In this paper, the Lie symmetry algebra of the coupled
Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (cKP) equation is obtained by the classical Lie group method and
this algebra is shown to have
a Kac--Moody--Virasoro loop algebra structure. Then the general symmetry groups of the cKP
equation is also obtained by the symmetry group direct method which is proposed by Lou et al。 From the
general symmetry groups, the Lie symmetry group can be recovered and a group
of discrete transformations can be derived simultaneously. Lastly,
from a known simple solution of the cKP equation, we can easily obtain
two new solutions by the general symmetry groups.

In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted
diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on
a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the
absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the
stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three
immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional
immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model.
Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the
proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF
networks.

For two-dimensional unmagnetized dusty plasmas with many different
dust grain species, a Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (KP) equation, a
modified KP (mKP) equation and a coupled KP(cKP) equation for small,
but finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary waves are obtained for
different physical conditions respectively. The influence of an
arbitrary dust size distribution described by a polynomial
expressed function on the properties of dust-acoustic solitary waves
is investigated numerically. How dust size distribution affects
the sign and the magnitude of nonlinear coefficient A (D) of KP
(mKP) equation is also discussed in detail. It is noted that
whether a compressive or a rarefactive solitary wave exists
depends on the dust size distribution in some dusty
plasmas.

We construct four linear composite operators for a two-particle
system and give common eigenvectors of those operators. The
technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of
operators is employed to prove that those common eigenvectors are
complete and orthonormal. Therefore, a new two-mode intermediate
momentum-coordinate representation which involves quantum
entanglement for a two-particle system is proposed and applied to
some two-body dynamic problems. Moreover, the pure-state density
matrix | ξ _{1} ,ξ _{2} >_{C,D}C,D< ξ _{1} ,ξ _{2} | is a Radon
transform of Wigner operator.

We present a scheme for multiparty quantum remote secret conference
(MQRSC) with pure entangled states, not maximally entangled
multipartite quantum systems. The conferees first share a private
quantum key, a sequence of pure entangled states and then use them
to encode and decode the secret messages. The conferees exploit the
decoy-photon technique to ensure the security of the transmission of
qubits. This MQRSC scheme is more feasible and efficient than
others.

Secure key distribution among classical parties is impossible
both between two parties and in a network. In this paper, we
present a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol to distribute
secure key bits among one quantum party and numerous classical
parties who have no quantum capacity. We prove that our protocol is
completely robust, i.e., any eavesdropping attack should be detected
with nonzero probability. Our calculations show that our protocol
may be secure against Eve's symmetrically individual attack.

It is generally believed that nonorthogonal operations which can
realize the state transformation between two nonorthogonal bases may
ensure the security of many quantum communication protocols.
However, in this paper, we present a powerful attack against quantum
secret sharing protocols of these kinds. Applying entangled photons
as fake signals, Eve can successfully steal the exact information
without being revealed. We also give our effective modification to
improve it. Under the suggested checking strategy, even to Eve's
most general attack, it is robust and secure.

Using the general tortoise coordinate transformation, we research
the fermion tunneling of the Vaidya--Bonner de Sitter black hole via
a semi-classical method and finally obtain the right surface gravity, Hawking
temperature and tunneling rate near the event horizon and cosmical
horizon.

The Galilean invariance and the induced thermo-hydrodynamics of the
lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar--Gross--Krook model are proposed
together with their rigorous theoretical background. From the
viewpoint of group invariance, recovering the Galilean invariance
for the isothermal lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar--Gross--Krook
equation (LBGKE) induces a new natural thermal-dynamical system,
which is compatible with the elementary statistical thermodynamics.

Based on the three-dimensional Liu chaotic system, this paper
appends a feedback variable to construct a novel hyperchaotic Liu
system. Then, a control signal is further added to construct a novel
nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system. Through adjusting the
frequency of the control signal, the chaotic property of the system
can be controlled to show some different dynamic behaviors such as
periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic and hyperchaotic dynamic
behaviours. By numerical simulations, the Lyapunov exponent
spectrums, bifurcation diagrams and phase diagrams of the two new
systems are studied, respectively. Furthermore, the synchronizing
circuits of the nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system are designed
via the synchronization control method of single variable coupling
feedback. Finally, the hardware circuits are implemented, and the
corresponding waves of chaos are observed by an oscillograph.

This paper addresses the control problem of a class of complex
dynamical networks with each node being a Lur'e system whose
nonlinearity satisfies a sector condition, by applying local
feedback injections to a small fraction of the nodes. The pinning
control problem is reformulated in the framework of the absolute
stability theory. It is shown that the global stability of the
controlled network can be reduced to the test of a set of linear
matrix inequalities, which in turn guarantee the absolute stability
of the corresponding Lur'e systems whose dimensions are the same as
that of a single node. A circle-type criterion in the frequency
domain is further presented for checking the stability of the
controlled network graphically. Finally, a network of Chua's
oscillators is provided as a simulation example to illustrate the
effectiveness of the theoretical results.

This paper studies how phase synchronization in complex networks
depends on random shortcuts, using the piecewise-continuous chaotic
Chua system as the nodes of the networks. It is found that for a
given coupling strength, when the number of random shortcuts is
greater than a threshold the phase synchronization is induced. Phase
synchronization becomes evident and reaches its maximum as the
number of random shortcuts is further increased. These phenomena
imply that random shortcuts can induce and enhance the phase
synchronization in complex Chua systems. Furthermore, the paper
also investigates the effects of the coupling strength and it is
found that stronger coupling makes it easier to obtain the
complete phase synchronization.

A novel four-dimensional autonomous hyperchaotic system is reported
in this paper. Some basic dynamical properties of the new
hyperchaotic system are investigated in detail by means of
a continuous spectrum, Lyapunov exponents, fractional dimensions,
a strange attractor and Poincaré mapping. The dynamical behaviours of
the new hyperchaotic system are proved by not only performing
numerical simulation and brief theoretical analysis but also
by conducting an electronic circuit experiment.

In this paper we apply the nonlinear time series analysis method to
small-time scale traffic measurement data. The prediction-based
method is used to determine the embedding dimension of the traffic
data. Based on the reconstructed phase space, the local support
vector machine prediction method is used to predict the traffic
measurement data, and the BIC-based neighbouring point selection
method is used to choose the number of the nearest neighbouring
points for the local support vector machine regression model. The
experimental results show that the local support vector machine
prediction method whose neighbouring points are optimized can
effectively predict the small-time scale traffic measurement data
and can reproduce the statistical features of real traffic
measurements.

Based on a car-following model, in this paper, we propose a new
traffic model for simulating train movement in railway traffic. In
the proposed model, some realistic characteristics of train movement are
considered, such as the distance headway and the safety stopping
distance. Using the proposed traffic model, we analyse the
space-time diagram of traffic flow, the trajectory of train
movement, etc. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed
model can be successfully used for simulating the train movement.
Some complex phenomena can be reproduced, such as the complex
acceleration and deceleration of trains and the propagation of train
delay.

An FS/FE/NS/FE/FS double tunnel junction is suggested to have the
ability to inject, modulate and detect the spin-polarized current
electrically in a single device, where FS is the ferromagnetic
semiconductor electrode, NS is the nonmagnetic semiconductor, and FE
the ferroelectric barrier. The spin polarization of the current
injected into the NS region can be switched between a highly
spin-polarized state and a spin unpolarized state. The high spin
polarization may be detected by measuring the tunneling
magnetoresistance ratio of the double tunnel junction.

Synchronizability of complex oscillators networks has attracted much
research interest in recent years. In contrast, in this paper we
investigate numerically the synchronization speed, rather than the
synchronizability or synchronization stability, of identical
oscillators on complex networks with communities. A new weighted
community network model is employed here, in which the community
strength could be tunable by one parameter δ. The results
showed that the synchronization speed of identical oscillators on
community networks could reach a maximal value when δ is
around 0.1. We argue that this is induced by the competition
between the community partition and the scale-free property of the
networks. Moreover, we have given the corresponding analysis through
the second least eigenvalue λ_{2} of the Laplacian matrix of
the network which supports the previous result that the
synchronization speed is determined by the value of λ_{2}.

The CP violation in the D system is predicted to be an
unobserved level in the Standard Model. In this paper, we describe
the method of searching for CP violation decay processes with the
coherently produced D^{0}\bar D^{0} mesons from the ψ(3770)
decay. The CP violation decay processes can be searched for at
the BES-III experiment. The experimental sensitivity for searching
for the CP violation can reach about a 10^{-4} level with a
ψ(3770) data sample of about 20 fb^{-1}.

In this paper, we simulate the exposure factor by a simple model of a
free-air ionization chamber with the Monte Carlo programme Geant4.
Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the exposure
factor related to parameters of the chamber model. The reason for the
variation in exposure factor with incident ray energy is also
analysed in terms of reaction cross section for different types of
reactions. The obtained results indicate that our simulation is
accurate in the calculation of the exposure factor and can serve as
a reference in designing air ionization chambers.

With consideration of the modulation frequency of the input
lightwave itself, we present a new model to calculate the quantum
efficiency of RCE p-i-n photodetectors (PD) by superimposition of
multiple reflected lightwaves. For the first time, the optical
delay, another important factor limiting the electrical bandwidth of
RCE p-i-n PD excluding the transit time of the carriers and RC_{d}
response of the photodetector, is analyzed and discussed in detail.
The optical delay dominates the bandwidth of RCE p-i-n PD when its
active layer is thinner than several 10~nm. These three limiting
factors must be considered exactly for design of ultra-high-speed
RCE p-i-n PD.

This paper analyzes the energy levels along the even-parity J=1
and 2 Rydberg series of Sn I by multichannel quantum defect theory.
A good agreement between theoretical and experimental energy levels
was achieved. Below 59198~cm^{-1}, a total of 85 and 23 new energy
levels, respectively, in the J=1 and J=2 series, which cannot be
measured previously by experiments, are predicted in this work.
Based on the calculated admixture coefficients of each channel,
interchannel interactions were discussed in detail. The results are
helpful to understand the characteristics of configuration
interaction among even-parity levels in Sn I.

In this study, the energy for the ground state of helium and a few
helium-like ions (Z=1--6) is computed variationally by using a
Hylleraas-like wavefunction. A four-parameters wavefunction,
satisfying boundary conditions for coalescence points, is combined
with a Hylleraas-like basis set which explicitly incorporates r_{12}
interelectronic distance. The main contribution of this work is the
introduction of modified correlation terms leading to the definition
of integral transforms which provide the calculation of expectation
value of energy to be done analytically over single-particle
coordinates instead of Hylleraas coordinates.

The dipole-length, dipole-velocity and dipole-acceleration
absorption oscillator strengths for the 1s^{2}2s--1s^{2}np (3
≤ n ≤ 9) transitions of lithium-like systems from
Z=11 to 20 are calculated by using the energies and the
multiconfiguration interaction wave functions obtained from a full
core plus correlation method, in which relativistic and
mass-polarization effects on the energy, as the first-order
perturbation corrections, are included. The results of three forms
are in good agreement with each other, and closely agree with the
experimental data available in the literature. Based on the quantum
defects obtained with quantum defect theory (QDT), the discrete
oscillator strengths for the transitions from the ground state to
highly excited states 1s^{2}np (n ≥ 10) and oscillator
strength densities corresponding to the bound-free transitions are
obtained for these ions.

Interaction potential of the SiD(X^{2}П) radical is constructed
by using the CCSD(T) theory in combination with the largest
correlation-consistent quintuple basis set augmented with the
diffuse functions in the valence range. Using the interaction
potential, the spectroscopic parameters are accurately determined.
The present D_{0}, D_{e}, R_{e}, ω
_{e}, α _{e} and B_{e} values
are of 3.0956~eV, 3.1863~eV, 0.15223~nm, 1472.894~cm^{-1},
0.07799~cm^{-1} and 3.8717~cm^{-1}, respectively, which are
in excellent agreement with the measurements. A total of 26
vibrational states is predicted when J = 0 by solving the radial
Schr?dinger equation of nuclear motion. The complete vibrational
levels, classical turning points, initial rotation and centrifugal
distortion constants when J=0 are reported for the first time,
which are in good accord with the available experiments. The total
and various partial-wave cross sections are calculated for the
elastic collisions between Si and D atoms in their ground states at
1.0× 10^{-1}1--1.0× 10^{-3}~a.u. when the two
atoms approach each other along the SiD(X^{2}П) potential energy
curve. Four shape resonances are found in the total elastic cross
sections, and their resonant energies are of 1.73× 10^{-5}, 4.0× 10^{-5}, 6.45× 10^{-5} and
5.5× 10^{-4}~a.u., respectively. Each shape resonance in
the total elastic cross sections is carefully investigated. The
results show that the shape of the total elastic cross sections is
mainly dominated by the s partial wave at very low temperatures.
Because of the weakness of the shape resonances coming from the
higher partial waves, most of them are passed into oblivion by the
strong s partial-wave elastic cross sections.

This paper studies the size dependence of biexciton binding energy
in single quantum dots (QDs) by using atomic force microscopy and
micro-photoluminescence measurements. It finds that the biexciton
binding energies in the QDs show ``binding'' and ``antibinding''
properties which correspond to the large and small sizes of QDs,
respectively. The experimental results can be well interpreted by
the biexciton potential curve, calculated from the exciton molecular
model and the Heitler--London method.

The structures and properties of W_{n} (n=2--14) clusters were
studied by using the density functional theory (DFT) at LSDA level. The
most stable structures of W_{n} (n=2--14) clusters with global
minimum were determined. The average binding energy (E_{b}), the
first and second difference of total energy (\itδ E,
\itδ_{2}E), the vertical detachment energy (VDE), and the
HOMO-LUMO gap versus the size were also discussed. The abrupt
decrease of VDE and HOMO-LUMO gap at size n=8 and 10 implied
that tungsten clusters of W_{8} and W_{10} appeared to have
metallic features. These changes were also accompanied by the
delocalization of electron charge density and the strong
hybridization between 5d and 6s orbits in W_{8} and W_10
clusters. Our results are in good agreement with the available
experimental data.

The electronic structures, one-photon absorption (OPA) and
two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of the azulenylporphyrins and
azulene-fused porphyrins have been comparatively studied by using
DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) and the ZINDO/SDCI method. With the number of
azulenyl groups increasing, the OPA wavelengths of all molecules are
red-shifted in 400--600~nm and the two-photon absorption cross section
is gradually enlarged. The azulene-fused structures facilitate an
expanding conjugated area and increasing TPA cross section. The
origin of TPA properties of studied compounds is studied with a
two-level model. In summary, the azulene-fused porphyrins exhibit
strong two-photon absorption.

In the five-level K-type atomic system, by using another control
field to couple the excited level of the coupling transition to the
sixth higher excited level, a six-level atomic system is
constructed. In this system, the multiple electromagnetically
induced two-photon transparency has been investigated. What is more,
if choosing the parameters of the control fields properly the triple
transparency window will reduce to a double one which means that the
multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency can be
manipulated in this system. The physical interpretation of these
phenomena is given in terms of the dressed states and the dark
states.

We investigate the entanglement of a three-level atom in λ
configuration interacting with two quantized field modes by using
logarithmic negativity. Then, we study the relationship of the
atomic coherence and the entanglement between two fields which are
initially prepared in vacuum or thermal states. We find that if the
two fields are prepared in thermal states, the atomic coherence can
induce the entanglement between two thermal fields. However, there
is no coherence-induced entanglement between two vacuum fields.

This paper investigates the squeezing properties of an atom laser
without rotating-wave approximation in the system of a binomial states
field interacting with a two-level atomic Bose--Einstein condensate.
It discusses the influences of atomic eigenfrequency, the interaction
intensity between the optical field and atoms，parameter of the binomial
states field and virtual photon field on the squeezing properties.
The results show that two quadrature components of an atom laser can be
squeezed periodically. The duration and the degree of squeezing an atom
laser have something to do with the atomic eigenfrequency and the parameter
of the binomial states field, respectively. The collapse and revival
frequency of atom laser fluctuation depends on the interaction intensity
between the optical field and atoms. The effect of the virtual photon field
deepens the depth of squeezing an atom laser.

Using a numerical computational method, quasiprobability distributions
of new kinds of even and odd nonlinear coherent states (EONLCS) are
investigated. The results show that the distributions of the new
even nonlinear coherent states (NLCS) are distinct from those of the new
odd NLCS and imply that the new EONLCS always exhibit some different
nonclassical effects. Finally, with the aid of newly introduced
intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics,
the tomograms of the new EONLCS are calculated. This is a new way of
obtaining the tomogram function.

From the viewpoint of quantum information, this paper proposes a
concept and a definition of the atomic optimal entropy squeezing
sudden generation (AOESSG) for the system of an effective two-level
moving atom which entangles with the two-mode coherent fields. It
also researches the relationship between the AOESSG and
entanglement sudden death of the atom-fields, and discusses the
influences of atomic initial state on the AOESSG and obtains the
system parameter which controls the AOESSG.

There are both loss and dispersion characteristics for most
dielectric media. In quantum theory the loss in medium is generally
described by Langevin force in the Langevin noise (LN) scheme by
which the quantization of the radiation field in various homogeneous
absorbing dielectrics can be successfully actualized. However, it is
invalid for the anisotropic dispersion medium. This paper extends
the LN theory to an anisotropic dispersion medium and presented the
quantization of the radiation field as well as the transformation
relation between the homogeneous and anisotropic dispersion media.

Quantum superdense coding (QSC) is an example of how entanglement
can be used to minimize the number of carriers of classical
information. This paper proposes two schemes for implementing QSC by
means of cavity assisted interactions with single-photon pulses. The
schemes are insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field,
thus it might be realizable based on the current cavity QED
techniques.

By using an external-cavity frequency-doubling master oscillator
fiber power amplifier (MOPA), a 700~mW continuous-wave
single-frequency laser source at 780~nm is produced. It is shown
that the frequency doubling efficiency is improved when the seed
diode laser is optically locked to a resonant frequency of a confocal
Fabry--Perot (F-P) cavity. This phenomenon can be attributed to the
narrowing of the 1.56~μ m laser linewidth and explained by our
presented theoretical model. The experimental results are found to
be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

This paper reports the periodic power variation of the pulse-train
in a passively mode-locked soliton fiber ring laser. It can obtain
either the uniform or nonuniform pulse-train output by simply
rotating the polarization controllers. The experimental results show
that the pulse-train nonuniformity is caused by the interaction
between the nonuniform polarization states of the soliton pulses and
the passive polarizer in the cavity.

The mounting configuration of an optical ring cavity is optimized
for vibration insensitivity by finite element analysis. A minimum
response to vertical accelerations is found by simulations made for
different supporting positions.

Based on color-locking noisy field correlation in three Markovian
stochastic models, phase dispersions of the Raman- and
Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) have been investigated. The
phase dispersions are modified by both linewidth and time delay for
negative time delay, but only by linewidth for positive time delay.
Moreover, the results under narrowband condition are close to the
nonmodified nonlinear dispersion and absorption of the material.
Homodyne and heterodyne detections of the Raman, the Rayleigh and
the mixing femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats have
also been investigated, separately.

The Lie group theoretical method is used to study the equations
describing materials with competing quadratic and cubic
nonlinearities. The equations share some of the nice properties of
soliton equations. From the elliptic functions expansion method, we
obtain large families of analytical solutions, in special cases, we
have the periodic, kink and solitary solutions of the equations.
Furthermore, we investigate the stability of these solutions under
the perturbation of amplitude noises by numerical simulation.

This paper studies numerically the dark incoherent spatial solitons
propagating in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media by using
a coherent density approach and a split-step Fourier approach for the
first time. Under odd and even initial conditions, a soliton triplet
and a doublet are obtained respectively for given parameters.
Simultaneously, coherence properties associated with the soliton
triplet and doublet are discussed. In addition, if the values of the
parameters are properly chosen, five and four splittings from the
input dark incoherent spatial solitons can also form. Lastly, the
grayness of the soliton triplet and that of the doublet are studied,
in detail.

By making use of the split-step Fourier method, this paper
numerically simulates dynamical behaviors, including repulsion,
fusion, scattering and spiraling of colliding (3+1)D spatiotemporal
solitons in both the dispersive medium with cubic-quintic and the
saturable medium. Careful comparison of the colliding behaviors in
these two media is presented. Although the origin of the
nonlinearities is different in these two media, the obtained results
show that the dynamical behaviors are very similar. This presents
additional evidence to support the supposition of universality of
interactions between solitons.

This paper reports that OH^{-1} absorption bands of lithium
niobate crystal have been measured at room temperature, and the band
shape depending on the crystal composition has been observed. The
OH^{-1} absorption bands are fitted with three Lorentzian peaks
by varying position, halfwidth, and height. Nearly constant peak
positions (3468, 3481 and 3490~cm^{-1}) are obtained for all
samples. It shows that the height and area of the decomposed peaks
vary with the Li composition in a complex way. However, the
combinations of these fitting parameters show a linear dependence on
the composition up to nearly 50~mol%, which is very useful for
the composition determination in a wide range. The linear
relationships between the parameter combinations and Li composition
are also presented quantitatively. In addition, the explanations
were given for the excellent composition linearity of parameter
combinations.

By means of the modal expansion method with an R-matrix propagation
algorithm, effects of the coupling between resonance photonic states
on the resonance tunneling through a double quantum well structure
are investigated. We examine the effects on the transmission spectra
due to variation of the second well width and middle barrier
thickness. Drastic change of the tunneling spectra is found and
analyzed when the wells are filled with left-hand media.

Three-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) heterostructures with high
quality are fabricated by using a pressure controlled isothermal
heating vertical deposition technique. The formed heterostructures
have higher quality, such as deeper band gaps and sharper band
edges, than the heterostructures reported so far. Such a significant
improvement in quality is due to the introduction of a thin
TiO_{2} buffer layer between the two constitutional PCs. It is
revealed that the disorder caused by lattice mismatch is
successfully removed if the buffer layer is used once. As a result,
the formed heterostructures possess the main features in
the band gap of constitutional PCs. The crucial role of the thin buffer
layer is also verified by numerical simulations based on the
finite-difference time-domain technique.

The macropore silica colloidal crystal templates were assembled
orderly in a capillary glass tube by an applied electric field
method to control silica deposition. In order to achieve the
photonic band gap (PBG) of colloidal crystal in optical
communication waveband, the diameter of silica microspheres is
selected by Bragg diffraction formula. An experiment was designed to
test the bandgap of the silica crystal templates. This paper
discusses the formation process and the close-packed fashion of the
silica colloidal crystal templates was discussed. The surface
morphology of the templates was also analyzed. The results showed
that the close-packed fashion of silica array templates was
face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The agreement is very good between the
experimental data and the theoretical calculation.

A new evanescently-coupled uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (EC-UTC
PD) based on a multimode diluted waveguide (MDW) structure is
fabricated, analysed and characterized. Optical and electrical
characteristics of the device are investigated. The excellent
characteristics are demonstrated such as a responsivity of 0.36~A/W,
a bandwidth of 11.5~GHz and a small-signal 1-dB compression current
greater than 18~mA at 10~GHz. The saturation current is
significantly improved compared with those of similar
evanescently-coupled pin photodiodes. The radio frequency (RF)
bandwidth can be further improved by eliminating RF losses induced
by the cables, the probe and the bias tee between the photodiode and
the spectrum analyzer.

This paper analyzes the characteristic of matching efficiency
between the fundamental mode of two kinds of optical waveguides and
its Gaussian approximate field.Then, it presents a new method
where the mode-field half-width of Gaussian approximation for the fundamental
mode should be defined according to the maximal matching efficiency
method. The relationship between the mode-field half-width of the Gaussian
approximate field obtained from the maximal matching efficiency and
normalized frequency is studied; furthermore, two formulas of
mode-field half-widths as a function of normalized frequency are
proposed.

The propagation characteristics of flexural waves in periodic grid
structures designed with the idea of phononic crystals are
investigated by combining the Bloch theorem with the finite element
method. This combined analysis yields phase constant surfaces, which
predict the location and the extension of band gaps, as well as the
directions and the regions of wave propagation at assigned
frequencies. The predictions are validated by computation and
experimental analysis of the harmonic responses of a finite
structure with 11× 11 unit cells. The flexural wave is
localized at the point of excitation in band gaps, while the
directional behaviour occurs at particular frequencies in pass
bands. These studies provide guidelines to designing periodic
structures for vibration attenuation.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

A self-consistent and three-dimensional (3D) model of argon
discharge in a large-scale rectangular surface-wave plasma (SWP)
source is presented in this paper, which is based on the
finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's
equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma
evolution. The discharge characteristics at an input microwave power
of 1200~W and a filling gas pressure of 50~Pa in the SWP source are
analyzed. The simulation shows the time evolution of deposited power
density at different stages, and the 3D distributions of electron
density and temperature in the chamber at steady state. In addition,
the results show that there is a peak of plasma density
approximately at a vertical distance of 3~cm from the quartz window.

Analytical expressions of electric fields inside and outside an
anisotropic dielectric sphere are presented by transforming
an anisotropic medium into an isotropic one based on the multi-scale
transformation of electromagnetic theory. The theoretical
expressions are consistent with those in the literature. The inside
electric field, the outside electric field and the angle between
their directions are derived in detail. Numerical simulations show
that the direction of the outside field influences the magnitude of the
inside field, while the dielectric constant tensor greatly affects
its direction.

Under classical particle dynamics, the interaction process between
intense femtosecond laser pulses and icosahedral noble-gas atomic
clusters was studied. Our calculated results show that ionization
proceeds mainly through tunnel ionization in the combined field from
ions, electrons and laser, rather than the electron-impact
ionization. With increasing cluster size, the average and
maximum kinetic energy of the product ion increases. According to our
calculation, the expansion process of the clusters after laser
irradiation is dominated by Coulomb explosion and the expansion
scale increases with increasing cluster size. The dependence of
average kinetic energy and average charge state of the product ions on
laser wavelength is also presented and discussed. The dependence of
average kinetic energy on the number of atoms inside the cluster was
studied and compared with the experimental data. Our results agree
with the experimental results reasonably well.

The experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) is the
first full superconducting tokamak with a D-shaped cross-sectional
plasma presently in operation. Its poloidal coils are relatively far
from the plasma due to the necessary thermal isolation from the
superconducting magnets, which leads to relatively weaker coupling
between plasma and poloidal field. This may cause more difficulties
in controlling the vertical instability by using the poloidal coils.
The measured growth rates of vertical stability are compared with
theoretical calculations, based on a rigid plasma model. Poloidal
beta and internal inductance are varied to investigate their effects
on the stability margin by changing the values of parameters α
_{n} and γ _{n}(Howl et al 1992 Phys. Fluids B4 1724), with plasma shape fixed to be a configuration with k
= 1.9 and δ = 0.5. A number of ways of studying the
stability margin are investigated. Among them, changing the values
of parameters к and l_{i} is shown to be the most effective
way to increase the stability margin. Finally, a guideline of
stability margin M_{s} (к ,l_{i} ,A) to a new discharge scenario
showing whether plasmas can be stabilized is also presented in this
paper.

In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is
established using a back-propagation training algorithm in order to
predict the plasma spatial distribution in an electron cyclotron
resonance (ECR) --- plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
(PECVD) plasma system. In our model, there are three layers: the
input layer, the hidden layer and the output layer. The input layer
is composed of five neurons: the radial position, the axial
position, the gas pressure, the microwave power and the magnet coil
current. The output layer is our target output neuron: the plasma
density. The accuracy of our prediction is tested with the experimental
data obtained by a Langmuir probe, and ANN results show a good
agreement with the experimental data. It is concluded that ANN is a
useful tool in dealing with some nonlinear problems of the plasma
spatial distribution.

In this paper, we present a design where a bunched relativistic
electron beam traversing inside the rectangular dielectric-loaded
(DL) waveguide is used as a high power microwave generation device.
Two kinds of methods of calculating the electromagnetic (EM) field
excited by a bunched beam are introduced, and in the second method
the calculation of EM pulse length is discussed in detail. The
desired operating mode is the LSM_11 due to its strong
interaction with the electron beam. For the designed 7.8~GHz
operating frequency, with a 100~nC/bunch drive train of electron
bunches separated by 0.769~ns, we find that high gradient
(>30~MV/m) and high power (>160~MW) can be generated. An output
coupler is also designed which is able to extract the generated
power to standard waveguides with a 94% coupling efficiency.

This paper presents a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC)
simulation of a Ka-band relativistic Cherenkov source with a slow
wave structure (SWS) consisting of metal photonic band gap (PBG)
structures. In the simulation, a perfect match layer boundary is
employed to absorb passing band modes supported by the PBG lattice
with an artificial metal boundary. The simulated axial field
distributions in the cross section and surface of the SWS demonstrate
that the device operates in the vicinity of the П point of a
TM_{0}1-like mode. The Fourier transformation spectra of the axial
fields as functions of time and space show that only a single
frequency appears at 36.27~GHz, which is in good agreement with that
of the intersection of the dispersion curve with the slow space charge wave
generated on the beam. The simulation results demonstrate that the
SWS has good mode selectivity.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

The program package VEC (Visual computing in Electron
Crystallography) has been revised such that (i) a program
converting one-line symbols to two-line symbols of (3+1)-dimensional
superspace groups has been incorporated into VEC so that the
latter can interpret both kinds of symbols; (ii) a bug in
calculating structure factors of one-dimensionally incommensurate
modulated crystals has been fixed. The correction has been verified
by successfully matching the experimental electron microscopy image
of an incommensurate crystal with a series of simulated images. The
precompiled revised version of VEC and relevant materials are
available on the Web at http://cryst.iphy.ac.cn.

We present a strain analysis of an edge dislocation core, and a
detailed discussion of the Foreman dislocation model. In order to
examine the model, the quantitative measurement of strain field
around an edge dislocation in aluminum is performed, and
high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase
analysis are employed to map the strain field of the edge
dislocation core in aluminum. The strain measurements are compared
with the Foreman dislocation model, showing that they are in good
agreement with each other when 0.7 ≤ a ≤ 1.5.

We study a two-dimensional (2D) diatomic lattice of anharmonic
oscillators with only quartic nearest-neighbor interactions, in
which discrete breathers (DBs) can be explicitly constructed by an
exact separation of their time and space dependence. DBs can stably
exist in the 2D discrete diatomic Klein--Gordon lattice with hard
and soft on-site potentials. When a parametric driving term is
introduced in the factor multiplying the harmonic part of the
on-site potential of the system, we can obtain the stable
quasiperiodic discrete breathers (QDBs) and chaotic discrete
breathers (CDBs) by changing the amplitude of the driver. But the
DBs and QDBs with symmetric and anti-symmetric profiles that are
centered at a heavy atom are more stable than at a light atom,
because the frequencies of the DBs and QDBs centered at a heavy atom
are lower than those centered at a light atom.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The one-electron spectral function of a frustrated Hubbard chain is
computed by making use of the cluster perturbation theory. The
spectral weight we found turns out to be strongly dependent on the
frustrating next-nearest-neighbor hopping t'. A frustration
induced pseudogap arises when the system evolves from a gapful Mott
insulator to a gapless conductor for an intermediate value of the
frustration parameter |t'|. Furthermore, the opening of a
pseudogap in the density of states already in the metallic side
leads to a continuous opening of the true gap in the insulator. For
the hole-doped case, the pseudogap is pinned at the Fermi energy,
while the Mott gap is shifted in energy with increasing Hubbard
interaction U. The separation of the pseudogap and Mott gap in the
hole-doped system demonstrates the validity of the existence of a
pseudogap.

First-principles calculations predict that olivine
Li_{4}MnFeCoNiP_{4}O_{16} has a large toroidal moment and
ferrimagnetic configuration with a magnetic moment of 1.99μ_{B} per formula unit. Density functional theory plus U (DFT+U)
shows an indirect band gap of 0.65~eV in this hypothetical material.
The band gap is not simply related to the electronic conductivity
when it is used as cathode material in rechargeable Li-ion
batteries. Based on the orbital-resolved density of states for the
transition-metal ions in the hypothetical material, Co, Ni and Mn
are in the high-spin configuration while Fe is in the low-spin
configuration, which leads to a large resulting toroidal moment
deriving from the Co and Ni ions. The spin configuration of the
transition-metal ions in the system breaks the space- and
time-inversion symmetry and leads to the magnetoelectric property
simultaneously. The ferrotoroidic domain, the fourth form of
ferroic, is observed in this new material, as in the case of
LiCoPO_4 reported recently.

First principles calculations within the projected augmented-wave (PAW)
method, using the local spin density approximation plus U
(LSDA+U) scheme, show that the tetragonal Pb_{2}TiVO_{6} is a
potential multiferroic material with antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin
configuration. It has a magnetic moment of 1μ_{B} in a one unit
cell originating from the non-bonding orbital d_{xy} in a majority
spin channel and a band gap of 1.45~eV with proper U. The large
BEC (Born effective charge) of Pb and Ti shows that the
stereochemical activity of Pb and Ti may provide the possibility of
switchable paths for the ferroelectricity in this hypothetical
material. The insulating property and the lower resistivity in the
recent prepared PbVO_{3} can be significantly improved by adopting
the Ti.

This paper studies the structure and electronic properties of
Li_{4}Ti_{5}O_{12}, as anode material for lithium ion
batteries, from first principles calculations. The results suggest
that there are two kinds of unit cell of Li_{4}Ti_{5}O_{12}:
n-type and p-type. The two unit cells have different structures and
electronic properties: the n-type with two 16d site Li ions is
metallic by electron, while the p-type with three 16d Li ions is
metallic by hole. However, the Li_{4}Ti_{5}O_{12} is an
insulator. It is very interesting that one n-type cell and two
p-type cells constitute one Li_{4}Ti_{5}O_{12} supercell which
is insulating. The results show that the intercalation potential
obtained with a p-type unit cell with one additional electron is quite
close to the experimental value of 1.5~V.

We investigate the transport properties of a random binary
side-coupled chain by using the transfer-matrix technique. It is
found that there are resonant states in the systems with short-range
correlations between the host chain atoms and the side-coupled
atoms. The analytic expressions for the extended states are also
presented in the systems with the side couplings between like atoms
and between unlike atoms.

We investigate atomic and electronic structures of boron nanotubes
(BNTs) by using the density functional theory (DFT). The transport
properties of BNTs with different diameters and chiralities are
studied by the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function (NEGF) method.
It is found that the cohesive energies and conductances of BNTs
decrease as their diameters decrease. It is more difficult to form
(N, 0) tubes than (M, M) tubes when the diameters of the two kinds
of tubes are comparable. However, the (N, 0) tubes have a higher
conductance than the (M, M) tubes. When the BNTs are connected to
gold electrodes, the coupling between the BNTs and the electrodes
will affect the transport properties of tubes significantly.

The geometric, energetic, electronic structures and optical
properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with hexagonal cross sections are
investigated by using the first-principles calculation of plane wave
ultra-soft pseudo-potential technology based on the density
functional theory (DFT). The calculated results reveal that the
initial Zn-O double layers merge into single layers after structural
relaxations, the band gap and binding energies decrease with the
increase of the ZnO nanowire size. Those properties show great
dimension and size dependence. It is also found that the dielectric
functions of ZnO NWs have different peaks with respect to light
polarization, and the peaks of ZnO NWs exhibit a significant
blueshift in comparison with those of bulk ZnO. Our results gives
some reference to the thorough understanding of optical properties
of ZnO, and also enables more precise monitoring and controlling
during the growth of ZnO materials to be possible.

We report the current-voltage (I--V) characteristics of
individual polypyrrole nanotubes and
poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires in a temperature
range from 300~K to 2~K. Considering the complex structures of such
quasi-one-dimensional systems with an array of ordered conductive
regions separated by disordered barriers, we use the extended
fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) and thermal excitation model
(Kaiser expression) to fit the temperature and electric-field
dependent I--V curves. It is found that the I--V data
measured at higher temperatures or higher voltages can be well
fitted by the Kaiser expression. However, the low-temperature data
around the zero bias clearly deviate from those obtained from this
model. The deviation (or zero-bias conductance suppression) could be
possibly ascribed to the occurrence of the Coulomb-gap in the density of
states near the Femi level and/or the enhancement of electron-electron
interaction resulting from nanosize effects, which have been
revealed in the previous studies on low-temperature electronic
transport in conducting polymer films, pellets and nanostructures.
In addition, similar I--V characteristics and deviation are also
observed in an isolated K_{0}.27MnO_{2} nanowire.

This paper studies the quantum dynamics of electrons in a surface
quantum well in the time domain with autocorrelation of wave packet.
The evolution of the wave packet for different manifold eigenstates with
finite and infinite lifetimes is investigated analytically. It is
found that the quantum coherence and evolution of the surface electronic
wave packet can be controlled by the laser central energy and
electric field. The results show that the finite lifetime of excited
states expedites the dephasing of the coherent electronic wave
packet significantly. The correspondence between classical and
quantum mechanics is shown explicitly in the system.

We introduce a modified surface plasmonic waveguide with an arc
slot. The dependences of distribution of energy flux density,
effective index, propagation length and mode area of the symmetric
mode supported by this waveguide on geometrical parameters and
working wavelength are analysed by using the finite-difference
frequency-domain (FDFD) method. Results show that the energy flux
density distributes mainly in four corners which are formed by two
arcs, and the closer to the corners it is, the stronger the energy
flux density will be. The effective index, the propagation length
and the mode area are influenced by geometrical parameters,
including the width, the thickness and the arc radius of the surface
plasmonic waveguide, as well as the working wavelength. It has been
shown that the surface plasmonic waveguide with an arc slot has
better propagation properties than the surface plasmonic waveguide
with a straight slot. This work may be helpful for applying the slot
surface plasmonic waveguide to integrated photonics.

An unconventional integer quantum Hall regime was found in magnetic
semiconductor-superconductor hybrids. By making use of the
decomposition of the gauge potential on a U(1) principal fibre
bundle over k-space, we study the topological structure of the
integral Hall conductance. It is labeled by the Hopf index β
and the Brouwer degree η. The Hall conductance topological
current and its evolution is discussed.

High quality Ge was epitaxially grown on Si using ultrahigh
vacuum/chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD). This paper demonstrates
efficient germanium-on-silicon p-i-n photodetectors with 0.8~μm
Ge, with responsivities as high as 0.38 and 0.21~A/W at 1.31 and
1.55~μ m, respectively. The dark current density is
0.37~mA/cm^{2} and 29.4~mA/cm^{2} at 0~V and a reverse bias of
0.5~V. The detector with a diameter of 30~μ m, a
3~dB-bandwidth of 4.72~GHz at an incident wavelength of 1550~nm and
zero external bias has been measured. At a reverse bias of 3~V, the
bandwidth is 6.28~GHz.

Using the numerical unrestricted Hartree--Fock approach, we study
the ground state of a two-orbital model describing newly discovered
FeAs-based superconductors. We observe the competition of a (0,
π) mode spin-density wave and the superconductivity as the doping
concentration changes. There might be a small region in the
electron-doping side where the magnetism and superconductivity
coexist. The superconducting pairing is found to be spin singlet,
orbital even, and coexisting s_{xy} + d_{x}^{2}-y^{2} wave (even
parity).

Due to the fault of the author(s), the article entitled “First-principles investigation of the electronic structure and magnetism of eskolaite”, published in Chinese Physics B, 2009, Vol.18, Issue 6, pp 2551-2556, has been clarified to be copied from the article published in Physical Review B, 2009, Vol.79, Issue 10, article No.104404. So the above article in Chinese Physics B has been withdrawn from the publication. [16 December 2009]

The electronic structure and magnetism of eskolaite are studied by using first-principles calculations where the on-site Coulomb interaction and the exchange interaction are taken into account and the LSDA+U method is used. The calculated energies of magnetic configurations are very well fitted by the Heisenberg Hamiltonian with interactions in five neighbour shells; interaction with two nearest neighbours is found to be dominant. The Néel temperature is calculated in the spin-3/2 pair-cluster approximation. It is found that the measurements are in good agreement with the calculations of lattice parameters, density of states, band gap, local magnetic moment, and the Néel temperature for the values of U and J that are close to those obtained within the constrained occupation method. The band gap is of the Mott--Hubbard type.

An elastic Ising model for a one-dimensional diatomic spin chain is proposed to explain the ferroelectricity induced by the collinear magnetic order with a low-excited energy state. A statistical theory based on this model is developed to calculate the electrical and magnetic properties of Ca_{3}CoMnO_{6}, a typical quasi-one-dimensional diatomic spin chain system. The calculated ferroelectric polarization and dielectric susceptibility show a good agreement with recently reported data on Ca_{3}Co_{2-x}Mn_{x}O_{6} (x ≈0.96) (Phys. Rev. Lett.100 047601 (2008)), although the predicted magnetic susceptibility does not coincide well with experiment. We also address the rationality and deficiency of this model by including a first-order correction which improves the consistency between the model and experiment.

The influences of an Fe cap layer on the structural and magnetic
properties of FePt/Fe bi-layers are investigated. Compared with
single FePt alloy films, a thin Fe layer can affect the crystalline
orientation and improve the chemical ordering of L1_{0} FePt
films. Moreover, the coercivity increases when a thin Fe layer
covers the FePt layer. Beyond a critical thickness, however, the
Fe cover layer quickens the magnetization reversal of
Fe_{49}Pt_{51}/Fe bi-layers by their exchange coupling.

Nickel particles with submicron size are prepared by using the
solvothermal method. These spheres are then coated with a layer of
MnO_{2} using the soft chemical method. The microstructure is
characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron
microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Energy x-ray
dispersive spectrometry and high-resolution images show that the
granular composites have a classical core/shell structure with an
MnO_{2} superficial layer, no more than 10~nm in thickness. The
hysteresis measurements indicate that these submicron-size Ni
composite powders have small remanence and moderate coercivity. The
electromagnetic properties of the powders measured by a vector
network analyzer in a frequency range of 2--18~GHz are also reported
in detail.

Zn_{1-x}Mn_{x}O bulks have been prepared by the solid state
reaction method. Zn vapor treatment has been carried out to adjust
the carrier concentration. For the Zn treated Zn_{1-x}Mn_{x}O
bulks, analysis of the temperature dependence of resistance and the field
dependence of magnetoresistance demonstrates that the bound magnetic
polarons (BMPs) play an important role in the electrical transport
behavior. The hopping of BMPs dominates the electrical conduction
behavior when temperature is below 170~K. At low temperature,
paramagnetic Zn_{1-x}Mn_{x}O bulks show a large
magnetoresistance effect, which indicates that the large
magnetoresistance effect in transition-metal doped ZnO dilute
magnetic semiconductors is independent of their magnetic states.

The effects of microstructure, cell orientation and temperature on
magnetic properties and the coercivity mechanism in Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z
with low Cu content are studied by using the micromagnetic finite
element method in this paper. The simulations of the demagnetization
behaviours indicate that the pinning effect weakens gradually with
the thickness of cell boundary decreasing and strengthens gradually
with the cell size decreasing. Because of the intergrain exchange
coupling, the coercivity mechanism is determined by the difference
in magnetocrystalline anisotropy between the cell phase and the cell
boundary phase. And the coercivity mechanism is related to not only
the cells alignment but also temperature. With temperature
increasing, a transformation of the demagnetization mechanism occurs
from the domain pinning to the uniform magnetization reversal mode
and the transformation temperature is about 650~K.

Using a method of free energy minimization, this paper investigates
the magnetization properties of a ferromagnetic (FM) monolayer and an
FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer under a stress field,
respectively. It then investigates the magnetoresistance (MR) of
the spin-valve structure, which is built by an FM monolayer and an FM/AFM
bilayer, and its dependence upon the applied stress field.
The results show that under the stress field, the magnetization
properties of the FM monolayer is obviously different from that of the
FM/AFM bilayer, since the coupled AFM layer can obviously block the
magnetization of the FM layer. This phenomenon makes the MR of the
spin-valve structure become obvious. In detail, there are two
behaviors for the MR of the spin-valve structure dependence upon the
stress field distinguished by the coupling (FM coupling or AFM
coupling) between the FM layer and the FM/AFM bilayer. Either behavior of the MR
of the spin-valve structure depends on the stress field including
its value and orientation. Based on these investigations, a
perfect mechanical sensor at the nano-scale is suggested to be devised
experimentally.

A modified sol-gel method is used for synthesizing Nd ion doped
lead zirconate titanate nanopowders Pb_{1 - 3x}/2Nd_{x}Zr_{0}.52Ti_{0}.48O_{3} (PNZT) in an ethylene
glycol system with zirconium nitrate as zirconium source. The
results show that it is critical to add lead acetate after the
reaction of zirconium nitrate with tetrabutyl titanate in the
ethylene glycol system for preparing PNZT with an exact fraction of
titanium content. It has been observed that the dopant of excess Nd
ions can effectively improve the sintered densification and activity
of the PNZT ceramics. Piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric
properties of the PNZT ceramics are remarkably enhanced as compared
with those of monolithic lead zirconate titanate (PZT).
Especially, the supreme values of piezoelectric constant (d_{33})
and dielectric constant (\it ε) for the PNZT are both
about two times that of the monolithic PZT and moreover, the remnant
polarization (P_{r}) also increases by 30%. According to
the analysis of the structures and properties, we attribute the
improvement in electrical properties to the lead vacancies caused by
the doping of Nd ions.

Strain effects on the polarized optical properties of c-plane and
m-plane In_{x1-x}N were discussed for different In
compositions (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) by analyzing the relative
oscillator strength (ROS) and energy level splitting of the three
transitions related to the top three valence bands (VBs). The ROS
was calculated by applying the effective-mass Hamiltonian based on
k. p perturbation theory. For c-plane
In_{x}Ga_{1-x}N, it was found that the ROS of | X >
and | Y >-like states were superposed with each
other. Especially, under compressive strain, they dominated in the
top VB whose energy level also went up with strain, while the ROS of the
| Z >-like state decreased in the second band.
For m-plane In_{x}Ga_{1-x}N under compressive strain, the top
three VBs were dominated by | X >, | Z
>, and | Y >-like states,
respectively, which led to nearly linearly-polarized light
emissions. For the top VB, ROS difference between | X
> and | Z >-like states became
larger with compressive strain.
It was also found that such tendencies were more evident in layers
with higher In compositions. As a result, there would be more TE modes
in total emissions from both c-plane and m-plane InGaN with compressive
strain and In content, leading to a larger polarization degree.
Experimental results of luminescence from InGaN/GaN quantum
wells (QWs) showed good coincidence with our calculations.

ZnS films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on
porous silicon (PS) substrates. This paper investigates the effect
of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological, optical
and electrical properties of ZnS/PS composites by x-ray diffraction
(XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL)
and I--V characteristics. It is found that the ZnS films deposited
on PS substrates were grown in preferred orientation along
β-ZnS (111) direction, and the intensity of diffraction peak
increases with increasing annealing temperature, which is attributed
to the grain growth and the enhancement of crystallinity of ZnS
films. The smooth and uniform surface of the as-prepared ZnS/PS
composite becomes rougher through annealing treatment, which is
related to grain growth at the higher annealing temperature. With
the increase of annealing temperature, the intensity of
self-activated luminescence of ZnS increases, while the luminescence
intensity of PS decreases, and a new green emission located around
550~nm appeared in the PL spectra of ZnS/PS composites which is
ascribed to the defect-center luminescence of ZnS. The I--V
characteristics of ZnS/PS heterojunctions exhibited rectifying
behavior, and the forward current increases with increasing
annealing temperature.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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