
x-ray phase shift induced by an object in the beam. In this paper,
the authors perform a full comparative analysis and present the main
virtues and limitations of these two methods according to the
theoretical analysis of the grating interferometry.

Using the unsymmetrical one-range addition theorems
introduced by one of the authors with the help of complete
orthonormal sets of $\varPsi ^\alpha $-exponential type orbitals
($\alpha = 1,0, - 1, - 2,...)$, this paper presents the sets of
series expansion relations for multicentre nuclear attraction
integrals over Slater-type orbitals arising in
Hartree--Fock--Roothaan equations for molecules. The final results
are expressed through multicentre charge density expansion
coefficients and basic integrals. The convergence of the series is
tested by calculating concrete cases for arbitrary values of
parameters of orbitals.

The low-energy structures and the electronic and the
magnetic properties of small Ni$_{n}$Ti$_{n}$ ($n=1$--$6$) and
Ni$_{m}$Ti$_{n}$ ($1 \le n \le 4$, $1 \le m \le 4$, $n \ne m$)
clusters are investigated by performing all-electron calculations
based on density functional theory. Ground states and several
isomers near the ground states are determined for these clusters.
The results indicate that the growth of small Ni$_{m}$Ti$_{n}$
clusters prefers to form rich Ti--Ni and Ti--Ti bonds. When the
percentage of titanium atoms is significantly greater than that of
nickel atoms, the nickel atoms are most frequently found above
the surface; in contrast, the titanium atoms prefer the bridging
sites. A M\"{u}lliken spin population analysis indicates that the
total spin of titanium-nickel clusters is not always zero.

The general features of the geometries and electronic
properties for 3d, 4d, and 5d transition-metal atom doped Au$_{6}$
clusters are systematically investigated by using relativistic
all-electron density functional theory in the generalized gradient
approximation (GGA). A number of structural isomers are considered
to search the lowest-energy structures of $M$@Au$_{6}$ clusters
($M$=3d, 4d and 5d transition-metal atoms), and the transition metal
atom locating in the centre of an Au$_{6}$ ring is found to be in
the ground state for all the $M$@Au$_{6 }$ clusters. All doped
clusters, expect for Pd@Au$_{6}$, show large relative binding
energies compared with a pure Au$_{7 }$ cluster, indicating that
doping by 3d, 4d, 5d transition-metal atoms could stabilize the
Au$_{6}$ ring and promote the formation of a new binary alloy
cluster.

Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS)
suffers from poor selectivity between neighbouring Raman levels
due to the large bandwidth of the femtosecond pulses. This paper
provides a new method to realize the selective excitation and
suppression of femtosecond CARS by manipulating both the probe and
pump (or Stokes) spectra. These theoretical results indicate that
the CARS signals between neighbouring Raman levels are
differentiated from their indistinguishable femtosecond CARS spectra
by tailoring the probe spectrum, and then their selective excitation
and suppression can be realized by supplementally manipulating the
pump (or Stokes) spectrum with the $\pi $ spectral phase step.

Signals of ultracold plasma are observed by two-photon
ionization of laser-cooled caesium atoms in a magneto-optical trap.
Recombination of ions and electrons into Rydberg atoms during the
expansion of ultracold plasma is investigated by using
state-selective field ionization spectroscopy. The dependences of
recombination on initial electron temperature (1--70~K) and initial
ion density ($ \sim $10$^{10}$~cm$^{ - 3})$ are investigated. The
measured dependence on initial ion density is $N^{1.547\pm 0.004}$
at a delay time of 5~$\mu $s. The recombination rate rapidly
declines as initial electron temperature increases when delay time
is increased. The distributions of Rydberg atoms on different values
of principal quantum number $n$, i.e. $n=30$--60, at an initial
electron temperature of 3.3~K are also investigated. The main
experimental results are approximately explained by the three-body
recombination theory.

Total internal partition sums are calculated in the
product approximation at temperatures up to 6000~K for the
asymptotic asymmetric-top SiO_{2} molecule. The rotational
partition function and the vibrational partition function are
calculated with the rigid-top model and in the harmonic oscillator
approximation, respectively. Our values of the total internal
partition sums are consistent with the calculated value in the
Gaussian program within $-0.137$% at 296~K. Using the calculated
partition functions and the rotationless transition dipole moment
squared as a constant, we calculate the line intensities of 001--000
band of SiO_{2} at normal, medium and high temperatures.
Simulated spectra of the 001--000 band of the asymptotic asymmetric-top
SiO_{2} molecule at 2000, 5000 and 6000~K are also obtained.

This paper reports that terahertz time-domain
spectroscopy is used to measure the optical properties of CuS
nanoparticles in composite samples. The complex conductivity of
pure CuS nanoparticles is extracted by applying the Bruggeman effective
medium theory. The experimental data are consistent with the
Drude--Smith model of conductivity in the range of 0.2--1.5~THz. The
results demonstrate that carriers become localized with a
backscattering behaviour in small-size nanostructures. In addition,
the time constant for the carrier scattering is obtained and is only
64.3~{fs} due to increased electron interaction with interfaces and
grain boundaries.

This paper studies the nonsequential double ionization (NSDI)
process of diatomic molecules aligned parallel and perpendicular to
an intense linearly polarized laser field by using a
three-dimensional semiclassical model. With this model, it achieves
insight into the ion momentum distribution under the combined
influence of a two-centre Coulomb potential and an intense laser
field, and this result shows the significant influence of molecular
alignment on the ratio between double and single ionization rate.
Careful investigations show that the NSDI process for different
alignment molecules has a close relation to the laser intensity and
the different bounding electron distribution has a significant
influence on the final ion momentum distribution.

The product polarizations of the title reactions are
investigated by employing the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT)
method. The four generalized polarization-dependent differential
cross-sections (PDDCSs) $({2\pi } / \sigma )(\d\sigma _{00} /
\d\omega _t )$, $({2\pi } / \sigma )(\d\sigma _{20} / \d\omega _t
)$, $({2\pi } / \sigma )(\d\sigma _{22 + } / \d\omega _t )$, and
$({2\pi } / \sigma )(\d\sigma _{21 - } / \d\omega _t )$ are
calculated in the centre-of-mass frame. The distribution of the
angle between ${{\bm k}}$ and ${{\bm j^\prime }}$, $P(\theta _r )$,
the distribution of the dihedral angle denoting ${{\bm k}}${--}$\bm
k^\prime $--$\bm j^\prime $ correlation, $P(\phi _r )$, as well as
the angular distribution of product rotational vectors in the form
of polar plots $P(\theta _r ,\phi _r )$ are calculated. The isotope
effect is also revealed and primarily attributed to the difference
in mass factor between the two title reactions.

This paper calculates the molecular structures, infrared,
Raman, circular dichroism spectra and optical rotatory powers of
some hydrogen-bonded supramolecular systems as a cyclic water trimer,
(H_{2}O)_{3} and its pyramidal halide complexes,
$X^-$(H_{2}O)_{3} ($X$ = F, Cl, Br, I) with the
gradient-corrected density functional theory method at the
B3LYP/6--311++G(2d,2p) and B3LYP/Aug--cc--pVTZ levels. It finds that
the complexation of halide anions with the water trimer can efficiently
modulate the chirally optical behaviors. The calculated vibrational
circular dichroism spectrum illuminates that the vibrational
rotational strength of S(+)--(H_{2}O)_{3} mostly originates from
the O--H rocking modes, whereas chirality of
S(--)--$X^-$(H_{2}O)$_{3 }$ ($X$ = F, Cl, Br, I) has its
important origin in the O--H stretching modes. The calculated optical
rotatory power demonstrates that S(+)--(H_{2}O)_{3} and
S(+)--F$^-$(H_{2}O)$_{3 }$ are positively chiral, whereas
S(--)--$X^-$(H_{2}O)$_{3 }$ ($X$ = Cl, Br, I) are negatively
chiral. With the polarizable continuum model, calculated bulk
solvent effect in the solvents water and carbontetrachloride and
argon shows that the positive chirality of S(+)--(H_{2}O)_{3} is
enhanced and the negative chirality of S(--)--$X^-$(H_{2}O)$_{3 }$
($X$ = Cl, Br, I) and the positive chirality of
S(+)--F$^-$(H_{2}O)_{3} are reduced with an augmentation of the
solvent dielectric constant.

The solutions to the electromagnetic field excited by a
long axial current outside a conductive and magnetic cylindrical
shell of finite length are studied in this paper. The more accurate
analytical solutions are obtained by solving the proper boundary
value problems by the separation variable method. Then the solutions are
simplified according to asymptotic formulas of Bessel functions.
Compared with the accurate solutions, the simplified solutions do
not contain the Bessel functions and the inverse operation of the
singular matrix, and can be calculated out fast by computers. The
simplified solutions are more suitable for the cylindrical shell of
high permeability and conductivity excited by a high frequency
source. Both of the numerical results and the physical experimental
results validate the simplified solutions obtained.

Compared with scattering from a rough surface only,
composite scattering from a target above a rough surface
has become so practical that it is a subject of great interest. At
present, this problem has been solved by some numerical methods
which will produce an enormous calculation amount. In order to
overcome this shortcoming, the reciprocity theorem (RT) and the
method of equivalent edge currents (MEC) are used in this paper. Due
to the advantage of RT, the difficulty in computing the secondary
scattered fields is reduced. Simultaneously, MEC, a high-frequency
method with edge diffraction considered, is used to calculate
the scattered field from the cone-cylinder target with a high
accuracy and efficiency. The backscattered field and the
polarization currents of the rough sea surface are evaluated by the
Kirchhoff approximation (KA) method and physical optics (PO) method,
respectively. The effects of the backscattering radar cross section
(RCS) and the Doppler spectrum on the size of the target and the
windspeed of the sea surface for different incident angles are
analysed in detail.

This paper studies the effects of vacuum-induced coherence
(VIC) in a four-level atomic system. The effects of VIC lead to the
coherent hole burnings exhibited in the system at some certain points of
the Rabi frequency. This is also the reason for the enhancement of the
coherent population trapping. In addition, optical bistability
occurs in the evolution curves of absorption versus the phase of
Rabi frequencies.

This paper derives energy level formula for two moving
charged particles with Coulomb coupling by making full use of two
mutually conjugate entangled state representations. These newly
introduced entangled state representations seem to provide a direct
and convenient approach for solving certain dynamical problems for
two-body systems.

This paper proposes a scheme for generating arbitrary
superpositions of several coherent states along a straight line for
a cavity mode. In the scheme, several atoms are sent through a
cavity initially in a strong coherent state. The superposition of
several coherent states with desired coefficients may be generated
if each atom is detected in the excited state after it exits the
cavity. The scheme is based on resonant atom--cavity interaction and
no classical field is required during and after the atom--cavity
interaction. Thus, the scheme is very simple and the interaction
time is very short, which is important in view of decoherence.

This paper proposes a decoherence-immune scheme for
generating highly entangled states for two atoms trapped in a cavity.
The scheme is based on two resonant atom-cavity interactions.
Conditional upon the detection of no photon, the two atoms may
exchange an excitation via the first resonant interaction, which
leads to entanglement. Due to the loss of the excitation, the two
atoms are in a mixed entangled state. With the help of an auxiliary
ground state not coupled to the cavity mode, the state related to
the excitation loss is eliminated by the detection of a photon
resulting from the second resonant interaction. Thus, the fidelity
of entanglement is almost not affected by the decoherence.

A quarter-wave plate and the thin film polarizer (TFP) are
used for the LD end-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YVO$_{4}$ laser
with semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) to obtain a
single beam output with a total power of 4.8~W. An optical--optical
efficiency is achieved to be 24% for a stable CW mode-locking
operation at 1064~nm, with a pulse repetition rate of 70~MHz and
pulse width of 16~ps. The multipulse in the pulse sequence is
eliminated for reaching a peak power as high as 4~kW.

We elucidate the existence, stability and propagation
dynamics of multi-spot soliton packets in focusing saturable media.
Such solitons are supported by an interface beside which two
harmonically photonic lattices with different modulation depths are
imprinted. We show that the surface model can support stable
higher-order structures in the form of asymmetrical surface soliton
trains, which is in sharp contrast to homogeneous media or uniform
harmonic lattice modulations where stable asymmetrical multi-peaked
solitons do not exist. Surface trains can be viewed as higher-order
soliton states bound together by several different lowest order
solitons with appropriate relative phases. Their existence as stable
objects enriches the concept of compact manipulation of several
different solitons as a single entity and offers additional
freedom to control the shape of solitons by adjusting the modulation
depths beside the interface.

This paper has theoretically designed a series of
aggregate polymers on the basis of several para-nitroaniline
monomers by hydrogen-bond interactions. At the level of
time-dependent hybrid density functional theory, it has optimized
their geometrical structures and studied their two-photon absorption
(TPA) properties by using analytical response theory. The calculated
results exhibit that the aggregation effects not only bring out the
considerable red shift of the excited energies but also greatly
enhance the TPA intensities of the aggregate polymers in comparison
with the para-nitroaniline monomer. The aggregate configurations
also have an important influence on the TPA abilities of the
polymers; the trimer has the largest TPA cross section. The electron
transitions between the molecular orbits involving the strong TPA
excitations of the trimer are depicted to illuminate the
relationship between the intermolecular charge transfer and the TPA
property.

The incoherent interaction between solitons with different
transverse dimensions in a noncentrosymmetric photorefractive
crystal is studied both in theory and in experiment. An anomalous
incoherent interaction between one- and two-dimensional solitons,
whose attractive and repulsive effects depend on the soliton
separation, is numerically demonstrated by employing an anisotropic
model. By launching a one-dimensional green beam and a
two-dimensional red beam into a biased SBN:60 crystal, the
hybrid-dimensional soliton interaction is performed. The
experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical
ones.

By using the three-dimensional complex Ginzburg--Landau
equation with cubic--quintic nonlinearity, this paper numerically
investigates the interactions between optical bullets with different
velocities in a dissipative system. The results reveal an
abundance of interesting behaviours relating to the velocities of
bullets: merging of the optical bullets into a single one at small
velocities; periodic collisions at large velocities and
disappearance of two bullets after several collisions in an
intermediate region of velocity. Finally, it also reports that an
extra bullet derives from the collision of optical bullets when
optical bullets are at small velocities but with high
energies.

This paper reports that SiO_{2} is selected to fabricate
broadband antireflection (AR) coatings on fused silica substrate by
using glancing angle deposition and physical vapour deposition.
Through accurate control of the graded index of the SiO_{2} layer,
transmittance of the graded broadband AR coating can achieve an average
value of 98% across a spectral range of 300--1850~nm. Moreover,
a laser-induced damage threshold measurement of the fabricated AR
coating is performed by using a one-on-one protocol according to
ISO11254-1, resulting in an average damage threshold of
17.2~J/cm$^{2}$.

This paper reports on an experiment about a novel method
of polarization stabilization. The polarization stabilizer proposed
here has an additional function of polarization transformation from
any state of polarization into any others. The particle swarm
optimization is introduced as a control algorithm in the process of
either searching or endless tracking. The tracking speed of the
stabilizer is obtained up to 12.6~krad/s by using hardware we
have in the laboratory, which means that we can achieve a higher speed
practical polarization stabilizer if we have faster hardware.

The super-cell plane wave expansion method is employed to
calculate band structures for the design of a silicon-based
one-dimensional phononic crystal plate with large absolute forbidden
bands. In this method, a low impedance medium is introduced to
replace the free stress boundary, which largely reduces the
computational complexity. The dependence of band gaps on structural
parameters is investigated in detail. To prove the validity of the
super-cell plane wave expansion, the transmitted power spectra of the
Lamb wave are calculated by using a finite element method. With the
detailed computation, the band-gap of a one-dimensional plate can be
designed as required with appropriate structural parameters, which
provides a guide to the fabrication of a Lamb wave phononic crystal.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Based on the stress potential and complex variable
function method, this paper makes an elastic analysis of an
elliptic notch subjected to uniform shear stress at infinity in
quasicrystals with point group 10. With the aid of conformal
transformation, an exact solution for the elliptic notch of the
quasicrystals is obtained. The solution of the mode {\rm II}
Griffith crack as a special case is constructed. The stress
intensity factor and energy release rate have been also obtained as
a direct result of the crack solution.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The geometric structure, band structure and density of
states of pure, Ag-doped, N-doped, and N--Ag codoped wurtzite ZnO
have been investigated by the first-principles ultra-soft
pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory. The
calculated results show that the carrier concentration is increased
in the ZnO crystal codoped by N and Ag, and the codoped structure is
stable and is more in favour of the formation of p-type ZnO.

This paper studies the two-electron total energy and the
energy of the electron--electron interaction by using a variational
method of Pekar type on the condition of electric--LO-phonon strong
coupling in a parabolic quantum dot. It considers the following
three cases: 1) two electrons are in the ground state; 2) one
electron is in the ground state, the other is in the first-excited state;
3) two electrons are in the first-excited state. The relations of
the two-electron total energy and the energy of the
electron--electron interaction on the Coulomb binding parameter, the
electron-LO-phonon coupling constant and the confinement length of
the quantum dot are derived in the three cases.

This paper reports that, based on the electromagnetic
scattering theory of the multipole method, a high-quality hollow beam is
produced through a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre.
Instead of a doughnut shape, a typical hollow beam is produced by
other methods; the mode-field images of the hollow-beam photonic
crystal fibre satisfy sixth-order rotation symmetry, according to
the symmetry of the photonic crystal fibre (PCF) structure. A dark
spot size of the liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre-generated
hollow beam can be tuned by inserting liquid into the cladding region
and varying the photonic crystal fibre structure parameters. The
liquid-filled PCF makes a convenient and flexible tool for the
guiding and trapping of atoms and the creation of all-fibre optical
tweezers.

This paper investigates the behaviours of 4H--SiC merged
PiN Schottky (MPS) rectifiers with junction termination extension
(JTE) by extensive numerical simulations. The simulated results show
that the present model matches the experimental data very well. The
influences of the JTE design parameters such as the doping
concentration and length of the JTE on the breakdown characteristics
are discussed in detail. Then the temperature sensitivity of the
forward behaviour is studied in terms of the different designs of
4H--SiC MPS with JTE, which provides a particularly useful guideline
for the optimal design of MPS rectifiers with JTE.

Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function and equation-of-motion
technique, this paper studies the magnetotransport through an Aharonov--Bohm (AB) ring with
parallel double quantum dots coupled to ferromagnetic leads. It calculates
the transmission probability in both the equilibrium and the nonequilibrium
case, analyses the conductance and the tunnel magnetoresistance for
various parameters, and obtains some new results. These results show that this
system is provided with an excellent spin filtering property, and that a large
tunnelling magnetoresistance and a negative tunnelling magnetoresistance can arise
by adjusting relative parameters; these facts indicate that this system is a
possible candidate for spin valve transistors, and has important
applications in spintronics.

We study theoretically the influence of spin--orbit
coupling induced by in-plane external electric field on the
intrinsic spin-Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas with
Rashba spin--orbit coupling. We show that, after such an influence is
taken into account, the static intrinsic spin-Hall effect can be
stabilized in a disordered Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, and
the static intrinsic spin-Hall conductivity shall exhibit some
interesting characteristics as conceived in some original
theoretical proposals.

Epitaxial channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect
transistors (MOSFETs) have been proposed as one possible way to
avoid the problem of low inversion layers in traditional MOSFETs.
This paper presents an equation of maximum depletion width modified
which is more accurate than the original equation. A 4H--SiC epitaxial
n-channel MOSFET using two-dimensional simulator ISE is simulated.
Optimized structure would be realized based on the simulated results
for increasing channel mobility.

This paper reports that highly transparent and low
resistance tantalum-doped indium tin oxide (Ta-doped ITO) films
contacted to p-type GaN have been prepared by the electron-beam
evaporation technique. The Ta-doped ITO contacts become Ohmic with
a specific contact resistance of $\sim 5.65\times 10^{ - 5}$~$\Omega
\cdot$cm$^{2}$ and show the transmittance of $\sim $98% at a
wavelength of 440~nm when annealed at 500~\du. Blue light emitting
diodes (LEDs) fabricated with Ta-doped ITO p-type Ohmic contact layers
give a forward-bias voltage of 3.21~V at an injection current of
20~mA. It further shows that the output power of LEDs with
Ta-doped ITO contacts is enhanced 62% at 20~mA in comparison with
that of LEDs with conventional Ni/Au contacts.

This paper investigates the impact of electrical degradation
and current collapse on different thickness SiN_{x} passivated
AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. It finds that
higher thickness SiN_{x} passivation can significantly improve the
high-electric-field reliability of a device. The degradation mechanism
of the SiN_{x} passivation layer under ON-state stress has also
been discussed in detail. Under the ON-state stress, the strong
electric-field led to degradation of SiN_{x} passivation
located in the gate-drain region. As the thickness of SiN_{x}
passivation increases, the density of the surface state will be
increased to some extent. Meanwhile, it is found that the high NH_{3}
flow in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process could
reduce the surface state and suppress the current collapse.

We present a theory to simulate a coherent GaN QD with
an adjacent pure edge threading dislocation by using a finite
element method. The piezoelectric effects and the strain modified
band edges are investigated in the framework of multi-band $\bm
k\cdot \bm p$ theory to calculate the electron and the heavy hole
energy levels. The linear optical absorption coefficients
corresponding to the interband ground state transition are obtained
via the density matrix approach and perturbation expansion method. The
results indicate that the strain distribution of the threading
dislocation affects the electronic structure. Moreover, the ground
state transition behaviour is also influenced by the position of the
adjacent threading dislocation.

Using the tight-binding approximation and the transfer matrix
method, this paper studies the electronic transport properties
through a periodic array of quantum-dot (QD) rings threaded by a
magnetic flux. It demonstrates that the even--odd parity of the QD
number in a single ring and the number of the QD rings in the array
play a crucial role in the electron transmission. For a single QD
ring, the resonance and antiresonance transmission depend not only
on the applied magnetic flux but also on the difference between the
number of QDs on the two arms of the ring. For an array of QD rings,
the transmission properties are related not only to the even--odd
parity of the number $N_{0}$ of QDs in the single ring but also to
the even--odd parity of the ring number $N$ in the array. When the
incident electron energy is aligned with the site energy, for the
array of $N$ rings with $N_{0}={\rm odd}$ the antiresonance
transmission cannot occur but the resonance transmission may occur
and the transmission spectrum has $N$ resonance peaks ($N-1$
resonance peaks) in a period for $N={\rm odd}$ (for $N={\rm even}$).
For the array of $N$ rings with $N_{0}={\rm even}$ the transmission
properties depend on the flux threading the ring and the QD number
on one arm of the ring. These results may be helpful in designing
QD devices.

A combined Ag nanoparticle with an insulating or conductive
layer structure has been designed for molecular detection using
surface enhanced Raman scattering microscopy. Optical absorption
studies revealed localized surface plasmon resonance, which shows
regular red shift with increasing environmental dielectric
constant. With the combined structure of surface enhanced Raman
scattering substrates and rhodamine 6G as a test molecule, the
results in this paper show that the absorption has a linear
relationship with the local electromagnetic field for insulating
substrates, and the electrical property of the substrate has a
non-negligible effect on the intensity of the local electromagnetic
field and hence the Raman enhancement.

A new structure of 4H--silicon carbide (SiC) merged
PiN-Schottky (MPS) diodes with offset field-plate (FP) as edge
termination is developed. To understand the influences of 4H--SiC
MPS diodes with offset FP on the characteristics, simulations have
been done by using ISE TCAD. Related factors of offset FP have been
studied as well to optimise the reverse characteristics of 4H--SiC
MPS diodes. The simulation results show that the device using offset
FP can create a higher blocking voltage under reverse bias as
compared with that using field guard rings. Besides, the offset FP
does not cause any extra steps in the manufacture of MPS diodes.

This paper studies an oxide/silicon {c}ore/{s}hell
{n}anowire {M}OSFET (OS-CSNM). Through three-dimensional device
simulations, we have demonstrated that the OS-CSNM has a lower leakage
current and higher $I_{\rm on}/I_{\rm off}$ ratio after introducing
the oxide core into a {t}raditional {n}anowire {M}OSFET (TNM).
The oxide/silicon OS-CSNM structure suppresses threshold voltage
roll-off, drain induced barrier lowering and subthreshold swing
degradation. Smaller intrinsic device delay is also observed in
OS-CSNM in comparison with that of TNM.

This paper studies the effect of drain bias on
ultra-short p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect
transistor (PMOSFET) degradation during negative bias temperature
(NBT) stress. When a relatively large gate voltage is applied, the
degradation magnitude is much more than the drain voltage which is
the same as the gate voltage supplied, and the time exponent gets
larger than that of the NBT instability (NBTI). With decreasing
drain voltage, the degradation magnitude and the time exponent all
get smaller. At some values of the drain voltage, the degradation
magnitude is even smaller than that of NBTI, and when the drain
voltage gets small enough, the exhibition of degradation becomes
very similar to the NBTI degradation. When a relatively large drain
voltage is applied, with decreasing gate voltage, the
degradation magnitude gets smaller. However, the time exponent
becomes larger. With the help of electric field simulation, this
paper concludes that the degradation magnitude is determined by the
vertical electric field of the oxide, the amount of hot holes
generated by the strong channel lateral electric field at the
gate/drain overlap region, and the time exponent is mainly
controlled by localized damage caused by the lateral electric
field of the oxide in the gate/drain overlap region where hot carriers
are produced.

This paper reports that metal-oxide-semiconductor
(MOS) capacitors with a single layer of Ni nanoparticles were
successfully fabricated by using electron-beam evaporation and rapid
thermal annealing for application to nonvolatile memory.
Experimental scanning electron microscopy images showed that Ni
nanoparticles of about 5~nm in diameter were clearly embedded in the
SiO_{2} layer on p-type Si (100). Capacitance--voltage
measurements of the MOS capacitor show large flat-band voltage
shifts of 1.8~V, which indicate the presence of charge storage in
the nickel nanoparticles. In addition, the charge-retention
characteristics of MOS capacitors with Ni nanoparticles were
investigated by using capacitance--time measurements. The results
showed that there was a decay of the capacitance embedded with Ni
nanoparticles for an electron charge after 10$^{4}$~s. But only a
slight decay of the capacitance originating from hole charging was
observed. The present results indicate that this technique is
promising for the efficient formation or insertion of metal
nanoparticles inside MOS structures.

We fabricate a series of periodic arrays of subwavelength
square and rectangular air holes on gold films, and measure the
transmission spectra of these metallic nanostructures. By changing
some geometrical and physical parameters, such as array period, air
hole size and shape, and the incident light polarization, we verify
that both global surface plasmon resonance and localized waveguide
mode resonance are influential on enhancing the transmission of
light through nanostructured metal films. These two resonances
induce different behaviours of transmission peak shift. The
transmission through the rectangular air-hole structures exhibits an
obvious polarization effect dependent on the morphology. Numerical
simulations are also made by a plane-wave transfer-matrix method and
in good consistency with the experimental results.

This paper discusses the $I$--$V$ property of the
GaAs-based resonant tunnelling structure (RTS) under external
uniaxial pressure by photoluminescence studies. Compressive pressure
parallel to the [110] direction, whose value is determined by
Hooke's law, is imposed on the sample by a helix micrometer. With
the increase of the applied external uniaxial compressive pressure,
the blue shift and splitting of the luminescence peaks were
observed, which have some influence on the $I$--$V$ curve of RTS
from the point of view of the energy gap, and the splitting became
more apparent with applied pressure. Full width at half maximum
broadening could also be observed.

The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of (Tb$_{1 -
x}$Dy$_{x})_{6}$Co$_{1.67}$Si_{3} ($0 \le x \le 0.8$) have been
experimentally investigated. The compounds exhibit a
Ce$_{6}$Ni_{2}Si_{3}-type hexagonal structure and undergo a
second-order magnetic transition. The Curie temperature decreases
from $\sim 187$~K to 142~K as the content of Dy grows from 0 to 0.8.
The maximal magnetic entropy change, for a field change of 0--5~T,
varies between $\sim 6.2$ and $\sim 7.4$~J/kg$\cdot$K, slightly
decreasing when Dy is introduced. The substitution of Dy leads to a
remarkable increase in refrigeration capacity (RC). A large RC value
of $\sim 626$~J/kg is achieved for $x=0.4$ under a field change of
0--5~T.

We have studied the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties
of the Er_{3}Co compound, which undergoes ferromagnetic ordering
below the Curie temperature $T_{\rm C}=13$~K. It is found by fitting
the isothermal magnetization curves that the Landau model is appropriate
to describe the Er_{3}Co compound. The giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE)
without hysteresis loss around $T_{\rm C}$ is found to result from
the second-order ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition. The
maximal value of magnetic entropy change is 24.5~J/kg$\cdot$K with a
refrigerant capacity (RC) value of 476~J/kg for a field change of
0--5~T. Large reversible MEC and RC indicate the potentiality of
Er_{3}Co as a candidate magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures.

Yb^{3+}:Er^{3+}:Tm^{3+}co-doped borosilicate
glasses are prepared. Their strong up-conversion photoluminescence
spectra in a range from ultra-violet to near-infrared, which are
excited by a 978-nm laser diode, are measured, and the mechanisms of
energy transfer among Yb^{3+}, Er^{3+} and Tm^{3+} ions
are discussed. The results show that there is an unexpected
wavelength at 900-nm emission from Yb^{3+} Stark splitting
levels to pump Tm^{3+} ions and there exists an optimum pump
power. The concentration of the Tm^{3+} dopant gives rise to a
prominent effect on the intensity of visible and near-infrared
emissions for the Yb^{3+}:Er^{3+}:Tm^{3+} co-doped
borosilicate glasses.

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) composed of a novel
fluorene derivative of
2,3-bis(9,9-dihexyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-6,7-difluoroquinoxaline (F2Py)
were fabricated, and exciplex emission was observed in the device.
To depress the exciplex in an OLED for pure colour light emission, 4,
4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) was inserted as a separator at the
donor/acceptor interface. It was found that the device without the CBP
layer emitted a green light peaking at 542~nm from the exciplex and a
shoulder peak about 430~nm from F2Py. In contrast, the OLED with CBP
layer emitted only a blue light peak at about 432~nm from F2Py.
Device efficiencies were calculated by a simulative mode in an
injection controlled type mechanism, and the results showed that
exciplexes yield much lower quantum efficiency than excitons. The
device with CBP has a higher power efficiency as no exciplex was
present.

Recently, α-Al_{2}O_{3}:C crystal with highly
sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated
luminescence (OSL) has been successfully grown by the temperature gradient
technique. This paper investigates the heating rate dependence of TL
sensitivity, light-induced fading of TL signals and thermal
stability of OSL of α-Al_{2}O_{3}:C crystals. As the
heating rate increases, the integral TL response decreases and the
dosimetric glow peak shifts to higher temperatures in α-Al_{2}O_{3}:C crystals. Light-induced fading of TL increases
with the irradiation dose, and TL response decreases as the exposure
time increases, especially in the first 15 minutes. With the
increasing intensity of the exposure light, the TL fading of α-Al_{2}O_{3}:C crystal increases sharply. The OSL response of
as-grown α-Al_{2}O_{3}:C crystal is quite stable below
373 K and decreases sharply for higher temperatures.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

This paper describes a technique to estimate surface-based
duct parameters by using a simple ray tracing/correlation method.
The approach is novel in that it incorporates the Spearman rank-order
correlation scheme between the observed surface clutter and the
surface ray density for a given propagation path. The simulation
results and the real data results both demonstrate the ability of
this method to estimate surface-based duct parameters. Compared with
the results obtained by a modified genetic algorithm combined with the
parabolic wave equation, the results retrieved from the ray
tracing/correlation scheme show a minor reduction in accuracy but a
great improvement on computation time. Therefore the ray
tracing/correlation method might be used as a precursor to more
sophisticated and slower techniques, such as genetic algorithm and
particle filters, by narrowing the parameter search space and
providing a comprehensive and more efficient estimation algorithm.

This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation
(SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator
of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a
scanning region of $2.7~\mu$m$\times 2.7~\mu$m in cell nuclei, SHG
signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and
prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been
investigated. Statistical analyses ($t$ test) of a total of 405
measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that
SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference ($p < 0.05)$,
suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy
in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced
biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA.

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