In some real complex networks, only a few nodes can obtain the
global information about the entire networks, but most of the nodes
own only local connections therefore own only local information of
the networks. A new local-world evolving network model is proposed
in this paper. In the model, not all the nodes obtain local network
information, which is different from the local world network model
proposed by Li and Chen (LC model). In the LC model, each node has
only the local connections therefore owns only local information
about the entire networks. Theoretical analysis and numerical
simulation show that adjusting the ratio of the number of nodes
obtaining the global information of the network to the total number
of nodes can effectively control the valuing range for the power-law
exponent of the new network. Therefore, if the topological structure
of a complex network, especially its exponent of power-law degree
distribution, needs controlling, we just add or take away a few
nodes which own the global information of the network.

So far, Lou's direct perturbation method has been applied
successfully to solve the nonlinear Schr?dinger equation(NLSE)
hierarchy, such as the NLSE, the coupled NLSE, the critical NLSE,
and the derivative NLSE. But to our knowledge, this method for
other types of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations has still
been lacking. In this paper, Lou's direct perturbation method is
applied to the study of perturbed complex Burgers equation. By this
method, we calculate not only the zero-order adiabatic solution,
but also the first order modification.

This paper studies the conformal invariance by infinitesimal point
transformations of non-conservative Lagrange systems. It gives the
necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance by the
action of infinitesimal point transformations being Lie symmetric
simultaneously. Then the Noether conserved quantities of conformal
invariance are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to
verify the results.

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding
travelling wave solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation and calls
it the (ω/g)-expansion method, which can be
thought of as the generalization of (G'/G)-expansion given by Wang et al recently. As an
application of this new method, we study the well-known Vakhnenko
equation which describes the propagation of high-frequency waves in
a relaxing medium. With two new expansions, general types of soliton
solutions and periodic solutions for Vakhnenko equation are
obtained.

A mathematical technique based on the consideration of a nonlinear
partial differential equation together with an additional condition
in the form of an ordinary differential equation is employed to
study a nonlinear reaction diffusion equation which describes a real
process in physics and in chemistry. Several exact solutions for the
equation are acquired under certain circumstances.

Quantum teleportation via the entangled channel composed of a
two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ model with Dzyaloshinski--Moriya (DM)
interaction in the presence of intrinsic decoherence has been
investigated. We find that the initial state of the channel plays an
important role in the teleported state and the average fidelity of teleportation. When the initial channel is in the state |ψ_{1}(0)>=a|00> +b|11>, the average fidelity is equal to 1/3 constantly, which is independent of the DM interaction and the intrinsic decoherence effect. But when the channel is initially in the state |ψ_{2}(0)> =c|01> +d|10>, the average fidelity is always larger than 2/3. Moreover, under a certain condition, the average fidelity can be enhanced by adjusting the DM interaction, and the intrinsic decoherence leads to a suppression of the fluctuation of the average fidelity.

Quantum entanglement and nonlocality properties of a family of
two-mode Gaussian pure states have been investigated. The results
show that the entanglement of these states is determined by both the
two-mode squeezing parameter and the difference of the two
single-mode squeezing parameters. For the same two-mode squeezing
parameter, these states show larger entanglement than the usual
two-mode squeezed vacuum state. The violation of Bell inequality
depends strongly on all the squeezing parameters of these states and
disappears completely in the limit of large squeezing. In
particular, these states can exhibit much stronger violation of
local realism than two-mode squeezed vacuum state in the range of
experimentally available squeezing values.

This paper presents a quantum network to implement the optimal 1→2 quantum cloning in 2 dimensions, including the optimal
asymmetric universal, the optimal symmetric phase-covariant, and the
asymmetric real state cloning. By only choosing different angles of
the single-qubit rotations, the quantum network can implement three
optimal quantum cloning.

In this paper the master equation method is used to calculate the
relaxation and decoherence times of a qubit. The results are beyond
Markovian approximation, where the noise spectrum is assumed to be
wide-band, so that they are valid for not only the wide- but also
the narrow-band noises, which may be the main decoherence source in
solid-state qubits. Moreover, for some special cases, analytical
results can be achieved, which are consistent with those derived by
others.

We propose a quantum error-rejection scheme for direct communication
with three-qubit quantum codes based on the direct communication of
secret messages without any secret key shared in advance. Given the
symmetric and independent errors of the transmitted qubits, our
scheme can tolerate a bit of error rate up to 33.1%, thus the
protocol is deterministically secure against any eavesdropping
attack even in a noisy channel.

This paper proposes two schemes for implementing three-qubit Toffoli
gate with an atom (as target qubit) sent through a two-mode cavity
(as control qubits). The first scheme is based on the large-detuning
atom--cavity field interaction and the second scheme is based on the
resonant atom-field interaction. Both the situations with and
without cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission are considered.
The advantages and the experimental feasibility of these two schemes
are discussed.

This paper calculates the time evolution of the quantum mechanical
state of an electron by using variational method of Pekar type on
the condition of electric--LO-phonon strong coupling in a parabolic
quantum dot. It obtains the eigenenergies of the ground state and
the first-excited state, the eigenfunctions of the ground state and
the first-excited state This system in a quantum dot may be employed
as a two-level quantum system qubit. The superposition state
electron density oscillates in the quantum dot with a period when
the electron is in the superposition state of the ground and the
first-excited state. It studies the influence of the electric field
on the eigenenergies of the ground state, the first-excited state
and the period of oscillation at the different electron--LO-phonon
coupling constant and the different confinement length.

By using the new equation of state density derived from the
generalized uncertainty relation, the number of the quantum states
near event horizon is obtained, with which then the information
entropy of static spherically symmetric black holes has been
discussed. It is found that the divergent integral of quantum states
near the event horizon can be naturally avoided if using the new
equation of state density without introducing the ultraviolet
cut-off. The information entropy of black holes can be obtained
precisely by the residue theorem, which is shown to be proportional
to the horizon area. The information entropy of black holes obtained
agrees with the Bechenstein--Hawking entropy when the suitable
cutoff factor is adopted.

Using entropy density of Dirac field near the event horizon of a
rectilinear non-uniformly accelerating Kinnersley black hole, the
law for the thermal radiation of black hole is studied and the
instantaneous radiation energy density is obtained. It is found that
the instantaneous radiation energy density of a black hole is always
proportional to the quartic of the temperature on event horizon in
the same direction. That is to say, the thermal radiation of a black
hole always satisfies the generalized Stefan--Boltzmann law. In
addition, the derived generalized Stefan--Boltzmann coefficient is
no longer a constant, but a dynamic coefficient related to the
space--time metric near the event horizon and the changing rate of
the event horizon in black holes.

This paper discusses Hawking radiation from the charged and
magnetized Ba?ados--Teitelboim--Zanelli (BTZ) black hole from
the viewpoint of anomaly, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek
recently. It reconstructs the electromagnetic field tensor and the
Lagrangian of the field corresponding to the source with electric
and magnetic charges to redefine an equivalent charge and gauge
potential. It employs the covariant anomaly cancellation method to
determine the compensating fluxes of charge flow and energy-momentum
tensor, which are shown to match with those of the 2-dimensional
blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature exactly.

This paper introduces a new two-lane high-order continuum model
by embedding the two delay time scales continuum traffic model presented by
Xue (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 066123) into the multi-lane model proposed
by Daganzo (1997 Transpn. Res. B 31 83) with the consideration of
the coupling effect between the vehicles of two lanes in
instantaneous traffic situation and lane-change effect. In the novel model,
the coupling effect of two lanes and phenomena of lane change, which were
not discussed in Daganzo's model and Xue's model, are taken into account.
Numerical simulation shows that it is in accordance with real traffic flow.
This obviously indicates that the new phenomenon and behaviour are analogous
results as single lane presented by Xue, and the proposed model is more reasonable on
two lanes. Furthermore, the generation rate between two lanes is also
investigated. The results show that the formation and diffusion of traffic
shock wave can be better simulated on two lanes.

This paper presents a new and efficient approach for constructing
exact solutions to nonlinear differential--difference equations
(NLDDEs) and lattice equation. By using this method via symbolic
computation system MAPLE, we obtained abundant soliton-like and/or
period-form solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional Toda equation. It
seems that solitary wave solutions are merely special cases in one
family. Furthermore, the method can also be applied to other
nonlinear differential--difference equations.

Synchronous firing of neurons is thought to be important for
information communication in neuronal networks. This paper
investigates the complete and phase synchronization in a
heterogeneous small-world chaotic Hindmarsh--Rose neuronal network.
The effects of various network parameters on synchronization
behaviour are discussed with some biological explanations. Complete
synchronization of small-world neuronal networks is studied
theoretically by the master stability function method. It is shown
that the coupling strength necessary for complete or phase
synchronization decreases with the neuron number, the node degree
and the connection density are increased. The effect of
heterogeneity of neuronal networks is also considered and it is
found that the network heterogeneity has an adverse effect on
synchrony.

Spatially explicit models have become widely used in today's
mathematical ecology and epidemiology to study the persistence of
populations. For simplicity, population dynamics is often analysed
by using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or partial
differential equations (PDEs) in the one-dimensional (1D) space. An
important question is to predict species extinction or persistence
rate by mean of computer simulation based on the spatial model.
Recently, it has been reported that stable turbulent and regular
waves are persistent based on the spatial
susceptible--infected--resistant--susceptible (SIRS) model by using the
cellular automata (CA) method in the two-dimensional (2D) space
[Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 18246 (2004)]. In this
paper, we address other important issues relevant to phase
transitions of epidemic persistence. We are interested in assessing
the significance of the risk of extinction in 1D space. Our results
show that the 2D space can considerably increase the possibility of
persistence of spread of epidemics when the degree distribution of
the individuals is uniform, i.e. the pattern of 2D spatial
persistence corresponding to extinction in a 1D system with the
same parameters. The trade-offs of extinction and persistence
between the infection period and infection rate are observed in the
1D case. Moreover, near the trade-off (phase transition) line, an
independent estimation of the dynamic exponent can be performed, and
it is in excellent agreement with the result obtained by using the
conjectured relationship of directed percolation. We find that the
introduction of a short-range diffusion and a long-range diffusion
among the neighbourhoods can enhance the persistence and global
disease spread in the space.

This paper investigates theoretically the electronic transmission
spectra of the three terminal pyrene molecular bridge and the
quantum current distribution on each bond by the tight-binding model
based on nonequilibrium Green's function and the quantum current
density approach, in which one π molecular orbital is taken
into account per carbon atom when the energy levels and HOMO-LUMO
gap are obtained. The transmission spectra show that the electronic
transmission of the three terminal pyrene molecular bridge depends
obviously on the incident electronic energy and the pyrene
eigenenergy. The symmetrical and oscillation properties of the
transmission spectra are illustrated. A novel plus-minus energy
switching function is found. The quantum current distribution shows
that the loop currents inside the pyrene are induced, and some bond
currents are much larger than the input and the output currents. The
reasons why the loop currents and the larger bond currents are
induced are the phase difference of the atomic orbits and the
degeneracy of the molecular orbits. The calculations illustrate that
the quantum current distributions are in good agreement with
Kirchhoff quantum current conservation law.

It has been reported that the minimal spatially extended
phytoplankton--zooplankton system exhibits both temporal
regular/chaotic behaviour, and spatiotemporal chaos in a patchy
environment. As a further investigation by means of computer
simulations and theoretical analysis, in this paper we observe that
the spiral waves may exist and the spatiotemporal chaos emerge when
the parameters are within the mixed Turing--Hopf bifurcation region,
which arises from the far-field breakup of the spiral waves over a
large range of diffusion coefficients of phytoplankton and
zooplankton. Moreover, the spatiotemporal chaos arising from the
far-field breakup of spiral waves does not gradually invade the
whole space of that region. Our results are confirmed by nonlinear
bifurcation of wave trains. We also discuss ecological implications
of these spatially structured patterns.

This paper studies a simple asymmetrically evolved community
network with a combination of preferential attachment and random
properties. An important issue about community networks is to
discover the different utility increments of two nodes, where the
utility is introduced to investigate the asymmetrical effect of
connecting two nodes. On the other hand, the connection of two nodes
in community networks can be classified as two nodes belonging to the
same or to different communities. The simulation results show that the
model can reproduce a power-law utility distribution P(u)～u^{-σ}, σ = 2 + 1/p, which can be obtained by
using mean-field approximation methods. Furthermore, the model
exhibits exponential behaviour with respect to small values of a
parameter denoting the random effect in our model at the low-utility
region and a power-law feature with respect to big values of this
parameter at the high-utility region, which is in good agreement with
theoretical analysis. This kind of community network can reproduce
a unique utility distribution by theoretical and numerical analysis.

Self-affine multiplicity fluctuation is investigated by using the
two-dimensional factorial moment methodology and the concept of
the Hurst exponent (H). Investigation on the experimental data of
compound particles and target fragments emitted in ^{84}Kr--AgBr
interactions at 1.7 A GeV reveals that the best power law behaviours
are exhibited at H=0.7 and 0.6 respectively, and the data for
shower particles produced in ^{84}Kr--emulsion interactions at 1.7
A GeV indicate that the best power law behaviour occurs at H=0.6,
all of which show the self-affine multiplicity fluctuation patterns.
The multifractality and the non-thermal phase transition occurring
during producing the compound particles, the target fragments, and
the shower particles in the ^{84}Kr--AgBr interaction and the
^{84}Kr--emulsion interaction are also discussed. The
multifractality is observed during producing compound particles,
target fragments, and shower particles. In the target fragment
production, an evidence of non-thermal phase transition is observed,
but in the shower particle production and the compound particle
production, no evidence of non-thermal phase transition is observed.

The properties of the relativistic helium fragments produced in
interactions of ^{84}Kr at 1.8 A GeV and ^{197}Au at 10.7 A GeV
in emulsion are investigated. The experimental results are compared
with those obtained from various projectiles with emulsion
collisions at different energies. It is found that the multiplicity
distribution of helium projectile fragments (HPFs) is well described
by the Koba--Nielsen--Olesen (KNO) scaling presentation. The second
Mueller moment f_{2} of the HPF multiplicity distribution is
independent of the projectile energy for the same projectile, but it
is dependent on the projectile mass number. The value of f_{2}
increases with the increase of projectile mass number A_{p}. The
negative value of f_{2}, when A_{p}<69, means that the emission
of HPFs is anticorrelated, but positive value of f_{2}, when
A_{p}>69, refers to that the emission of HPFs is correlated. The
non-zero f_{2} moment in this experiment implies the strong
correlation existing between the HPFs.

This paper reports that Coulomb explosions taken place in the
experiment of heteronuclear deuterated methane clusters
((CD_{4})_{2}) in a gas jet subjected to intense femtosecond
laser pulses (170mJ, 70fs) have led to table-top laser driven DD
nuclear fusion. The clusters produced in supersonic expansion had an
average size of about 5nm in radius and the laser intensity used
was 3×10^{17}W/cm^{2}.The measured maximum and average
energies of deuterons produced in the laser--cluster interaction were
60 and 13.5keV, respectively. From DD collisions of energetic
deuterons, a yield of 2.5(±0.4)×10^{4} fusion neutrons
of 2.45MeV per shot was realized, giving rise to a neutron
production efficiency of about 1.5×10^{5} per joule of
incident laser pulse energy. Theoretical calculations were performed
and a fairly good agreement of the calculated neutron yield with
that obtained from the present experiment was found.

This paper develops a Fortran code which is capable to construct
the simplest LS eigenfunctions for desired symmetry and determine
all permitted atomic LS spectral terms under a given orbital
occupancy by implementing and extending the Schaefer and Harris
method. Examples (in some cases the most complete set to date) of
multiple spectroscopic terms of LS coupling of atomic states for
both non-equivalent and equivalent electronic configurations are
given. It also corrects a few observed errors from the recent
literature.

This paper calculates the potential energy curves (PECs) of the
ground state (X^{1}∑^{+}) and excited state (A^{1}∑^{+}) of ScN molecule by multireference configuration interaction method.
The correct character of the PECs has been gripped while they had
been improperly reported in the literature. Based on the PECs, the
spectroscopic parameters and vibrational energy levels are
determined, and compared with experimental data and other
theoretical works available at the present.

By correcting some primary parameters in the semi-classical
Deutsch--M?rk (DM) formula, this paper calculates the absolute
single electron-impact ionization cross sections of atoms N, Cu, As,
Se, Sn, Sb, Te, I and Pb from threshold to 10000eV. The calculated
cross sections are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical results. An excellent agreement was achieved between the calculated and measured cross sections for
these atoms over a wide range of impact energies.

This paper investigates the spectroscopic properties of the SD^{+}X^{3}∑^{-} ion by employing the coupled-cluster
singles-doubles-approximate-triples [CCSD(T)] theory combining with
the quintuple correlation-consistent basis set augmented with
diffuse functions (aug-cc-pV5Z) of Dunning and co-workers. The
accurate adiabatic potential energy function is obtained by the
least-squares fitting method with the 100 ab initio points,
which are calculated at the unrestricted CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z level
of theory over the internuclear separation range from 0.09 to
2.46nm. Using the potential, it accurately determines the
spectroscopic parameters (D_{e}, ω_{e}Х_{e}, α_{e} and B_{e}. The present D_{e},
R_{e}, ω_{e}, ω_{e}Х_{e},
α_{e} and B_{e} results are of 3.69119eV,
0.13644nm, 1834.949 cm^{-1}, 25.6208cm^{-1},
0.1068cm^{-1} and 4.7778cm^{-1}, respectively, which are
in remarkably good agreement with the experimental findings. A total
of 29 vibrational states has been predicted by numerically solving
the radial Schr?dinger equation of nuclear motion when the
rotational quantum number J equals zero. The complete vibrational
levels, classical turning points, inertial rotation and centrifugal
distortion constants are reported when J=0 for the first time,
which are in good accord with the measurements wherever available.

Conformal domes that are shaped to meet aerodynamic requirements can
increase range and speed for the host platform. Because these domes
typically deviate greatly from spherical surface descriptions, a
variety of aberrations are induced which vary with the
field-of-regard (FOR) angle. A system for correcting optical
aberrations created by a conformal dome has an outer surface and an
inner surface. Optimizing the inner surface is regard as static
aberration correction. A deformable mirror is placed at the position
of the secondary mirror in the two-mirror all reflective imaging
system, which is the dynamic aberration correction. An ellipsoidal
MgF2 conformal dome with a fineness ratio of 1.0 is designed as an
example. The FOR angle is 0°--30°, and the design
wavelength is 4μm. After the optimization at 7 zoom positions
by using the design tools Code V, the root-mean-square (RMS) spot
size is reduced to approximately 0.99 to 1.48 times the diffraction
limit. The design results show that the performances of the
conformal optical systems can be greatly improved by the combination
of the static correction and the dynamic correction.

The propagation properties of the off-axis superposition of
partially coherent beams through atmospheric turbulence and their
beam quality in terms of the mean-squared beam width w(z) and the
power in the bucket (PIB) are studied in detail, where the effects
of partial coherence, off-axis beam superposition and atmospheric
turbulence are considered. The analytical expressions for the
intensity, the beam width and the PIB are derived, and illustrative
examples are given numerically. It is shown that the maximum
intensity I_{max} and the PIB decrease and w(z) increases as
the refraction index structure constant C_{n}^{2} increases.
Therefore, the turbulence results in a degradation of the beam
quality. However, the resulting partially coherent beam with a
smaller value of spatial correlation parameter γ and larger
values of separate distance x_{d} and beam number M is less
affected by the turbulence than that with a larger value of γ
and smaller values of x_{d} and M. The main results obtained
in this paper are explained physically.

A concise expression of the scintillation index is proposed for a
plane optical wave and a spherical optical wave both propagating in
a turbulent atmosphere with a zero inner scale and a finite inner
scale under an arbitrary fluctuation condition. The expression is
based on both the results in the Rytov approximation under a weak
fluctuation condition and the numerical results in a strong
fluctuation regime. The maximum value of the scintillation index and
its corresponding Rytov index are evaluated. These quantities are
affected by the ratio of the turbulence inner scale to the Fresnel
size.

A scheme is presented for generating entangled states of multiple
atoms in a cavity. In the scheme the atoms simultaneously interact
with a cavity mode, with the first atom driven by two classical
fields and the other atoms driven by a classical field. Our scheme
is valid even if the cavity decay rate is larger than the effective
coupling strength, which is important for experiment. The generation
of entangled states is conditional on the detection of a photon
decaying from the cavity and thus the fidelity of the entangled
state is insensitive to the detection inefficiency. Furthermore, the
scheme can be applied to the case with any number of atoms in
principle.

This paper presents a method for generating entanglement molecules,
which is introduced by Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A). In this
scheme, N ladder-type three-level atoms are sent through a
resonant weak coherent cavity field, then the system states are
measured. And the system field may collapse onto some possible types
of entanglement molecules. Meanwhile it discusses about the
interaction time from the experimental point of view, and compare
the result with the previous scheme proposed by Huang (2004 J.
Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.).

The decoherence of two initially entangled qubits coupled with a
squeezed vacuum cavity separately is investigated exactly. The
results show that, first, in principle, the disentanglement time
decreases with the increase of squeeze parameter r, due to the
augmenting of average photon number of every mode in the squeezed
vacuum cavity. Second, there appear entanglement revivals after the
complete disentanglement for the case of even parity initial Bell
state, while there occur the entanglement decrease and the
entanglement revival before the complete disentanglement for the
case of odd parity initial Bell state. The results are quite
different from those for the case of qubits in a vacuum cavity.

Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the
technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of
operators, the Wigner functions of the even and odd binomial states
(EOBSs) are obtained. The physical meaning of the Wigner functions
for the EOBSs is given by means of their marginal distributions.
Moreover, the tomograms of the EOBSs are calculated by virtue of
intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics.

This paper proves a new theorem on the relationship between optical
field Wigner function's two-parameter Radon transform and optical
Fresnel transform of the field, i.e., when an input field ψ( x') propagates through an optical [ D( -B) ( -C) A] system, the energy density of the output field is equal to the Radon transform
of the Wigner function of the input field, where the Radon transform
parameters are D,B. It prove this theorem in both spatial-domain
and frequency-domain, in the latter case the Radon transform
parameters are A,C.

The propagation of spatial solitons is systematically investigated
in nonlocal nonlinear media with an imprinted transverse periodic
modulation of the refractive index. Based on the variational
principle and the infinitesimal approximation of Maclaurin series
expansion, we obtain an analytical solution of such nonlocal spatial
solitons and an interesting result that the critical power for such
solitons propagation is smaller than that in uniform nonlocal
self-focusing media. It is found that there exist thresholds in
modulation period and lattice depth for such solitons. A stable
spatial soliton propagation is maintained with proper adjustment of
the modulation period and the lattice depth.

Starting from the extended nonlinear Schr?dinger equation in
which the self-steepening effect is included, the evolution and the
splitting processes of continuous optical wave whose amplitude is
perturbed into time related ultra-short optical pulse trains in an
optical fibre are numerically simulated by adopting the split-step
Fourier algorithm. The results show that the self-steepening effect
can cause the characteristic of the pulse trains to vary with time,
which is different from the self-steepening-free case where the
generated pulse trains consist of single pulses which are identical
in width, intensity, and interval, namely when pulses move a certain
distance, they turn into the pulse trains within a certain time
range. Moreover, each single pulse may split into several
sub-pulses. And as time goes on, the number of the sub-pulses will
decrease gradually and the pulse width and the pulse intensity will
change too. With the increase of the self-steepening parameter, the
distance needed to generate time-dependent pulse trains will
shorten. In addition, for a large self-steepening parameter and at
the distance where more sub-pulses appear, the corresponding
frequency spectra of pulse trains are also wider.

The effect of interstitial air holes on Bragg gratings in photonic
crystal fibre (PCF) with a Ge-doped core is numerically investigated
by using the beam propagation method (BPM). It is shown that the
interstitial air holes (IAHs) can make Bragg resonance wavelength
λ_{B} shift a little towards short wavelengths and
increase λ_{B}-λ_{1} (the wavelength spacing
between the main peak with Bragg resonance wavelength λ_{B} and the first side peak with wavelength λ_{1} and the
coupling coefficient к of Bragg resonance. Moreover, when
the ratio of air hole diameter (d) to pitch (Λ),
d/Λ, is small, IAHs can suppress the cladding mode
resonance. When d/Λ is large, IAHs increase the number
of mode that could strongly interact with the fundamental mode. By
comparing the transmission spectral characteristics of PCF-based
fibre Bragg grating (FBG) with IAHs with those without IAHs at the
same air-filling fraction, it is clarified that the change of
transmission spectral characteristics of PCF-based FBG with IAHs is
not due to a simple change in air-filling fraction. It is also
closely related to the distribution of interstitial air holes.

A family of coupled map lattice (CML) models has been developed to
simulate the interaction of convection, diffusion and dispersion in
both weakly and strongly coupled cases. With variation of
parameters, the models can simulate those systems of convection
dominating, diffusion dominating, and dispersion dominating states.
Not only coherent and turbulent properties as well as their
interrelations, but also the transitional state between any modes
with local coupling and global coupling are analysed to demonstrate
the essential characteristics of any state. Numerical results show
that the models are capable of simulating both layered coupling and
stochastic mechanism, and thus can be conveniently used to analyse
an initiative and driven coupled system. Results of numerical
simulation also lead us to understand whether or not turbulence
coherent structure is formed by modulation of wave packet. Finally,
the duality of wave and particle characters of turbulence is
illustrated in the numerical simulation.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

One-dimensional fluid model of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in
helium at atmospheric pressure was established and the discharge was
numerically simulated. It was found that not only the spatial
distributions of the internal parameters such as the electric field,
the electron density and ion density are similar to those in a
low-pressure glow discharge, but also the visually apparent
attribute (light emission) is exactly the same as the observable
feature of a low-pressure glow discharge. This confirms that the
uniform DBD in atmospheric helium is a glow type discharge. The fact
that the thickness of the cathode fall layer is about 0.5mm, much
longer than that of a normal glow discharge in helium at atmospheric
pressure, indicates the discharge being a sub-normal glow discharge
close to normal one. The multipulse phenomenon was reproduced in the
simulation and a much less complicated explanation for this
phenomenon was given.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

This paper reports that the nickel--silicone rubber composites with
enhanced piezoresistivity were synthesized with much reduced nickel
concentration. A large piezosensitivity of 0.716/kPa and a gauge
factor of 600 have been obtained for a composite sample with
filler-polymer ratio of 2.7:1 by weight. Measurements of resistance
as a function of uniaxial force reveal that the piezoresistance
arises predominantly from the internal heterogeneity of the material
and the effect of geometrical changes of samples under pressure is
neglectably small. The nonlinear current--voltage characteristic of the
composite depends strongly on the filler content, the initial
compression and the electrical current flowing in the sample. Ohmic
behaviour has been observed only in the highly compressed samples.
The breakdown strength decreases with increasing filler content of
the composite. Both I-V and R-f characteristics indicates that
the resistivity of the composites decreases with electrical field,
suggesting that the composite may also be used to make voltage
sensitive resistors for protecting circuits. All the experimental
results favour a quantum tunnelling mechanism of conductivity. It
finds that the concept `negative resistance', often used to
describe the phenomena that current decreases with increasing
voltage, is not appropriate and should be avoided.

The pair interaction between bilayer membrane-coated nanosized
particles has been explored by using the self-consistent field (SCF)
theory. The bilayer membranes are composed of amphiphilic polymers.
For different system parameters, the pair-interaction free energies
are obtained. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of a
sequence of structural transformations of bilayers on spherical
particles, which occur during their approaching processes. For
different head fractions of amphiphiles, the asymmetrical
morphologies between bilayers on two particles and the inverted
micellar intermediates have been found in the membrane fusion
pathway. These results can benefit the fabrication of vesicles as
encapsulation vectors for drug and gene delivery.

In this paper, five factors, namely the HF (hydrofluoric acid)
concentration, field strength, illumination intensity as well as the
oxidizing-power and conductivity of electrolytes were found to
strongly affect the fast pore etching. The oxidizing power of
aqueous HF electrolyte of different concentrations was especially
measured and analysed. A positive correlation between optimal bias
and HF concentration was generally observed and the relationship was
semi-quantitatively interpreted. Pore density notably increased with
enhanced HF-concentration or bias even on patterned substrates where
2D (two-dimensional) nuclei were densely pre-textured. The etch rate
can reach 400μm/h and the aspect ratio of pores can be
readily driven up to 250.

Dendritic pattern formation at the interface between liquid and
solid is a commonly observed phenomenon in crystal growth and
solidification process. The theoretical investigation of dendritic
growth is one of the most profound and highly challenging subjects
in the broad areas of interfacial pattern formation, condensed
matter physics and materials science, preoccupying many researchers
from various areas. Some longstanding key issues on this subject
finally gained a breakthrough in the late of last century, via the
`{Interfacial Wave} (IFW) Theory' on the ground of systematical
global stability analysis of the basic state of dendritic growth.
The original form of the IFW theory mainly focus on the
investigation of various axi-symmetric unsteady perturbed modes
solutions around the axi-symmetric basic state of system of
dendritic growth. In reality, the system may allow various
non-axi-symmetric, unsteady perturbed states. Whether or not the
system of dendritic growth allows some growing non-axi-symmetric
modes? Will the stationary dendritic pattern be destroyed by some of
such non-axi-symmetric modes? Or, in one word, what is the stability
property of the system, once the non-axi-symmetric modes can be
evoked? The answers for these questions are important for the solid
foundation of IFW theory. The present work attempts to settle down
these issues and develop a three-dimensional (3D) interfacial wave
theory of dendritic growth. Our investigations verify that dendritic
growth indeed allows a discrete set of non-axi-symmetric unstable
global wave modes, which gives rise to a set of multiple arms spiral
waves propagating along the Ivantsov's paraboloid.

This paper is the continuation of part (I), which completes the
derivations of the 3D global wave modes solutions, yields the
stability criterion and, on the basis of the results obtained,
demonstrates the selection criterion of pattern formation.

This paper reports that the rapid solidification of mixed
Li_{2}B_{4}O_{7} and KNbO_{3} melted in a Pt loop heater has
been performed experimentally by the method of quenching, and
various morphologies of KNbO_{3} crystals have been observed in
different regions of the quenched melt-solution. Dendrites were
formed in the central region where mass transfer is performed by
diffusion, whereas polygonal crystals with smooth surface grew in
the marginal region where convection dominates mass transport. Based
on measurement of KNbO_{3} concentration along crystal interface
by electronic probe analysis, it finds the variety of crystal
morphologies, which is the result of different solute distributions:
in the central region the inhomogeneity of solute concentration is
much sharper and morphological instability is easier to take place;
nevertheless in the marginal region the concentration homogeneity
has been greatly enhanced by convection which prevents the
occurrence of morphological instability. Additional solute
distribution in the melt along the primary dendrite trunk axis as
well as that in mushy zones has also been determined. Results show
that the solute concentration in the liquid increases linearly with
distance from the trunk tip and more solutes were found to be
concentrated in mushy zones. The closer the mushy zone is to trunk
tip, the lower the solute concentration will be there.

The alloys of non-centrosymmetric superconductor, Re_{3}W, which
were reported to have an α-Mn structure [P. Greenfield and P.
A. Beck, J. Metals, N. Y. 8, 265 (1959)] with T_{c}=9K, are prepared by arc melting. The values of ac
susceptibility and the low-temperature specific heat of these alloys
are measured. It is found that there are two superconducting phases
coexisting in the samples with T_{c1}≈9K and T_{c2}≈7K, which are both non-centrosymmetric in structure as
reported previously. By analysing the specific heat data measured in
various magnetic fields down to a temperature of 1.8K, we find
that the absence of the inversion symmetry does not lead to an
obvious deviation from an s$-wave pairing symmetry in Re_{3}W.

The dynamic response of an icosahedral Al--Pd--Mn quasicrystal with a
Griffith crack to impact loading is investigated in this paper. The
elastohydrodynamic model for the wave propagation and diffusion
together with their interaction is adopted. Numerical results of
stress, displacement and dynamic stress intensity factors are
obtained by using the finite difference method. The effects of wave
propagation, diffusion and phonon--phason coupling on the
quasicrystal in the dynamic process are discussed in detail, where
the phason dynamics is explored particularly.

Using quantum hydrodynamic approaches, we study the quantum pressure
correction to the collective excitation spectrum of the interacting
trapped superfluid Fermi gases in the BEC-BCS crossover. Based on a
phenomenological equation of state, we derive hydrodynamic equations
of the system in the whole BEC-BCS crossover regime. Beyond the
Thomas--Fermi approximation, expressions of the frequency
corrections of collective modes for both spherical and axial
symmetric traps excited in the BEC-BCS crossover are given
explicitly. The corrections of the eigenfrequencies due to the
quantum pressure and their dependence on the inverse interaction
strength, anisotropic parameter and particle numbers of the
condensate are discussed in detail.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

We have made a first principles study to investigate density of
states, band structure, the dielectric function and absorption
spectra of wurtzite Mg_{0.25}Zn_{0.75}O. The calculation is
carried out in a-axis and c-axis strain changing in the range
from 0.3 to --0.2 in intervals of 0.1. The results calculated from
density of states show that the bottom of conduction band is always
dominated by Zn 4s and the top of valence band is always dominated
by O 2p in a-axis and c-axis strain. Zn 4s will shift to higher
energy range when a-axis strain changes in the range from 0.3 to
0, and then shift to lower energy range when a-axis strain changes
in the range from 0 to --0.2. But Zn 4s will always shift to higher
energy range when c-axis strain changes in the range from 0.3 to
--0.2. The variations of band gap calculated from band structure and
absorption spectra are also investigated, which are consistent with
the results obtained from density of states. In addition, we
analyse and discuss the imaginary part of the dielectric function
ε_{2}.

A supercell of a nanotube heterojunction formed by an (8, 0) carbon
nanotube (CNT) and an (8, 0) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) is
established, in which 96 C atoms and 32 Si atoms are included. The
geometry optimization and the electronic property of the
heterojunction are implemented through the first-principles
calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The
results indicate that the structural rearrangement takes place
mainly on the interface and the energy gap of the heterojunction is
0.31eV, which is narrower than those of the isolated CNT and the
isolated SiCNT. By using the average bond energy method, the valence
band offset and the conduction band offset are obtained as 0.71 and
--0.03eV, respectively.

This paper investigates the equilibrium lattice parameters, heat
capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus and its
pressure derivative of LaNi_{5} crystal by using the
first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method in the GGA-PBE
generalized gradient approximation as well as the quasi-harmonic
Debye model. The dependences of bulk modulus on temperature and on
pressure are investigated. For the first time it analyses the
relationships between bulk modulus B and temperature T up to
1000K, the relationship between bulk modulus B and pressure at
different temperatures are worked out. The pressure dependences of
heat capacity C_{v} and thermal expansion α at various
temperatures are also analysed. Finally, the Debye temperatures of
LaNi_{5} at different pressures are successfully obtained. The
calculated results are in excellent agreement with the experimental
data.

The equilibrium lattice parameter, heat capacity, thermal expansion
coefficient and bulk modulus of Ni_{2}MnGa Heusler alloy are
successfully obtained using the first-principles plane-wave
pseudopotential (PW-PP) method as well as the quasi-harmonic Debye
model. We analyse the relationship between bulk modulus B and
temperature T up to 800 K and obtain the relationship between
bulk modulus B and pressure at different temperatures. It is found
that the bulk modulus B increases monotonically with increasing
pressure and decreases with increasing temperature. The pressure
dependence of heat capacity C_{v} and thermal expansion α
at various temperatures are also analysed. Finally, the Debye
temperature of Ni_{2}MnGa is determined from the non-equilibrium
Gibbs function. Our calculated results are in excellent agreement
with the experimental data.

This paper investigates the effect of Dresselhaus spin--orbit
coupling on the spin-transport properties of
ferromagnet/insulator/semiconductor/insulator/ferromagnet
double-barrier structures. The influence of the thickness of the
insulator between the ferromagnet and the semiconductor on the
polarization is also considered. The obtained results indicate that
(i) the polarization can be enhanced by reducing the insulator
layers at zero temperature, and (ii) the tunnelling magnetoresistance
inversion can be illustrated by the influence of the Dresselhaus
spin--orbit coupling effect in the double-barrier structure. Due to
the Dresselhaus spin--orbit coupling effect, the tunnelling
magnetoresistance inversion occurs when the energy of a localized
state in the barrier matches the Fermi energy E_{F} of the
ferromagnetic electrodes.

This paper uses the perturbation method to study effective response
of nonlinear cylindrical coated composites. Under the external AC
and DC electric field E_{a}(1 + sinωt), the
local potentials of composites at all harmonic frequencies are
induced. An effective nonlinear response to composite is given for
the cylindrical coated inclusions in the dilute limit.

This paper proposes a thermal analytical model of current gain for
bipolar junction transistor-bipolar static induction transistor
(BJT-BSIT) compound device in the low current operation. It also
proposes a best thermal compensating factor to the compound device
that indicates the relationship between the thermal variation rate
of current gain and device structure. This is important for the design
of compound device to be optimized. Finally, the analytical model
is found to be in good agreement with numerical simulation and experimental
results. The test results demonstrate that thermal variation rate of
current gain is below 10% in 25℃--85℃ and 20{\%} in
-55℃--25℃.

This paper presents a method using simple physical vapour deposition
to form high-quality hafnium silicon oxynitride (HfSiON) on
ultrathin SiO_{2} buffer layer. The gate dielectric with 10?
(1?= 0.1 nm) equivalent oxide thickness is obtained. The
experimental results indicate that the prepared HfSiON gate
dielectric exhibits good physical and electrical characteristics,
including very good thermal stability up to 1000℃,
excellent interface properties, high dielectric constant (k=14)
and low gate-leakage current (I_{g}=1.9×10^{-3}A/cm^{2} @V_{g}=V_{fb}-1V for EOT of 10?).
TaN metal gate electrode is integrated with the HfSiON gate
dielectric.The effective work function of TaN on HfSiON is 4.3eV,
meeting the requirements of NMOS for the metal gate. And, the
impacts of sputtering ambient and annealing temperature on the
electrical properties of HfSiON gate dielectric are investigated.

Silicon films were grown on aluminium-coated glass by inductively
coupled plasma CVD at room temperature using a mixture of SiH_{4}
and H_{2} as the source gas. The microstructure of the films was
evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and
atomic force microscopy. It was found that the films are composed of
columnar grains and their surfaces show a random and uniform
distribution of silicon nanocones. Such a microstructure is highly
advantageous to the application of the films in solar cells and
electron emission devices. Field electron emission measurement of
the films demonstrated that the threshold field strength is as low
as ～9.8V/μm and the electron emission characteristic is
reproducible. In addition, a mechanism is suggested for the columnar
growth of crystalline silicon films on aluminium-coated glass at room
temperature.

This paper reports that polycrystalline
Si_{0.956}Mn_{0.044}:B films have been prepared by cosputtering
deposition followed by rapid thermal annealing for crystallization.
The polycrystalline thin films were treated by hydrogen plasma
excited with approach of radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical
vapour deposition for different time of 10 minutes, 15 minutes and 40
minutes. After hydrogenation, the structural properties of the films
do not show any change, while both the saturation magnetization and
the hole concentration in the films increase at first, then decrease
with the increase of hydrogenation time. The obvious correlation
between the magnetic properties and the transport properties of the
polycrystalline Si_{0.956}Mn_{0.044}:B films suggests that a
mechanism of hole-mediated ferromagnetism is believed to exist in Si-based
diluted magnetic semiconductors.

Using an equation-of-motion technique, we theoretically study the
Fano--Kondo effect in the T-shaped double quantum dots coupled to
two ferromagnetic leads by the Anderson Hamiltonian. We calculate
the density of states in this system with both parallel and
antiparallel lead-polarization alignments, and our results reveal
that the interdot coupling, the spin-polarized strength and the
energy level of the side coupled quantum dot greatly influence the
density of states of the central quantum dot. This system is a
possible candidate for spin valve transistors and may have potential
applications in the spintronics.

In this paper, the magnetization reversal of the ferromagnetic
layers in the IrMn/CoFe/AlO_{x}/CoFe magnetic tunnel junction has
been investigated using bulk magnetometry. The films exhibit very
complex magnetization processes and reversal mechanism. Thermal
activation phenomena such as the training effect, the asymmetry of
reversal, the loop broadening and the decrease of exchange field
while holding the film at negative saturation have been observed on
the hysteresis loops of the pinned ferromagnetic layer while not on
those of the free ferromagnetic layer. The thermal activation
phenomena observed can be explained by the model of two energy
barrier distributions with different time constants.

LiNbO_{3} has been found attractive for lateral field excitation
(LFE) applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling. In this
paper, bulk acoustic wave propagation properties for LiNbO_{3}
single crystal excited by a lateral electric field have been
investigated using the extended Christoffel--Bechmann method. It is
found that the LFE piezoelectric coupling factor for c mode
reaches its maximum value of 95.46% when ψ = 0° for
both (yxl)-58° and (yxwl)± 60°/58° LiNbO_{3}.
The acoustic wave phase velocity of c mode TSM (thickness shear
mode) changes from 3456m/s to 3983 m/s as a function of ψ.
Here ψ represents the angle between the lateral electric field
and the crystallographic X-axis in the substrate major surface. A
5MHz LFE device of (yxl)-58° LiNbO_{3} with
ψ=0° was designed and tested in air. A major resonance
peak was observed with the motional resistance as low as 17Ω and the Q-factor value up to 10353. The test result is
well in agreement with the theoretical analysis, and suggests that
the LFE LiNbO_{3} device can be a good platform for high
performance resonator or sensor applications.

This paper reports that the Bi_{2}WO_{6} ferroelectric ceramics
with excess Bi_{2}O_{3} of 0.0, 2.0, 3.5 and 5.0wt.% of the
stoichiometric composition are prepared by the conventional
solid-state reaction method. Their microstructure, ferroelectric
properties, the concentration and mobility of the defects have been
analysed systematically. With increasing Bi content, the remnant
polarization decreases, and the broken-down voltage increases. The
optimum Bi excess, 3.5, lowers the oxygen vacancy concentration,
while further Bi-addition brings about more defects. The activation
energies fitted from cole-cole plots are 0.97eV, 1.07eV,
1.18eV, and 1.33eV, respectively. This suggests that the
mobility of the defects is weakened by Bi-addition, which may be due
to the increase of the ratio of the number of Bi_{2}O_{2} layers
to that of the perovskite blocks.

The periodic nonuniform folded waveguides are special structures,
the physical dimension of which is between the periodic folded
waveguide and the tapering period folded waveguide. Therefore, the
synchronization between the microwave and the electron beam can be
maintained in the whole interaction process and the periods are not
tapered. In comparison with the tapering period folded waveguide,
the theoretical analysis and the technological requirements for this
structure are more convenient. In order to study this structure, the
space harmonics are analysed, the conditions to make the m-th
space harmonic synchronizing with the electron beam in the whole
interaction process are present, and the dispersion curve and the
coupling impedance curve are obtained by the simulation software
HFSS.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

For a black hole with two horizons, the effective entropy is assumed
to be a linear combination of the two entropies of the outer and
inner horizons. In terms of the effective thermodynamic quantities
the effective Bekenstein-Smarr formula and the effective first law
of thermodynamics are derived.

The spectral evolution of gamma-ray burst pulses assumed to arise from
the emission of fireballs is explored. It is found that due to the
curvature effect, the integrated flux is well related to peak energy
by a power law in the decaying phase of pulses, where the index is
about 3, which does not depend on intrinsic emission and the Lorentz
factor. The spectra of pulses in the decaying phase are slightly
different from each other when different intrinsic spectral
evolution patterns are considered, indicating that it is dominated
by the curvature effect. In the rising phase, the integrated flux
keeps increasing whilst the peak energy remains unchanged when the
intrinsic emission bears an unchanged spectrum. Within this phase,
the flux decreases with the increase of the peak energy for a
hard-to-soft intrinsic spectrum, and for a soft-to-hard-to-soft
intrinsic spectrum, the flux generally increases with the increase
of the peak energy. An intrinsic soft-to-hard-to-soft spectral
evolution within a co-moving pulse would give rise to a pulse-like
evolutionary curve for the peak energy.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]