The analysis of kinematics and dynamics of an elastic rod with
circular cross section is studied on the basis of exact Cosserat
model under consideration of the tension and shear deformation of
the rod. The dynamical equations of a rod with arbitrary initial
shape are established in general form. The dynamics of a straight
rod under axial tension and torsion is discussed as an example. In
discussion of static stability in the space domain the Greenhill
criteria of stability and the Euler load are corrected by the
influence of tension and shear strain. In analysis of dynamical
stability in the time domain it is shown that the Lyapunov and Euler
stability conditions of the rod in space domain are the necessary
conditions of Lyapunov's stability in the time domain. The longitudinal,
torsional and lateral vibrations of a straight rod based on exact
model are discussed, and an exact formula of free frequency of
lateral vibration is obtained. The free frequency formulas of
various simplified models, such as the Rayleigh beam, the Kirchhoff
rod, and the Timoshenko beam, can be seen as special cases of the
exact formula under different conditions of simplification.

Calculations of electronic structures about the semiconductor
quantum dot and the semiconductor quantum ring are presented in this
paper. To reduce the calculation costs, for the quantum dot and the
quantum ring, their simplified axially symmetric shapes are utilized
in our analysis. The energy dependent effective mass is taken into
account in solving the Schr?dinger equations in the single band
effective mass approximation. The calculated results show that the
energy dependent effective mass should be considered only for
relatively small volume quantum dots or small quantum rings. For
large size quantum materials, both the energy dependent effective
mass and the parabolic effective mass can give the same results. The
energy states and the effective masses of the quantum dot and the
quantum ring as a function of geometric parameters are also
discussed in detail.

Based on the continuum elastic theory, this paper presents a finite
element analysis to investigate the influences of elastic anisotropy
and thickness of spacing layer on the strain field distribution and
band edges (both conduction band and valence band) of the InAs/GaAs
conical shaped quantum dots. To illustrate these effects, we give
detailed comparisons with the circumstances of isolated and stacking
quantum dot for both anisotropic and isotropic elastic
characteristics. The results show that, in realistic materials
design and theoretical predication performances of the
optoelectronic devices, both the elastic anisotropy and thickness of
the spacing layer of stacked quantum dot should be taken into
consideration.

This paper proposes a scheme for implementing the adiabatic quantum
search algorithm of different marked items in an unsorted list of
N items with atoms in a cavity driven by lasers. N identical
three-level atoms are trapped in a single-mode cavity. Each atom is
driven by a set of three pulsed laser fields. In each atom, the same
level represents a database entry. Two of the atoms are marked
differently. The marked atom has an energy gap between its two
ground states. The two different marked states can be sought out
respectively starting from an initial entangled state by controlling
the ratio of three pulse amplitudes. Moreover, the mechanism, based
on adiabatic passage, constitutes a decoherence-free method in the
sense that spontaneous emission and cavity damping are avoided since
the dynamics follows the dark state. Furthermore, this paper extends
the algorithm with m (m>2) atoms marked in an ideal situation.
Any different marked state can be sought out.

This paper considers the teleportation of quantum controlled-Not
(CNOT) gate by using partially entangled states. Different from the
known probability schemes, it presents a method for teleporting a
CNOT gate with unit fidelity and unit probability by using two
partially entangled pairs as quantum channel. The method is
applicable to any two partially entangled pairs satisfying the
condition that their smaller Schmidt coefficients μ and ν
are (2μ + 2ν - 2μν - 1)≥0. In this scheme, the
sender's local generalized measurement described by a positive
operator valued measurement (POVM) lies at the heart. It constructs
the required POVM. It also puts forward a scheme for teleporting a
CNOT with two targets gate with unit fidelity by using same quantum
channel. With assistance of local operations and classical
communications, three spatially separated users are able to complete
the teleportation of a CNOT with two targets gate with probability
of (2μ + 2ν- 1). With a proper value of μ and ν,
the probability could reach nearly 1.

Based on the extended closed-orbit theory together with spectral
analysis, this paper studies the correspondence between quantum
mechanics and the classical counterpart in a two-dimensional annular
billiard. The results demonstrate that the Fourier-transformed
quantum spectra are in very good accordance with the lengths of the classical
ballistic trajectories, whereas spectral strength is
intimately associated with the shapes of possible open orbits
connecting arbitrary two points in the annular cavity. This approach
facilitates an intuitive understanding of basic quantum features
such as quantum interference, locations of the wavefunctions, and
allows quantitative calculations in the range of high energies,
where full quantum calculations may become impractical in general.
This treatment provides a thread to explore the properties of
microjunction transport and even quantum chaos under the much more
general system.

This paper studies the dynamics of nonlocality for a bosonic
entangled coherent state in a phase damping model. The density
operator of the system is solved by using a superoperator method.
The dynamics of nonlocality for the bosonic entangled coherent state
is uncovered by the Bell operator based on the pseudospin operator
of a light field. The dynamics of the nonlocality for this state has
also been studied by other Bell operators. The result of the
numerical calculations of the Bell function shows that the quantum
nonlocality heavily depends on the chosen Bell operator.

This paper develops a QKD (quantum key distribution)-based queueing
model to investigate the data delay on QKD link and network,
especially that based on trusted relays. It shows the mean
packet delay performance of the QKD system. Furthermore, it proposes a
key buffering policy which could effectively improve the delay
performance in practice. The results will be helpful for quality of
service in practical QKD systems.

In this paper, we propose an experimental scheme for unambiguous
quantum state comparison assisted by linear optical manipulations,
twin-photons produced from parametric down-conversion, and
postselection from the coincidence measurement. In this scheme the
preparation of the general two mixed qubit states with arbitrary
prior probabilities and the realization of the optimal POVMs for
unambiguous quantum state comparison are presented. This proposal is
feasible by current experimental technology, and may be used in
single-qubit quantum fingerprinting.

This paper proposes a scheme for realization of a three-qubit
Toffoli gate operation using three four-level atoms by a selective
atom--field interaction in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. In
the proposed protocol, the quantum information is encoded on the
stable ground states of atoms, and atomic spontaneous emission is
negligible as the large atom--cavity detuning effectively suppresses
the spontaneous decay of the atoms. The influence of the dissipation
on fidelity and success probability of the three-qubit Toffoli gate
is also discussed. The scheme can also be applied to realize an
N-qubit Toffoli gate and the interaction time required does not
rise with increasing the number of qubits.

Adopting the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and
Wilczek recently, this paper discusses Hawking radiation from the
dilaton--(anti) de Sitter black hole. To save the underlying gauge
and general covariance, it introduces covariant fluxes of gauge and
energy--momentum tensor to cancel the gauge and gravitational
anomalies. The result shows that the introduced compensating fluxes
are equivalent to those of a 2-dimensional blackbody radiation at
Hawking temperature with appropriate chemical potential.

The thermodynamic quantities for the gases of massless particles
with spin s = 1 / 2, 1, 3 / 2, 2 around static spherical black
holes are investigated by using the brick-wall method. The
appearance of the spin-dependent subleading terms is demonstrated
and the terms are shown to contain not only the linear and quadratic
terms of the spins but also a zero-power term of the spins.

This paper studies stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon in a
parallel array of linear elements with noise. Employing the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) theory, it obtains the output SNR, and
investigates the effects on the output SNR of the system with
signal-independent noise and signal-dependent noise respectively.
Numerical results show: the curve of the output SNR is
monotone with signal-independent noise; whereas SR appears
with signal-dependent noise. Moreover, the output SNR enhances
rapidly with the increase of N which is the number of elements in
this parallel array linear system. This result may provide smart
array of simple linear sensors which are capable of acting as
noise-aided amplifiers.

This paper investigates the global synchronization in an array of
linearly coupled neural networks with constant and delayed coupling.
By a simple combination of adaptive control and linear feedback with
the updated laws, some sufficient conditions are derived for global
synchronization of the coupled neural networks. The coupling
configuration matrix is assumed to be asymmetric, which is more
coincident with the realistic network. It is shown that the
approaches developed here extend and improve the earlier works.
Finally, numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the theoretical results.

An improved hyper-chaotic system based on the hyper-chaos generated
from Chen's system is presented, and some basic dynamical properties
of the system are investigated by means of Lyapunov exponent
spectrum, bifurcation diagrams and characteristic equation roots.
Simulations show that the new improved system evolves into
hyper-chaotic, chaotic, various quasi-periodic or periodic orbits
when one parameter of the system is fixed to be a certain value
while the other one is variable. Some computer simulations and
bifurcation analyses are given to testify the findings.

Synchronization of a noise-perturbed generalized Lorenz system by
using sliding mode control method is investigated in this paper. Two
sliding mode control methods are proposed to synchronize the
noise-perturbed generalized Lorenz system. Numerical simulations are
also provided for the illustration and verification of the methods.

The dynamics and the transition of spiral waves in the coupled
Hindmarsh--Rose (H--R) neurons in two-dimensional space are
investigated in the paper. It is found that the spiral wave can be
induced and developed in the coupled HR neurons in two-dimensional
space, with appropriate initial values and a parameter region given.
However, the spiral wave could encounter instability when the
intensity of the external current reaches a threshold value of
1.945. The transition of spiral wave is found to be affected by
coupling intensity D and bifurcation parameter r. The spiral
wave becomes sparse as the coupling intensity increases, while the
spiral wave is eliminated and the whole neuronal system becomes
homogeneous as the bifurcation parameter increases to a certain
threshold value. Then the coupling action of the four sub-adjacent
neurons, which is described by coupling coefficient D’, is also
considered, and it is found that the spiral wave begins to breakup
due to the introduced coupling action from the sub-adjacent neurons
(or sites) and together with the coupling action of the
nearest-neighbour neurons, which is described by the coupling
intensity D.

The problem of pinning control for the synchronization of complex
dynamical networks is discussed in this paper. A cost function of
the controlled network is defined by the feedback gain and the
coupling strength of the network. An interesting result is that a
lower cost is achieved by using the control scheme of pinning nodes
with smaller degrees. Some strict mathematical analyses are
presented for achieving a lower cost in the synchronization of
different star-shaped networks. Numerical simulations on some
non-regular complex networks generated by the Barabási--Albert
model and various star-shaped networks are performed for
verification and illustration.

This paper proposes a novel approach for generating a multi-scroll
chaotic system. Together with the theoretical design and numerical
simulations, three different types of attractor are available,
governed by constructing triangular wave, sawtooth wave and
hysteresis sequence. The presented new multi-scroll chaotic system
is different from the classical multi-scroll chaotic Chua system in
dimensionless state equations, nonlinear functions and maximum
Lyapunov exponents. In addition, the basic dynamical behaviours,
including equilibrium points, eigenvalues, eigenvectors,
eigenplanes, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents, are
further investigated. The success of the design is illustrated by
both numerical simulations and circuit experiments.

The highly excited vibrational levels of HCO in the electronic
ground state, \tilde {X}^{1}A'，are employed to determine the
coefficients of an algebraic Hamiltonian， by which the dynamical
potential is derived and shown to be very useful for interpreting
the intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) which operates via
the HCO bending motion. The IVR inhibits the dissociation of H atom
and enhances the stochastic degree of dynamical character. This
approach is from a global viewpoint on a series of levels classified
by the polyad number which is a constant of motion in a certain
dynamical domain. In this way, the seemingly complicated level
structure shows very regular picture, dynamically.

Nucleus--nucleus potentials are determined in the framework of
double folding model for M3Y--Reid and M3Y--Paris effective
nucleon--nucleon (NN) interactions. Both zero-range and
finite-range exchange parts of NN interactions are considered in
the folding procedure. In this paper the spherical
projectile--spherical target system ^{16}O+^{208}Pb is selected
for calculating the barrier energies, fusion cross sections and
barrier distributions with the density-independent and
density-dependent NN interactions on the basis of M3Y--Reid and
M3Y--Paris NN interactions. The barrier energies become lower for
Paris NN interactions in comparison with Reid NN interactions,
and also for finite-range exchange part in comparison with
zero-range exchange part. The density-dependent NN interactions
give similar fusion cross sections and barrier distributions, and
the density-independent NN interaction causes the barrier
distribution moving to a higher position. However, the
density-independent Reid NN interaction with zero-range exchange
part gives the lowest fusion cross sections. We find that the
calculated fusion cross
sections and the barrier
distributions are in agreement with the experimental data after
renormalization of the nuclear potential due to coupled-channel
effect.

The rapid internal conversion dynamics at room temperature is
determined by using the femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence
depletion measurements of a complex solvated molecule of LD 700
(rhodamine 700) combined with steady-state absorption and
fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as quantum chemical calculation.
The molecule is excited by a 50fs laser pulse at 400nm which
directly populated the highly excited singlet state, the rapid
internal conversions (ICs) are observed, which leads to the
directional changes of the emission transition moment following
photoexcitation to the highly excited singlet state S_{5} of LD
700.

We have calculated the Stark effect of CH_{3}F molecules in
external electrical fields, the rotational population of supersonic
CH_{3}F molecules in different quantum states, and analyse the
motion of weak-field-seeking CH_{3}F molecules in a state |J=1, KM= -1? inside the electrical field of a Stark
decelerator by using a simple analytical model. Three-dimensional
Monte Carlo simulation is performed to simulate the dynamical
slowing process of molecules through the decelerator, and
the results are compared with those obtained from
the analytical model, including the phase stability, slowing efficiency
as well as the translational temperature of the slowed molecular
packet. Our study shows that with a modest dipole moment (～1.85 Debye) and a relatively slight molecular weight (～34.03), CH_{3}F molecules in a state |J=1, KM= -1?
are a good candidate for slowing with electrostatic field. With high
voltages of ±10 kV applied on the decelerator, molecules of
370 m/s can be brought to a standstill within 200 slowing stages.

This paper calculates the spectra and oscillator strengths for
highly ionized cobalt-like Sn^{23+} ions
3p^{6}3d^{9}--3p^{5}3d^{10}, 3p^{6}3d^{9}--3p^{6}3d^{8}4p
transitions by using a multi-configuration self-consistent field
method program together with the proposed fitting formula. The
calculations have a good agreement with observations.

The evolution of the photoabsorption cross sections of atomic xenon
with number densities varying from ideal gas to condensed matter
has been studied by an alternative view in the present work. The
alternative expressions of the photoabsorption cross sections
presented by Sun et al recently were used with the local field
models that has proven to be generalized easily to multiatomic
systems including molecules and condensed phase systems. The present
results show that the variation of the photoabsorption cross
sections of atomic xenon in the giant resonance region from the
isolated to the condensed conditions is very small, which agrees
well with the variation law of the solid and gas experiments.

The analytical potential energy function of HDO is constructed at
first using the many-body expansion method. The reaction dynamics of
O+HD (υ=0, j=0) in five product channels are all studied by
quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method. The results show that the
long-lived complex compound HDO is the dominant product at low
collision energy. With increasing collision energy, O+HD → OH+D
and O+HD → OD+H exchange reactions will occur with remarkable
characteristics, such as near threshold energies, different reaction
probabilities, and different reaction cross sections, implying the
isotopic effect between H and D. With further increasing collision
energy (e.g., up to 502.08 kJ/mol), O+HD → O+H+D will occur and
induce the complete dissociation into single O, H, and D atoms.

This paper uses a Computer Simulation Technology microwave studio to
simulate the performance of a new high-directivity anisotropic
magnetic metamaterial antenna loaded with a frequency-selective
surface. Frequency-selective surface with cross-dipole element has a
great effect on the directivity, radiation pattern, and gain of such
an antenna. The experimental results show that frequency-selective
surface (FSS) significantly improve the radiation performance of
anisotropic magnetic metamaterial antenna. For example, as a single
anisotropic magnetic metamaterial antenna, half power beam width is
4 degrees in the H planes, and the gain of this antenna is 19.5 dBi at
10 GHz, achieving a 2.1 degree increment in half power beam width,
and a 7.3 dB gain increment by loading with the FSS reflector. The
simulating results are consistent with our experimental results.

By using the coordinate transformation method, we have deduced the
material parameter equation for rotating elliptical spherical cloaks
and carried out simulation as well. The results indicate that the
rotating elliptical spherical cloaking shell, which is made of
meta-materials whose permittivity and permeability are governed by
the equation deduced in this paper, can achieve perfect invisibility
by excluding electromagnetic fields from the internal region without
disturbing any external field.

A novel diffractive optical element, named phase zone photon sieve
(PZPS), is presented. There are three kinds of phase plates in
PZPSs: PZPS1, PZPS2, and PZPS3. Each of the PZPSs has its own
structure and is made on quartz substrate by etching. The three
PZPSs have stronger diffraction peak intensity than a photon sieve
(PS) when the margin pinhole and zone line width are kept the same.
The PZPS3 can produce a smaller central diffractive spot than the
ordinary PS with the same number of zones on the Fresnel zone plate.
We have given the design method for and the simulation of PZPS and
PS. PZPS has potential applications in optical maskless lithography.

By adopting in-line lensless Fourier setup and phase-shifting
technique, we recorded the phase-shifting digital hologram at short
distance. As the Fresnel diffraction condition is no longer valid,
the convolution approach is chosen for the reconstruction. However,
the simulated reference wave for the reconstruction would suffer
from severe under-sampling due to the comparatively large pixel
size. To solve this problem, sinc-interpolation is introduced to get
the pixel-size of the hologram reduced prior to the reconstruction.
The experimental results show that an object image of high fidelity
is obtained with this method.

This paper proposes a scheme for generation of superpositions of
coherent states of the effective bosonic mode in a collection of
atoms. In the scheme an atomic sample interacts with a slightly
detuned cavity mode and a resonant strong classical field. Under
certain conditions the atomic system evolves from a coherent state
to a superposition of coherent states.

This paper investigates the absorptive spectral lines of four-level
atomic system driven by a coupling, probe and microwave fields. Due
to the perturbation of the microwave field, the original
electromagnetically induced transparency is changed to
electromagnetically induced absorption and the absorptive spectral
line can be very narrow. This ultranarrow spectral line has
potential applications to the microwave atomic frequency standard and
the measurement of very weak magnetic field.

A method of studying a non-equilibrium x-ray laser plasma is
developed by extending the existing one-dimensional similarity
equations to the case of two-dimensional plasma study in the
directions perpendicular to the slab and along a focal line. With this
method the characteristics of pre-plasma are optimized for transient
neon-like Cr x-ray laser. It is found that when the duration and the
intensity of 1.053μm pre-pulse are 1.2ns and
6.5 TW/cm^{2} respectively with a delay time of 1.5ns, the
temperature and the temperature discrepancy each approach a proper
state, which will provide a uniform distribution of properly ionized
neon-like Cr ions before the arrival of pumping pulse.

The modulational instability of two incoherently coupled beams in
azobenzene-containing polymer with photoisomerization nonlinearity
is investigated analytically and numerically. Our results show that
as a precursor to spatial optical soliton formation, modulational
instability can be adjusted and controlled by the wavelength
combinations of the signal and background beams. We also discuss the
dependences of strength of modulational instability on intensities
of two signal beams and background beam. These findings make it
possible to predict the formation of incoherently coupled soliton
pairs in azobenzene-containing polymer.

Estimation of the far-field centre is carried out in beam
auto-alignment. In this paper, the features of the far-field of a
square beam are presented. Based on these features, a phase-only
matched filter is designed, and the algorithm of centre estimation
is developed. Using the simulated images with different kinds of
noise and the 40 test images that are taken in sequence, the
accuracy of this algorithm is estimated. Results show that the error
is no more than one pixel for simulated noise images with a 99%
probability, and the stability is restricted within one pixel for
test images. Using the improved algorithm, the consumed time is
reduced to 0.049s.

This paper derives the dispersion relation of microring
coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) without any
approximation by using the transfer matrix method. Based on the
established dispersion relation of CROWs it obtains the slow group
velocity and dispersion coefficient. It finds that the effect of
dispersion on optical pulses can be adjusted to balance the effect
of nonlinearity by changing coupling coefficient or loss, so optical
soliton with group delay can be obtained in microring CROWs. The
optical soliton with group delay is of great significance for
applications of microring CROWs in delay lines and optical buffers
of future all-optical communication systems.

We have studied the optical matching layers (OMLs) and external
quantum efficiency in the evanescent coupling photodiodes (ECPDs)
integrating a diluted waveguide as a fibre-to-waveguide coupler, by
using the semi-vectorial beam propagation method (BPM). The physical
basis of OML has been identified, thereby a general designing rule
of OML is developed in such a kind of photodiode. In addition, the
external quantum efficiency and the polarization sensitivity versus
the absorption and coupling length are analysed. With an optical
matching layer, the absorption medium with a length of 30μm
could absorb 90% of the incident light at 1.55μm
wavelength, thus the total absorption increases more than 7 times
over that of the photodiode without any optical matching layer.

A microtribometer is used to measure and compare pull-off forces and
friction forces exerted on (a) micro-dimpled silicon surfaces, (b)
bare silicon surfaces, and (c) octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)
treated silicon surfaces at different relative humidity (RH) levels
separately. It is found that above a critical RH level, the
capillary pull-off force increases abruptly and that the
micro-dimple textured surface has a lower critical RH value as well
as a higher pull-off force value than the other two surfaces. A
micro topography parameter, namely sidewall area ratio, is found to
play a major role in controlling the capillary pull-off force.
Furthermore, micro-dimpled silicon surface is also proved to be not
sensitive to variation in RH level, and can realize a stable and
decreased friction coefficient compared with un-textured silicon
surfaces. The reservoir-like function of micro dimples is considered
to weaken or avoid the breakage effect of liquid bridges at
different RH levels, thereby maintaining a stable frictional
behaviour.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

A grating surface can drive the liquid crystal molecules to orientate
along the direction parallel or vertical to the projected plane of
the grating surface. The nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell
manufactured with two pre-treated grating surface substrates may
realize the vertical display, parallel display and twist display. In
this paper, the threshold property of this NLC cell is investigated
systematically. With the Frank elastic theory and the equivalent
anchoring energy formula of grating surface substrate, the analytic
expressions of the threshold voltage related to three displays are
obtained, which are dependent on their geometrical parameters such
as amplitude δ and pitch λ of the grating surface
substrate. For a certain anchoring strength, the threshold voltage
increases or decreases with the increase of the value
δ/λ of the different displays.

Electrically active defects in the phosphor-doped single-crystal
silicon, induced by helium-ion irradiation under thermal annealing,
have been investigated. Isothermal charge-sensitive deep-level
transient spectroscopy was employed to study the activation energy
and capture cross-section of helium-induced defects in silicon
samples. It was shown that the activation energy levels produced by
helium-ion irradiation first increased with increasing annealing
temperature, with the maximum value of the activation energy
occurring at 873K, and reduced with further increase of the
annealing temperature. The energy levels of defects in the samples
annealed at 873 and 1073K are found to be located near the
mid-forbidden energy gap level so that they can act as thermally
stable carrier recombination centres.

The mechanism of low-temperature deformation in a fracture process of
L1_{2} Ni_{3}Al is studied by molecular dynamic simulations.
Owing to the unstable stacking energy, the [ 0\bar {1}1]
superdislocation is dissociated into partial dislocations separated
by a stacking fault. The simulation results show that when the crack
speed is larger than a critical speed, the Shockley partial
dislocations will break forth from both the crack tip and the
vicinity of the crack tip; subsequently the super intrinsic stacking
faults are formed in adjacent {111} planes, meanwhile the
super extrinsic stacking faults and twinning also occur. Our
simulation results suggest that at low temperatures the ductile
fracture in L1_{2} Ni_{3}Al is accompanied by twinning, which is
produced by super-intrinsic stacking faults formed in adjacent
{111} planes.

This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic
Fermi--Pasta--Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and
the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the
interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest
neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models
as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton
trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and
two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The pressure induced phase transitions of TiO_{2} from anatase to
columbite structure and from rutile to columbite structure and the
temperature induced phase transition from anatase to rutile
structure and from columbite to rutile structure are investigated by
ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential density functional
theory method (DFT), together with quasi-harmonic Debye model. It is
found that the zero-temperature transition pressures from anatase to
columbite and from rutile to columbite are 4.55 GPa and 19.92GPa,
respectively. The zero-pressure transition temperatures from anatase
to rutile and from columbite to rutile are 950 K and 1500 K,
respectively. Our results are consistent with the available
experimental data and other theoretical results. Moreover, the
dependence of the normalized primitive cell volume V/V_{0} on
pressure and the dependences of thermal expansion coefficient
ɑ on temperature and pressure are also obtained
successfully.

We have carried out first-principle calculations of Mg adsorption on
Si(111) surfaces. Different adsorption sites and coverage effects
have been considered. We found that the threefold hollow adsorption
is energy-favoured in each coverage considered, while for the clean
Si(111) surface of metallic feature, we found that 0.25 and 0.5 ML
Mg adsorption leads to a semiconducting surface. The results for the
electronic behaviour suggest a polarized covalent bonding between
the Mg adatom and Si(111) surface.

According to the general principle of non-equilibrium
thermodynamics, we propose a set of macroscopic transport equations
for the spin transport and the charge transport. In particular, the
spin torque is introduced as a generalized `current density' to
describe the phenomena associated with the spin non-conservation in
a unified framework. The Einstein relations and the Onsager
relations between different transport phenomena are established.
Specifically, the spin transport properties of the isotropic
non-magnetic and the isotropic magnetic two-dimensional electron
gases are fully described by using this theory, in which only the
macroscopic-spin-related transport phenomena allowed by the symmetry
of the system are taken into account.

This paper reports that the nanostructured β-FeSi_{2} bulk
materials are prepared by a new synthesis process by combining melt
spinning (MS) and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS). It
investigates the influence of linear speed of the rolling copper
wheel, injection pressure and SPS regime on microstructure and phase
composition of the rapidly solidified ribbons after MS and bulk
production respectively, and discusses the effects of the
microstructure on thermal transport properties. There are two
crystalline phases (α-Fe_{2}Si_{5} and ε-FeSi) in the rapidly solidified ribbons; the crystal grains become
smaller when the cooling rate increases (the 20 nm minimum crystal
of ε-FeSi is obtained). Having been sintered for 1 min
above 1123K and annealed for 5min at 923 K, the single-phase
nanostructured β-FeSi_{2} bulk materials with 200--500nm
grain size and 98% relative density are obtained. The
microstructure of β-FeSi_{2} has great effect on thermal
transport properties. With decreasing sintering temperature, the
grain size decreases, the thermal conductivity of β-FeSi_{2} is reduced remarkably. The thermal conductivity of
β-FeSi_{2} decreases notably (reduced 72% at room
temperature) in comparison with the β-FeSi_{2} prepared by
traditional casting method.

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on oxygen atoms in
Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) are investigated systemically by using
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and positron
annihilation technique (PAT). Through isochronal annealing, it is
found that the trend of variation in interstitial oxygen
concentration ([O_{i}]) in fast neutrons irradiated CZ-Si
fluctuates largely with temperature increasing, especially between
500 and 700℃. After the CZ-Si is annealed at 600℃, the
V_{4} appearing as three-dimensional vacancy clusters causes the
formation of the molecule-like oxygen clusters, and more importantly
these dimers with small binding energies (0.1--1.0eV) can diffuse
into the Si lattices more easily than single oxygen atoms, thereby
leading to the strong oxygen agglomerations. When the CZ-Si is
annealed at temperature increasing up to 700℃, three-dimensional
vacancy clusters disappear and the oxygen agglomerations decompose
into single oxygen atoms (O) at interstitial sites. Results from
FTIR spectrometer and PAT provide an insight into the nature of the
[O_{i}] at temperatures between 500 and 700℃. It turns out
that the large fluctuation of [O_{i}] after short-time
annealing from 500 to 700℃ results from the transformation of
fast neutron irradiation defects.

An innovative heterojunction is fabricated between two sides of a
freestanding thin film of HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) derivative
containing azobenzene side-chain, which is synthesized through an
N-alkyl-substituted reaction. Of the film, the side with being
irradiated by UV light during preparation is represented as `A
side'; the other side without being irradiated is represented as
`N side'. The electrical properties of the heterojunction are
measured and the rectifying effect is observed in the
{current--voltage} characteristic curves with the values of
rectifying ratio (γ) being 20 at ±0.06 V at T= 77K
and 4 at ±0.02V at T=300 K separately.

This paper proposes a novel super junction (SJ) SiGe switching power
diode which has a columnar structure of alternating p^{-} and
n^{-} doped pillar substituting conventional n^{-} base region
and has far thinner strained SiGe p^{+} layer to overcome the
drawbacks of existing Si switching power diode. The SJ SiGe diode
can achieve low specific on-resistance, high breakdown voltages and
fast switching speed. The results indicate that the forward voltage
drop of SJ SiGe diode is much lower than that of conventional Si
power diode when the operating current densities do not exceed
1000 A/cm^{2}, which is very good for getting lower operating
loss. The forward voltage drop of the Si diode is 0.66V whereas that
of the SJ SiGe diode is only 0.52 V at operating current density of
10 A/cm^{2}. The breakdown voltages are 203 V for the former and
235 V for the latter. Compared with the conventional Si power diode,
the reverse recovery time of SJ SiGe diode with 20 per cent Ge
content is shortened by above a half and the peak reverse current is
reduced by over 15{\%}. The SJ SiGe diode can remarkably improve the
characteristics of power diode by combining the merits of both SJ
structure and SiGe material.

The effect of substrate bias on the degradation during applying a
negative bias temperature (NBT) stress is studied in this paper.
With a smaller gate voltage stress applied, the degradation of
negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is enhanced, and there
comes forth an inflexion point. The degradation pace turns larger
when the substrate bias is higher than the inflexion point. The
substrate hot holes can be injected into oxide and generate
additional oxide traps, inducing an inflexion phenomenon. When a
constant substrate bias stress is applied, as the gate voltage
stress increases, an inflexion comes into being also. The higher
gate voltage causes the electrons to tunnel into the substrate from
the poly, thereby generating the electron--hole pairs by impact
ionization. The holes generated by impact ionization and the holes
from the substrate all can be accelerated to high energies by the
substrate bias. More additional oxide traps can be produced, and
correspondingly, the degradation is strengthened by the substrate
bias. The results of the alternate stress experiment show that the
interface traps generated by the hot holes cannot be annealed, which
is different from those generated by common holes.

A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI)
thin film devices is proposed, and a formula of silicon critical
electric field is derived as a function of silicon film thickness by
solving a 2D Poisson equation from an effective ionization rate,
with a threshold energy taken into account for electron multiplying.
Unlike a conventional silicon critical electric field that is
constant and independent of silicon film thickness, the proposed
silicon critical electric field increases sharply with silicon film
thickness decreasing especially in the case of thin films, and can
come to 141V/μm at a film thickness of 0.1μm which is
much larger than the normal value of about 30V/μm. From the
proposed formula of silicon critical electric field, the expressions
of dielectric layer electric field and vertical breakdown voltage
(V_{B,V}) are obtained. Based on the model, an ultra thin film
can be used to enhance dielectric layer electric field and so
increase vertical breakdown voltage for SOI devices because of its
high silicon critical electric field, and with a dielectric layer
thickness of 2μm the vertical breakdown voltages reach 852
and 300V for the silicon film thicknesses of 0.1 and 5μm,
respectively. In addition, a relation between dielectric layer
thickness and silicon film thickness is obtained, indicating a
minimum vertical breakdown voltage that should be avoided when an
SOI device is designed. 2D simulated results and some experimental
results are in good agreement with analytical results.

Low pressure metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (LP-MOCVD)
growth and characteristics of InAsSb on (100) GaSb substrates are
investigated. Mirror-like surfaces with a minimum lattice mismatch
are obtained. The samples are studied by photoluminescence spectra,
and the output is 3.17μm in wavelength. The surface of InAsSb
epilayer shows that its morphological feature is dependent on buffer
layer. With an InAs buffer layer used, the best surface is obtained.
The InAsSb film shows to be of n-type conduction with an electron
concentration of 8.52×10^{16}cm^{-3}.

SnO_{2} nanotwists on thin film and SnO_{2} short nanowires on
nanorods have been grown on single silicon substrates by using
Au--Ag alloying catalyst assisted carbothermal evaporation of
SnO_{2} and active carbon powders. The morphology and the
structure of the prepared nanostructures are determined on the basis
of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission
electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electronic diffraction
(SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),
x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra
analysis. The new peaks at 356, 450, and 489 nm in the measured PL
spectra of two kinds of SnO_{2} nanostructures are observed,
implying that more luminescence centres exist in these SnO_{2}
nanostructures due to nanocrystals and defects. The growth mechanism
of these nanostructures belongs to the vapour--liquid--solid (VLS)
mechanism.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Based on the new screening model, this paper discusses the influence
of superstrong magnetic fields on nuclear energy generation rates on
the surface of magnetars. The obtained result shows that the
superstrong magnetic fields can increase the nuclear energy
generation rates by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement may
have a significant influence for further study of the magnetars,
especially for the cooling, the x-ray luminosity observation and the
evolution of the magnetars.

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