In this paper, we use a univariate multiquadric quasi-interpolation
scheme to solve the one-dimensional nonlinear sine-Gordon equation that
is related to many physical phenomena. We obtain a numerical scheme
by using the derivative of the quasi-interpolation to approximate
the spatial derivative and a difference scheme to approximate the
temporal derivative. The advantage of the obtained scheme is that
the algorithm is very simple so that it is very easy to implement.
The results of numerical experiments are presented and compared with
analytical solutions to confirm the good accuracy of the presented
scheme.

This paper researched into some methods for generating min-weighted
rigid graphs and min-weighted persistent graphs. Rigidity and
persistence are currently used in various studies on coordination
and control of autonomous multi-agent formations. To minimize the
communication complexity of formations and reduce energy
consumption, this paper introduces the rigidity matrix and presents three
algorithms for generating min-weighted rigid and min-weighted
persistent graphs. First, the existence of a min-weighted rigid graph
is proved by using the rigidity matrix, and algorithm 1 is presented
to generate the min-weighted rigid graphs. Second, the algorithm 2
based on the rigidity matrix is presented to direct the edges of
min-weighted rigid graphs to generate min-weighted persistent
graphs. Third, the formations with range constraints are considered,
and algorithm 3 is presented to find whether a framework can form a
min-weighted persistent formation. Finally, some simulations are
given to show the efficiency of our research.

We show some characteristics of three exact solutions to
Einstein's gravity equation minimally coupled to a Quintessence
field. Besides eternal inflation, several other interesting
inflationary processes, such as transitory inflation, are obtained
in these solutions. Singularity is avoided in some special cases.

In this paper, the relationship between network
synchronizability and the edge-addition of its associated graph is
investigated. First, it is shown that adding one edge to a cycle
definitely decreases the network synchronizability. Then, since
sometimes the synchronizability can be enhanced by changing the
network structure, the question of whether the networks with more
edges are easier to synchronize is addressed. Based on a subgraph
and complementary graph method, it is shown by examples that the
answer is negative even if the network structure is arbitrarily
optimized. This reveals that generally there are redundant edges in
a network, which not only make no contributions to synchronization
but actually may reduce the synchronizability. Moreover, a simple
example shows that the node betweenness centrality is not always a
good indicator for the network synchronizability. Finally, some more
examples are presented to illustrate how the network
synchronizability varies following the addition of edges, where all
the examples show that the network synchronizability globally
increases but locally fluctuates as the number of added edges
increases.

As a counterexample of the Euler condition for nonholonomic
constraint problems [H. C. Shen, Acta Phys. Sin.54,
2468 (2005)], we investigate the Apell--Hamel dynamical system on a
horizontally moving plate.
The inconsistency of the results with Newton mechanics suggests that
the Euler condition is not a universal model for nonlinear
nonholonomic systems. This is attributed to the fact that the
virtual displacements so obtained are not normal to the constraint
forces.

This paper extends Hojman's conservation law to the third-order
differential equation. A new conserved quantity is constructed based
on the Lie group of transformation generators of the equations of
motion. The generators contain variations of the time and
generalized coordinates. Two independent non-trivial conserved
quantities of the third-order ordinary differential equation are
obtained. A simple example is presented to illustrate the
applications of the results.

This paper discusses in detail the conformal invariance by
infinitesimal transformations of a dynamical system of relative
motion. The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal
invariance and Lie symmetry are given simultaneously by the action
of infinitesimal transformations. Then it obtains the conserved
quantities of conformal invariance by the infinitesimal
transformations. Finally an example is given to illustrate the
application of the results.

This paper discusses the symmetry of Lagrangians of holonomic
systems in terms of quasi-coordinates. Firstly, the definition and
the criterion of the symmetry are given. Secondly, the condition
under which there exists a conserved quantity and the form of the
conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is shown to
illustrate the application of the results.

This paper studies the new type of conserved quantity which is directly induced by Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates. A coordination function is introduced, and the conditions for the existence of the new conserved quantities as well as their forms are proposed. Some special cases are given to illustrate the generalized significance of the new type conserved quantity. Finally, an illustrated example is given to show the
application of the nonholonomic system's results.

This paper presents a Poisson theory of the generalized Birkhoff
equations, including the algebraic structure of the equations, the
sufficient and necessary condition on the integral and the
conditions under which a new integral can be deduced by a known
integral as well as the form of the new integral.

This paper studies the conformal invariance and conserved quantities
of general holonomic systems in phase space. The definition and the
determining equation of conformal invariance for general holonomic
systems in phase space are provided. The conformal factor expression
is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry. The
relationship between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry
is discussed, and the necessary and sufficient condition that the
conformal invariance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under
the infinitesimal single-parameter transformation group is deduced.
The conserved quantities of the system are given. An example is
given to illustrate the application of the result.

A general solution, including three arbitrary functions, is obtained
for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW)
equation by means of the WTC truncation method. Introducing proper
multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed
solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In the
long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate
into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The
interactions of the periodic folded waves and the degenerated
single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and found
to be completely elastic.

In this paper, the travelling wave solutions for the generalized
Burgers--Huxley equation with nonlinear terms of any order are
studied. By using the first integral method, which is based on the
divisor theorem, some exact explicit travelling solitary wave
solutions for the above equation are obtained. As a result, some
minor errors and some known results in the previousl literature
are clarified and improved.

This paper intends to identify the validity of the orn approximation by
a new universal criterion, which is ultimately reduced to the
calculation of an operator norm. With the purpose of enabling the
criterion to be applicable to general scattering problems, a method is
proposed to estimate the norm of the operator concerned. Compared
with the conventional criterion, this method excels in its ability
to acquire a quantificational upper bound of the relative error by
Born approximation as well as to extend its valid frequency to a
wider range. Two canonical scattering examples are given as evidence
for the validity of the criterion.

Exact solutions of Maxwell's equations describing the lightwave
through 3-layer-structured cylindrical waveguide are obtained and
the mode field diameter and nonlinear coefficient of air-core
nanowires (ACNWs) are numerically calculated. The simulation results
show that ACNWs offer some unique optical properties, such as tight
field confining ability and extremely high nonlinearity. At a
certain wavelength and air core radius, we optimize the waveguide
design to maximize the nonlinear coefficient and minimize the mode
field diameter. Our results show that the ACNWs may be powerful
potential tools for novel micro-photonic devices in the near future.

This paper proposes a scheme for secure authentication of classical
messages with single photons and a hashed function. The security
analysis of this scheme is also given, which shows that anyone
cannot forge valid message authentication codes (MACs). In addition,
the lengths of the authentication key and the MACs are invariable
and shorter, in comparison with those presented authentication
schemes. Moreover, quantum data storage and entanglement are not
required in this scheme. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient
and economical.

The interactions between a two-level atom and a field via two-photon
transition without rotating wave approximation have been
investigated. We emphasize the dynamic behaviors of the atomic
population inversion, the field squeezing, and the atomic dipole
squeezing numerically when the field frequency varies with time in
the forms of sine and rectangle. Some interesting phenomena are
discovered and discussed. The good periodic character of the atomic
population inversion in the standard two-photon Jaynes--Cummings
model is weakened by the influence of the sine field frequency
modulation. The rectangular field frequency modulation can change
the correlation among different oscillations suddenly and induce new
collapse-revival processes of the atomic population inversion. The
field squeezing increases at the beginning of time, but then
decreases and loses as the time increases after it reaches the
maximum due to the sine modulation. The effects of the rectangular
modulation on the field squeezing depend mostly on the appearance
time of the modulation. The atomic dipole squeezing is weakened
under the influence of the sine or rectangular modulation. Our
results indicate that it is possible to perform the dynamic
controlling of the system properties by changing the parameters of
the system with time. This implies that one can dynamically control
a quantum information process by choosing the system modulation
properly.

This paper investigates the thermal pairwise entanglement of a
three-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain in the presence of the
Dzyaloshinski--Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction and
quantum teleportation when using the Heisenberg chain as a channel.
The entanglement dependences on the DM interaction and temperature
are given in detail. It obtains the relation between the concurrence
and average fidelity, and shows that the same concurrence can lead
different average fidelities. Moreover, it finds the thermally
entangled states which do not violate the Bell inequalities, and can
still be used for quantum teleportation.

This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of the system,
composed of two qubits A and B with Heisenberg XX spin
interactation. There is a third controller qubit C, which only
has Dzyaloshinskii--Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with the
qubit B. It is found that depending on the initial state of the
controller qubit C and DM interaction, the entanglement of the
system displays amplification and sudden birth effects. These
effects indicate that one can control the entanglement of the
system, which may be helpful for quantum information processing.

To implement generalized quantum measurement (GQM) one has to extend
the original Hilbert space. Generally speaking, the additional
dimensions of the ancilla space increase as the number of the
operators of the GQM n increases. This paper presents a scheme for
deterministically implementing all possible n-operator GQMs on a
single atomic qubit by using only one 2-dimensional ancillary atomic
qubit repeatedly, which remarkably reduces the complexity of the
realistic physical system. Here the qubit is encoded in the internal states
of an atom trapped in an optical cavity and single-photon pulses are
employed to provide the interaction between qubits. It shows that
the scheme can be performed remotely, and thus it is suitable for
implementing GQM in a quantum network. What is more, the number of the
total ancilla dimensions in our scheme achieves the theoretic low
bound.

This paper investigates the collective excitation and stability of
low-dimensional Bose--Einstein condensates with two- and three-body
interactions by the variational analysis of the time-dependent
Gross--Pitaevskii--Ginzburg equation. The spectrum of the low-energy
excitation and the effective potential for the width of the
condensate are obtained. The results show that: (i) the repulsive
two-body interaction among atoms makes the frequency red-shifted for
the internal excitation and the repulsive or attractive three-body
interaction always makes it blue-shifted; (ii) the region for the
existence of the stable bound states is obtained by identifying the
critical value of the two- and three-body interactions.

There are two different viewpoints on the Aharonov--Bohm (A--B)
effect. One asserts that the A--B effect is due to the existence of
the vector potential A. The other asserts that the A--B
effect is due to the interaction energy between the magnetic field
produced by the moving charges and the magnetic field in the
solenoid. The difference of these two viewpoints is analyzed in this
paper. To judge which viewpoint is right, this paper suggests a new
experimental method.

A multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication protocol
based on Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed. The
multi-user can be authenticated by a trusted third party (TTP)
simultaneously. Compared with the scheme proposed recently (Wang
et al 2006, Chin. Phys. Lett.23(9) 2360), the
proposed scheme has the advantages of consuming fewer quantum and
classical resources and lessening the difficulty and intensity of
necessary operations.

In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol
utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The
measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations
of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on
the initial state and share the photons with different members to
realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security
against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The
generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed.

This paper proves that a set of orthogonal pure states are
indistinguishable by restricted local projective measurement and
classical communication if the sum of their Schmidt ranks is larger
than the dimension of their joint Hilbert space. This result is
useful in determining the local distinguishability of quantum states
and is stronger in some respects than that of Hayashi et al
[Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 040501]. In addition, it presents a new
method to determine the local distinguishability of orthogonal
states by projecting measurement operators into their subspaces.

This paper proposes a scheme for transferring an N-atom state
between two distant cavities via an optical fiber. The scheme is based
on adiabatic passage along a dark state. In the scheme, all the atoms
are always in ground state, the field mode of the fiber remains in
vacuum state, and the field mode of the cavities being excited can
be negligible under certain conditions. Therefore, the scheme is very
robust against decoherence. The successful probability of
implementing the quantum state transfer increases with increasing
number of atoms. Furthermore, the interaction time does not need to
be accurately adjusted as long as the adiabaticity condition is
fulfilled.

We have investigated the intrinsic decoherence on the entanglement
of a two-qutrit one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice chain with
nonlinear coupling. As a measure of the entanglement, the negativity
of the system is calculated. It is shown that the influence of
intrinsic decoherence on the entanglement varies in different
initial systems.

This paper presents a scheme for implementing a Fredkin gate on
three modes of a cavity. The scheme is based on the dispersive
atom-cavity interaction. By modulating the cavity frequency and the
atomic transition frequency appropriately, it obtains the effective
form of nonlinear interaction between photons in the three-mode
cavity. This availability is testified via numerical analysis. It
also considers both the situations with and without dissipation.

In this paper, we study the entanglement dynamics of two-spin
Heisenberg XYZ model with the Dzialoshinskii--Moriya (DM)
interaction. The system is initially prepared in the Werner state.
The effects of purity of the initial state and DM coupling parameter
on the evolution of entanglement are investigated. The necessary and
sufficient condition for the appearance of the entanglement sudden
death (ESD) phenomenon has been deduced. The result shows that the
ESD always occurs if the initial state is sufficiently impure for
the given coupling parameter or the DM interaction is sufficiently
strong for the given initial state. Moreover, the critical values of
them are calculated.

This paper modifies the weighted probabilistic cellular automaton model (Li X L, Kuang H, Song T, et al 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 2366) which considered a diversity of traffic behaviors under real traffic situations induced by various driving characters and habits. In the new model, the effects of the velocity at the last time step and drivers' desire for acceleration are taken into account. The fundamental diagram, spatial-temporal diagram, and the
time series of one-minute data are analyzed. The results show that this model reproduces synchronized flow. Finally, it simulates the on-ramp system with the proposed model. Some characteristics including the phase diagram are studied.

Based on a general model of Brownian motors, the Onsager
coefficients and generalized efficiency of a thermal Brownian motor
are calculated analytically. It is found that the Onsager
reciprocity relation holds and the Onsager coefficients are not
affected by the kinetic energy change due to the particle's motion.
Only when the heat leak in the system is negligible can the
determinant of the Onsager matrix vanish. Moreover, the influence of
the main parameters characterizing the model on the generalized
efficiency of the Brownian motor is discussed in detail. The
characteristic curves of the generalized efficiency varying with
these parameters are presented, and the maximum generalized
efficiency and the corresponding optimum parameters are determined.
The results obtained here are of general significance. They are used
to analyze the performance characteristics of the Brownian motors
operating in the three interesting cases with zero heat leak,
zero average drift velocity or a linear response relation, so that
some important conclusions in current references are directly
included in some limit cases of the present paper.

Due to the error in the measured value of the initial state and the
sensitive dependence on initial conditions of chaotic dynamical
systems, the error of chaotic time series prediction increases with
the prediction step. This paper provides a method to improve the
prediction precision by adjusting the predicted value in the course
of iteration according to the evolution information of small
intervals on the left and right sides of the predicted value. The
adjusted predicted result is a non-trajectory which can provide
a better prediction performance than the usual result based on the
trajectory. Numerical simulations of two typical chaotic maps
demonstrate its effectiveness. When the prediction step gets
relatively larger, the effect is more pronounced.

The chaotic behaviours of a fractional-order generalized Lorenz
system and its synchronization are studied in this paper. A new
electronic circuit unit to realize fractional-order operator is
proposed. According to the circuit unit, an electronic circuit is
designed to realize a 3.8-order generalized Lorenz chaotic system.
Furthermore, synchronization between two fractional-order systems is
achieved by utilizing a single-variable feedback method. Circuit
experiment simulation results verify the effectiveness of the
proposed scheme.

Based on the three-dimensional Liu system with a nonlinear term of
square, this paper appends a state variable to the system, and
further adds a driving signal of the sine signal to construct a
novel 4-demensional nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system. The
appended variable is formed by the product of the nonlinear
quadratic term of the original state variables and the driving
signal. Through adjusting the frequency of the driving signal, the
system can be controlled to show some different dynamic behaviors.
By numerical simulations, the Lyapunov exponent spectrums,
bifurcation diagrams and phase diagrams of the novel systems are
analyzed. Furthermore, the corresponding hardware circuits are
implemented. Both the experimental results and the simulation
results confirm that the method is feasible. The method, which
adjusts the frequency of the input sine signal to control the system
to show different dynamic behaviors, can make the dynamic property
of the system become more complex, but easier to be controlled
accurately as well.

In this paper, a new susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on complex networks with imperfect vaccination is proposed. Two types of epidemic spreading patterns (the recovered individuals have or have not immunity) on scale-free networks are discussed. Both theoretical and numerical analyses are presented. The epidemic thresholds related to the vaccination rate, the vaccination-invalid rate and the vaccination success rate on scale-free networks are
demonstrated, showing different results from the reported observations. This reveals that whether or not the epidemic can
spread over a network under vaccination control is determined not only by the network structure but also by the medicine's effective duration. Moreover, for a given infective rate, the proportion of individuals to vaccinate can be calculated theoretically for the case that the recovered nodes have immunity. Finally, simulated results are presented to show how to control the disease prevalence.

This paper reports a systematic experimental investigation on the
dynamics in the low-frequency region in an erbium-doped fibre-ring
laser with loss modulation. A rich variety of bifurcation is
analyzed through the bifurcation diagram and structured with the
concept of the winding numbers. The coexistence of multiple
attractors and the crisis that appear in the saddle-node
bifurcations, and an interesting structure of bifurcation which is
similar to the bifurcations in high-frequency range, have been
observed.

This paper is concerned with the problem of robust stability for a
class of Markovian jumping stochastic neural networks (MJSNNs)
subject to mode-dependent time-varying interval delay and
state-multiplicative noise. Based on the Lyapunov--Krasovskii functional
and a stochastic analysis approach, some new delay-dependent
sufficient conditions are obtained in the linear matrix inequality
(LMI) format such that delayed MJSNNs are globally asymptotically
stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties. An
important feature of the results is that the stability criteria are
dependent on not only the lower bound and upper bound of delay for all
modes but also the covariance matrix consisting of the correlation
coefficient. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the
effectiveness.

This paper studies pinning-controlled synchronization of complex
networks with bounded or unbounded synchronized regions. To study a
state-feedback pinning-controlled network with N nodes, it first
converts the controlled network to an extended network of N+1
nodes without controls. It is shown that the controlled
synchronizability of the given network is determined by the real
part of the smallest nonzero eigenvalue of the coupling matrix of
its extended network when the synchronized region is unbounded; but
it is determined by the ratio of the real parts of the largest and
the smallest nonzero eigenvalues of the coupling matrix when the
synchronized region is bounded. Both theoretical analysis and
numerical simulation show that the portion of controlled nodes has
no critical values when the synchronized region is unbounded, but it
has a critical value when the synchronized region is bounded. In the
former case, therefore, it is possible to control the network to
achieve synchronization by pinning only one node. In the latter
case, the network can achieve controlled synchronization only when
the portion of controlled nodes is larger than the critical value.

This paper proposes a new combined cellular automaton (CA) model
considering the driver behavior of stochastic acceleration and delay
with the velocity of the preceding vehicle and the gap between the
successive vehicles based on the WWH model and the noise-first NaSch
model. It introduces the delay probability varying with the gap,
adds the anticipation headway and increases the acceleration with a
certain probability. Through these simulations, not only can the
metastable state and start--stop wave be obtained but also the synchronized flow
which the wide moving jam results in. Moreover, the
effect of stochastic acceleration and delay on traffic flow is
discussed by analyzing the correlation of traffic data. This indicates
that synchronized flow easily emerges in the critical area between
free flow and synchronized flow when acceleration and delay are
synchronized or their probability is close to 0.5.

Nonlinear consensus protocols for dynamic directed networks of
multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies are
investigated separately in this paper. Based on the centre manifold
reduction technique, nonlinear consensus protocols are presented. We
prove that a group of agents can reach a β-consensus, the
value of which is the group decision value varying from the minimum and
the maximum values of the initial states of the agents. Moreover, we
derive the conditions to guarantee that all the agents reach a
β--consensus on a desired group decision value. Finally, a
simulation study concerning the vertical alignment manoeuvere of a
team of unmanned air vehicles is performed. Simulation results show
that the nonlinear consensus protocols proposed are more effective than
the linear protocols for the formation control of the agents and
they are an improvement over existing protocols.

This paper mainly investigates plasma characterization on carbon
fiber cathodes with and without cesium iodide (CsI) coating powered
by a ～300~ns, ～ 200~kV accelerating pulse. It was found
that the CsI layers can not only improve the diode voltage, but also
maintain a stable perveance. This indicates a slowly changed diode
gap or a low cathode plasma expansion velocity. By spectroscopic
diagnostics, in the vicinity of the cathode surface the average
plasma density and temperature were found to be ～ 3×
10^{14}~cm^{-3} and ～ 5~eV, respectively, for an
electron current density of ～ 40~A/cm^{2}. Furthermore, there
exists a multicomponent plasma expansion toward the anode. The
plasma expansion velocity, corresponding to the carbon and hydrogen
ions, is estimated to be ～ 1.5~cm/μ s. Most notably, Cs
spectroscopic line was obtained only at the distance ≤ 0.5~mm
from the cathode surface. Carbon and hydrogen ions are obtained up
to the distance of 2.5~mm from the cathode surface. Cs ions almost
remain at the vicinity of the cathode surface. These results show
that the addition of CsI enables a slow cathode plasma expansion
toward the anode, providing a positive prospect for developing
long-pulse electron beam sources.

This paper has developed and characterized a method to produce a
velocity-tunable ^{87}Rb cold atomic source for atomic
interferometry application. Using a high speed fluorescence imaging
technology, it reports that the dynamic process of the atomic source
formation is observed and the source performances including the flux
and the initial velocity are characterized. A tunable atomic source
with the initial velocity of 1.4～ 2.6~m/s and the atomic source
flux of 2× 10^{8}～ 6× 10^{9} atoms/s has been
obtained with the built experimental setup.

By making use of Duan--Ge's decomposition theory of gauge potential
and the topological current theory proposed by Prof. Duan
Yi-Shi, we study a two-component superfluid Bose condensed system,
which is supposed to be realized in the interior of neutron stars in
the form of the coexistence of a neutron superfluid and a protonic
superconductor. We propose that this system possesses vortex lines.
The topological charges of the vortex lines are characterized by the
Hopf indices and the Brower degrees of φ-mapping.

In this work, a three-step autoionization detection method and direct
photoionization detection method are employed to measure the highly
excited even-parity states of the Sm atom in the energy region
between 36360~cm^{-1} and 40800~cm^{-1}. Comparisons between
the results from the two detection techniques enable us to
discriminate the Rydberg states from the valence states in the same
energy region with the information of level energies, possible J
values and their relative intensities. Furthermore, in the
experiment two different excitation schemes are designed to obtain
the spectra of highly excited even-parity states of the Sm atom.
With a detailed analysis of the experimental data, this work not
only confirms the results about many spectral data from the
literature with different excitation schemes, but also reports new
spectral data on 29 Rydberg states and 23 valence states.

The kinetic theory of (2+4)-level atoms in σ^{+}-σ^{-}
laser fields is presented. We systemically discuss friction
coefficient, momentum diffusion tensor and atomic temperature based
on the Fokker--Planck equation. This cooling system is much like
that of a (1+3)-level atom, and the temperature is still limited to
the Doppler temperature. Since this cooling system has not been
investigated before, this work may be regarded as a necessary
complement to the laser cooling theory.

Based on our work on single cesium atoms trapped in a
large-magnetic-gradient vapour-cell magneto-optical trap (MOT), the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is remarkably improved. Also a
far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (FORT) formed by a
strongly-focused 1064~nm single frequency Nd:YVO_{4} laser beam is
introduced. One cesium atom is prepared in the MOT, and then it can
transfer successfully between the MOT and the FORT which is
overlapped with the MOT. Utilizing the effective transfer, the
lifetime of single atoms trapped in the FORT is measured to be
6.9± 0.3~s. Thus we provide a system where the atomic qubit can
be coherently manipulated.

Ab initio calculation of the total dielectronic
recombination (DR) rate coefficient from the ground state of Co-like
tantalum is performed using the relativistic distorted-wave
approximation with configuration interaction. The contributions to
the total DR rate coefficients are explicitly calculated from the
complexes of Ni-like tantalum: 3s^{2}3p^{6}3d_{3/2}^{3} 3d_{5/2}^{6}
n'l', 3s^{2}3p^{5}3d^{10}n'l', 3s3p^{6}3d^{10}n'l',
3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{8}4ln'l', 3s^{2}3p^{5}3d^{9}4ln'l' and
3s3p^{6}3d^{9}4ln'l' with n' ≤ 25, and
3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{8}5ln'l' with n' ≤ 9. The l' and n'
dependences of partial DR rate coefficients are investigated. The
contributions from higher n'complexes are evaluated by a
level-by-level extrapolation method. The total DR rate coefficients
mainly come from the complex series 3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{8}4ln'l',
3s^{2}3p^{5}3d^{9}4ln'l' and are fitted to an empirical formula with
high accuracy. Comparison of the present results with those of other
works shows that the previously published data underestimate
significantly the DR rates of Co-like tantalum.

The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to
15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method
in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic
effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium
clusters. We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital --- the lowest
occupied molecular orbital (HOMO--LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster
usually corresponds to a large dipole moment. The static
polarizability per atom decreases slowly and exhibits local minimum
with increasing cluster size. The polarizability anisotropy and the
ratio of mean static polarizability to the HOMO--LUMO gap can also
reflect the cluster stability. The polarizability of the scandium
cluster is partially related to the HOMO--LUMO gap and is also
dependent on geometrical characteristics. A strong correlation
between the polarizability and ionization energy is observed.

Electromagnetic wave scattering from multilayers consisting of two
two-layer Gaussian rough surfaces with lossless media is
investigated in the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), with consideration of
the shadowing effects. The tapered incident wave is introduced into
the classic KA, and the bistatic scattering coefficient is
redetermined. The advantage of this method is that it is faster in
computation than the exact numerical methods. The numerical results
show that the bistatic scattering coefficient calculated in the KA
is in good agreement with that obtained by using the method of
moment (MOM) over a most angular range, which indicates the validity
of the KA proposed in our paper. Finally, the effects of the
relative permittivity, the root-mean-square (RMS) height, the
correlative length, and the average height between the two
interfaces on the bistatic scattering coefficient are discussed in
detail.

This paper firstly applies the finite impulse response filter (FIR)
theory combined with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to
generate two-dimensional Gaussian rough surface. Using the electric
field integral equation (EFIE), it introduces the method of moment
(MOM) with RWG vector basis function and Galerkin's method to
investigate the electromagnetic beam scattering by a two-dimensional
PEC Gaussian rough surface on personal computer (PC) clusters.
The details of the parallel conjugate gradient method (CGM) for
solving the matrix equation are also presented and the numerical
simulations are obtained through the message passing interface (MPI)
platform on the PC clusters. It finds significantly that the
parallel MOM supplies a novel technique for solving a two-dimensional
rough surface electromagnetic-scattering problem. The influences of
the root-mean-square height, the correlation length and the
polarization on the beam scattering characteristics by
two-dimensional PEC Gaussian rough surfaces are finally discussed.

External-cavity birefringence feedback effects of the microchip Nd:YAG
laser are presented. When a birefringence element is placed in the
external feedback cavity of the laser, two orthogonally polarized
laser beams with a phase difference are output. The phase difference
is twice as large as the phase retardation in the external cavity
along the two orthogonal directions. The variable extra-cavity
birefringence, caused by rotation of the external-cavity
birefringence element, results in tunable phase difference between
the two orthogonally polarized beams. This means that the roll angle
information has been translated to phase difference of two output
laser beams. A theoretical analysis based on the Fabry--Perot cavity
equivalent model and refractive index ellipsoid is presented, which
is in good agreement with the experimental results. This phenomenon
has potential applications for roll angle measurement.

A new kind of quantum interference between Raman scattering and
single-photon absorption is predicted theoretically, which gives an
expanded view of quantum interference. Its potential application is
also proposed.

This paper introduces the mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave
mixing in a commercially available semiconductor optical amplifier
(SOA) with a length of about 1.5~mm to optical label switching
network based on combined frequency shift keying (FSK)-intensiy
modulation (IM)/optical label-packet modulation to overcome the
dispersion limitation of fiber. The 155~Mb/s--10~Gb/s combined
FSK/IM signal is experimentally transmitted over a 100~km standard
single mode fiber. 10^{-10} and 10^{9} BER (bit error ratio),
or even better, is achieved for the FSK label and IM packet, respectively.
The -19~dB power conversion efficiency is obtained for -1~nm
wavelength detuning.

We propose a scheme for implementing conditional quantum phase gates
for two four-state atoms trapped in a cavity. The two ground states
of the atoms are coupled through two Raman processes induced by the
cavity mode and two classical fields. Under certain conditions
nonresonant Raman processes lead to two-atom coupling and can
be used to produce conditional phase gates. The scheme is
insensitive to cavity decay, thermal photons, and atomic
spontaneous emission. The scheme does not require individual
addressing of the atoms.

This paper studies the interaction of a Λ-type three-level
atom with a single mode field. It discusses the emission spectrum
characteristics of the Λ -type three-level atom driven by
the photon-added coherent field. By means of the second-order degree
of coherence, it shows some nonclassical properties of the cavity
field, such as sub-Poissonian photon-number distribution and the
two-time intensity--intensity correlation which violates the
Cauchy--Schwarz inequality.

Starting from the Rayleigh--Sommerfeld diffraction integral, this
paper studies the spectral behavior in Young's experiment
illuminated by nonparaxial partially coherent light and compares
with the paraxial case, where the influence of nonparaxiality of
partially coherent light on the spectral shifts and spectral
switches is stressed. It is shown that there is a spectral shift in
the nonparaxial case relative to the paraxial one and the critical
position changes, at which the spectral switch occurs. The ratio of
the waist width to the central wavelength w_{0}/λ_{0} and
relative spatial correlation length \De affect the spectral
difference. The smaller w_{0}/λ_{0} is, the larger the
difference between the nonparaxial and paraxial results appears. The
effect of relative spatial correlation length Δ is relatively
small.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

The electron density profile peaking and the impurity accumulation
in the HL-2A tokamak plasma are observed when three kinds of
fuelling methods are separately used at different fuelling particle
locations. The density profile becomes more peaked when the
line-averaged electron density approaches the Greenwald density limit
n_{G} and, consequently, impurity accumulation is often
observed. A linear increase regime in the density range n_{e}<
0.6n_{G} and a saturation regime in n_{e} > 0.6n_{G}
are obtained. There is no significant difference in achieved density
peaking factor f_{ne} between the supersonic molecular beam
injection (SMBI) and gas puffing into the plasma main chamber.
However, the achieved f_{ne} is relatively low, in particular,
in the case of density below 0.7n_{G}, when the working
gas is puffed into the divertor chamber. A discharge with a
density as high as 1.2n_{G}, i.e. n_{e} = 1.2n_{G},
can be achieved by SMBI just after siliconization as a wall
conditioning. The metallic impurities, such as iron and chromium,
also increase remarkably when the impurity accumulation happens. The
mechanism behind the density peaking and impurity accumulation is
studied by investigating both the density peaking factor versus the
effective collisionality and the radiation peaking versus density
peaking.

The principle of surface wave plasma discharge in a rectangular
cavity is introduced simply based on surface plasmon polariton
theory. The distribution of surface-wave electric field at the
interface of the plasma-dielectric slab is investigated by using the
three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method (3D-FDTD)
with different slot-antenna structures. And the experimental image
of discharge with a novel slot antenna array and the simulation of
the electric field with this slot antenna array are both displayed.
Combined with the distribution of surface wave excitation and
experimental results, the numerical simulation performed by using
3D-FDTD is shown to be a useful tool in the computer-aided antenna
design for large area planar-type surface-wave plasma sources.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

The Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) and transfer length
method (TLM) test patterns of Ni/4H-SiC Ohmic contacts were
fabricated, and irradiated with 1~MeV electrons up to a dose of
3.43× 10^{14}~e/cm^{-2}. After radiation, the forward
currents of the SBDs at 2~V decreased by about 50%, and the
reverse currents at -200~V increased by less than 30%. Schottky
barrier height (φ _{B} ) of the Ni/4H-SiC SBD increased
from 1.20~eV to 1.21~eV under 0~V irradiation bias, and decreased
from 1.25~eV to 1.19~eV under -30~V irradiation bias. The
degradation of φ _{B} could be explained by the variation
of interface states of Schottky contacts. The on-state resistance
(R_{s}) and the reverse current increased with the dose, which
can be ascribed to the radiation defects in bulk material. The
specific contact resistance (\rho_{c}) of the Ni/SiC Ohmic
contact increased from 5.11× 10^{5}~Ωega.cm^{2} to 2.97× 10^{-4}~Ωega.cm^{2}.

The plane-wave pseudopotential method using the generalized gradient
approximation within the density functional theory is used to
investigate the structure and bulk modulus of WSi_{2}. The
quasi-harmonic Debye model, using a set of total energy versus cell
volume obtained with the plane-wave pseudopotential method, is
applied to the study of the elastic properties and vibrational
effects. We have analysed the bulk modulus of WSi_{2} up to
1600~K. The major trend shows that the WSi_{2} crystal becomes
more compressible when the temperature rises and the increase of
compressibility leads to the decrease of Debye temperature. The
predicted temperature and pressure effects on the thermal expansion,
heat capacity and Debye temperatures are determined from the
non-equilibrium Gibbs functions and compared with the data
available.

In this paper, solute concentration and precipitate content in A2024
aluminum alloy are adjusted by solution treatment (ST) at different
temperatures and tensile experiments on these treated specimens are
carried out. It is found that the temperature of solution treatment
(ST temperature) has a remarkable influence on the amplitude of the
serrated flow and the propagation characteristics of shear bands.
These results are due to the effects of solute atoms and
precipitates on dynamic strain aging (DSA). When ST temperature is
higher than 300~℃, solute concentration is relatively high
and solute cloud is a key factor of DSA. When ST temperature is
lower than 300~℃, precipitate content is relatively high
and the mechanism of DSA is determined by precipitates.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

In this work, we propose an efficient method of reducing the
computational effort of variational calculation with a Hylleraas-like
trial wavefunction. The method consists of introducing integral
transforms for the terms as r_{12}^k\exp(-λ r_{12})
which provide the calculation of the expectation value of energy and the
relevant matrix elements to be done analytically over
single-electron coordinates instead of Hylleraas coordinates. We
have used this method to calculate the ground state energy of a
two-electron system in a spherical dot and a disk-like quantum dot
separately. Under parabolic confinement potential and within
effective mass approximation size and shape effects of quantum dots
on the ground state energy of two electrons have been investigated.
The calculation shows that our results even with a small number of
basis states are in good agreement with previous theoretical
results.

Interference fringes are obtained in a field-emission microscopy
(FEM) study of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with two
open-ended branches. The FEM pattern, which is composed of three
parallel streaks, can be interpreted by using classical Young's
double-slit interference with the ends of the two MWCNT branches
treated as two secondary sources of the electron wave. The origin of
the coherency of the electron beams from the two branches is
discussed on the basis of the quantitative analysis of the FEM
pattern. The result suggests a new approach to obtaining a coherent
electron source.

A theoretical investigation is presented on the characteristics of
the kinetic magnetoelectric effect in laterally boundary-confined
ballistic two-dimensional hole gases. It was shown that, though the
momentum-dependent effective magnetic fields felt by charge carriers
due to the spin-orbit interaction are in-plane orientated in such
systems, both in-plane polarized and normal polarized nonequilibrium
spin polarization densities could be electrically induced by the
kinetic magnetoelectric effect, and the induced nonequilibrium spin
polarizations exhibit some interesting characteristics. The
characteristics we found indicate that there may be some possible
relation between this effect and some recent experimental findings.

This paper reports that the organic field-effect transistors with
hybrid contact geometry were fabricated, in which the top electrodes
and the bottom electrodes were combined in parallel resistances
within one transistor. With the facility of the novel structure, the
difference of contact resistance between the top contact geometry
and the bottom contact geometry was studied. The hybrid contact
devices showed similar characteristics with the top contact
configuration devices, which provide helpful evidence on the lower
contact resistance of the top contact configuration device. The
origin of the different contact resistance between the top contact
device and the bottom contact device was discussed.

Long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) modes in an
asymmetrical system, in which the thin metal film is sandwiched
between a semi-infinite substrate and a high permittivity polymer
film with a finite thickness, are theoretically calculated and
analyzed. Due to the high permittivity of the polymer film, at
proper polymer film thicknesses, the index-matching condition of the
dielectrics at both sides of the metal can be satisfied for
supporting LRSPP modes, and the electromagnetic field above the
metal can be localized well. It is found that these LRSPP modes have
both long propagation lengths and subwavelength mode expansion above
the metal at the optimal polymer film thicknesses. Furthermore, the
requirements on the refractive index and the thickness of the
polymer film to support LRSPP modes at the optimal thicknesses are
found to be not critical.

Amorphous Er_{2}O_{3} films are deposited on Si (001)
substrates by using reactive evaporation. This paper reports the
evolution of the structure, morphology and electrical
characteristics with annealing temperatures in an oxygen ambience.
X-ray diffraction and high resolution transimission electron
microscopy measurement show that the films remain amorphous even
after annealing at 700℃. The capacitance in the
accumulation region of Er_{2}O_{3} films annealed at
450℃ is higher than that of as-deposited films and
films annealed at other temperatures. An
Er_{2}O_{3}/ErO_{x}/SiO_{x}/Si structure model is proposed
to explain the results. The annealed films also exhibit a low
leakage current density (around 1.38× 10^{-4}~A/cm^{2} at a
bias of -1~V) due to the evolution of morphology and composition
of the films after they are annealed.

This paper stuides the magnetization and quantum fluctuations of an
antiferro-antiferromagnetic (AF-AF) double-layer at zero
temperature. It is found that the exchanges and anisotropy constants
affect the quantum fluctuations of spins. If the anisotropy exists,
there will be no acoustic energy branch in the system. The
anisotropy constant, antiferromagnetic intralayer and interlayer
coupling have important roles in a balance of the quantum
competition.

A Fe doped rutile TiO_{2} single crystal is grown in an O_{2}
atmosphere by the floating zone technique. Electron spin resonance
(ESR) spectra clearly demonstrate that Fe^{3+} ions are
substituted for the Ti^{4+} ions in the rutile TiO_{2} matrix.
Magnetization measurements reveal that the Fe:TiO_{2} crystal
shows paramagnetic behaviour in a temperature range from 5~K to
350~K. The Fe^{3+} ions possess weak magnetic anisotropy with an
easy axis along the c axis. The annealed Fe:TiO_{2} crystal
shows spin-glass-like behaviours due to the aggregation of the
ferromagnetic clusters.

We have synthesized Ca_{2}Si_{5}N_{8}:Eu^{2+} phosphor
through a solid-state reaction and investigated its structural and
luminescent properties. Our Rietveld refinement of the crystal
structure of Ca_{2}Si_{5}N_{8} reveals that Eu
atoms substituting for Ca atoms occupy two crystallographic
positions. Between 10~K and 300~K, Ca_{2}Si_{5}N_{8}:Eu^{2+} phosphor shows a broad red emission band centred at ～1.97~eV--2.01~eV. The gravity centre of the excitation band is
located at 3.0~eV--3.31~eV. The centroid shift of the 5d levels of
Eu^{2+} is determined to be ～ 1.17~eV, and the red-shift of
the lowest absorption band to be ～ 0.54~eV due to the crystal
field splitting. We have analysed the temperature dependence of PL
by using a configuration coordinate model. The Huang--Rhys parameter
S=6.0, the phonon energy \hbar υ =52~meV, and the Stokes shift
Δ S=0.57~eV are obtained. The emission intensity maximum
occurring at ～ 200~K can be explained by a trapping effect.
Both photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity and decay time
decrease with temperature increasing beyond 200~K due to the
non-radiative process.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Firstly, the new combined error model of cumulative geoid height
influenced by four error sources, including the inter-satellite range-rate
of an interferometric laser (K-band) ranging system, the orbital
position and velocity of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver
and non-conservative force of an accelerometer, is established from the
perspectives of the power spectrum principle in physics using the
semi-analytical approach. Secondly, the accuracy of the global
gravitational field is accurately and rapidly estimated based on the
combined error model; the cumulative geoid height error is 1.985×
10^{-1}~m at degree 120 based on GRACE Level 1B measured
observation errors of the year 2007 published by the US Jet
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the cumulative geoid height error is
5.825× 10^ - 2~m at degree 360 using GRACE Follow-On
orbital altitude 250~km and inter-satellite range 50 km. The
matching relationship of accuracy indexes from GRACE Follow-On key
payloads is brought forward, and the dependability of the combined error
model is validated. Finally, the feasibility of high-accuracy and
high-resolution global gravitational field estimation from GRACE
Follow-On is demonstrated based on different satellite orbital
altitudes.

Faithful long-distance quantum teleportation necessitates prior
entanglement distribution between two communicated locations. The
particle carrying on the unknown quantum information is then
combined with one particle of the entangled states for Bell-state
measurements, which leads to a transfer of the original quantum
information onto the other particle of the entangled states. However
in most of the implemented teleportation experiments nowadays, the
Bell-state measurements are performed even before successful
distribution of entanglement. This leads to an instant collapse of
the quantum state for the transmitted particle, which is actually a
single-particle transmission thereafter. Thus the true distance for
quantum teleportation is, in fact, only in a level of meters. In the
present experiment we design a novel scheme which has overcome this
limit by utilizing fiber as quantum memory. A complete quantum
teleportation is achieved upon successful entanglement distribution
over 967 meters in public free space. Active feed-forward control
techniques are developed for real-time transfer of quantum
information. The overall experimental fidelities for teleported
states are better than 89.6%, which signify high-quality
teleportation.

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