We propose a hybrid scheme for computations of incompressible
two-phase flows. The incompressible constraint has been replaced by
a pressure Poisson-like equation and then the pressure is updated by
the modified marker and cell method. Meanwhile, the moment equations
in the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations are solved by our
semi-discrete Hermite central-upwind scheme, and the interface
between the two fluids is considered to be continuous and is
described implicitly as the 0.5 level set of a smooth function being
a smeared out Heaviside function. It is here named the hybrid
scheme. Some numerical experiments are successfully carried out,
which verify the desired efficiency and accuracy of our hybrid
scheme.

The unified symmetry of mechano-electrical systems with nonholonomic
constraints are studied in this paper, the definition and the
criterion of unified symmetry of mechano-electrical systems with
nonholonomic constraints are derived from the Lagrange--Maxwell
equations. The Noether conserved quantity, Hojman conserved quantity
and Mei conserved quantity are then deduced from the unified
symmetry. An example is given to illustrate the application of the
results.

Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, this paper studies the
perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton
systems. The exact invariants of Mei symmetry for the system without
perturbation are given. The perturbation to Mei symmetry is discussed
and the adiabatic invariants induced from the perturbation to Mei
symmetry of the system are obtained.

The Noether symmetry, the Lie symmetry and the conserved quantity of
discrete holonomic systems with dependent coordinates are
investigated in this paper. The Noether symmetry provides a discrete
Noether identity and a conserved quantity of the system. The
invariance of discrete motion equations under infinitesimal
transformation groups is defined as the Lie symmetry, and the
condition of obtaining the Noether conserved quantity from the Lie
symmetry is also presented. An example is discussed to show the
applications of the results.

This paper studies the Mei symmetry and Mei conserved quantity for
nonholonomic systems of unilateral Chetaev type in Nielsen style. The
differential equations of motion of the system above are established.
The definition and the criteria of Mei symmetry, loosely Mei
symmetry, strictly Mei symmetry for the system are given in this
paper. The existence condition and the expression of Mei conserved
quantity are deduced directly by using Mei symmetry. An example is
given to illustrate the application of the results.

This paper gives the general expressions for the compliance
s'_{ ijkl }, Young's modulus E(hkl) and Poisson's ratio
\upsilon (hkl,θ ) along arbitrary loading direction [hkl]
for tetragonal crystals. The representation surface for
which the length of the radius vector in the [hkl] direction equals
E(hkl) and representation curve for which the length of the radius
vector with angle θ deviated from the reference directions
[00\overline 1 ], [100], [00\overline 1 ], [10\overline 1 ]
and [11\overline 2 ] equals \upsilon (100,θ ), \upsilon
(001,θ ), \upsilon (110,θ ), \upsilon (101,θ )
and \upsilon (111,θ ) respectively, are constructed for nine
tetragonal crystals (ammonium dihydrogen arsenate, ammonium
dihydrogen phosphate, barium titanate, indium, nickel sulfate,
potassium dihydrogen arsenate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, tin
and zircon). The characteristics of them are analysed in detail.

This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra, which
is used to construct a new loop algebra \tilde{A}_{M}. By using the
Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy
is generated, which possesses the Hamiltonian structure. As its
reduction cases, the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional
Glachette--Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given. Finally, the
super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional
GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem.

By introducing an auxiliary ordinary differential equation and
solving it by the method of variable separation, abundant types of
explicit and exact solutions for the double sinh--Gordon equation
are derived in a simple manner.

This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary multi-particle
two-level atomic state between two parties or an arbitrary zero- and
one-photon entangled state of multi-mode between two high-$Q$
cavities in cavity QED. This scheme is based on the resonant
interaction between atom and cavity and does not involve Bell-state
measurement. It investigates the fidelity of this scheme and find out
the case of this unity fidelity of this teleportation. Considering
the practical case of the cavity decay, this paper finds that the
condition of the unity fidelity is also valid and obtains the effect
of the decay of the cavity on the successful probability of the
teleportation.

This paper presents a very simple scheme for generating quantum
controlled phase-shift gate with only one step by using the two
vibrational modes of a trapped ion as the two qubits. The scheme
couples two vibration degrees of freedom coupled with a suitable
chosen laser excitation via the ionic states.

An experimentally feasible protocol for realizing dense coding by
using a class of W-state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED)
is proposed in this paper. The prominent advantage of our scheme is
that the successful probability of the dense coding with a W-class
state can reach 1. In addition, the scheme can be implemented by the
present cavity QED techniques.

Squeezing via the interaction between the cavity light field and the
Bose--Einstein Condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential is
considered within the context of the two-mode approximation. For the
cavity light field initially in a coherent state, it is shown that
by choosing appropriate parameters, quadrature squeezing of the
cavity light field can be achieved and it exhibits periodic
oscillation. We also study the case in which BEC is tuned to
resonance by periodically modulating the trapping potential, and the
quadrature squeezing of the cavity field exhibits periodic collapse
and revival effect. Both analytic and numerical calculations are
performed, and they are found to be in good agreement with each
other. The result shows that the quantum statistical properties of
the cavity light field can be manipulated by its coupling with the
condensates in the double-well potential. On the other hand,
dynamical properties of the condensates in the double-well potential
will be reflected by the quadrature squeezing of the light field.

An Ising-type atom--atom interaction is obtained in a
fibre-connected three-atom system. The interaction is effective when
Δ≈γ_{0}>> g. The preparations of remote
two-atom and three-atom entanglements governed by this interaction
are discussed in a specific parameter region. The overall two-atom
entanglement is very small because of the existence of the third
atom. However, the three-atom entanglement can reach a maximum very
close to $1$.

An alternative scheme to approximately conditionally teleport
entangled two-mode cavity state without Bell state measurement in
cavity QED is proposed. The scheme is based on the resonant
interaction of a ladder-type three-level atom with two bimodal
cavities. The entangled cavity state is reconstructed with only one
atom interacting with the two cavities successively.

We present a scheme to prepare cluster-type entangled squeezed vacuum
states (CTESVS) by considering the two-photon interaction between a
two-level atom and a high-quality cavity, driven by a strong
classical field. After the realization of simple atomic measurements,
the generation of CTESVS in four separate cavities is accomplished
within the cavity decay time. In the case of large atom--cavity
detuning, the scheme is immune to the effect of atomic spontaneous
emission.

The half-filled Hubbard chains with the Fibonacci and Harper
modulating site potentials are studied in a self-consistent
mean-field approximation. A new order parameter is introduced to
describe a charge density order. We also calculate the von Neumann
entropy of the ground state. The results show that the von Neumann
entropy can identify a CDW/SDW (charge density wave/spin density
wave) transition for quasiperiodic models.

Based on the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and
Wilczek, we investigates Hawking radiation from the modified
Schwarzschild black hole from gravity's rainbow from the anomaly
point of view. Unlike the general Schwarzschild space--time, the
metric of this black hole depends on the energies of probes. The
obtained result shows to restore the underlying general covariance at
the quantum level in the effective field, the covariant compensating
flux of energy--momentum tensor, which is related to the energies of
the probes, should precisely equal to that of a (1 + 1)
-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature.

As one of the fitting methods, the polynomial approximation is
effective to process sophisticated problem. In this paper, we employ
this approach to handle the scattering of scalar field around the
Schwarzschild--de Sitter black-hole. The complicated relationship
between tortoise coordinate and radial coordinate is replaced by the
approximate polynomial. The Schr?dinger-like equation, the real
boundary conditions and the polynomial approximation construct a
full Sturm--Liouville type problem. Then this boundary value problem
can be solved numerically for two limiting cases: the first one is
the Nariai black-hole whose horizons are close to each other, the
second one is the black-hole with the horizons widely separated.
Compared with previous results (Brevik and Tian), the field near the
event horizon and cosmological horizon can have a better
description.

By introducing the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) this paper
demonstrates that there exists ABCD theorem for two-mode entangled
case in quantum optics. The canonical operator method as mapping of
ray-transfer ABCD matrix is explicitly shown by EFO's normally
ordered expansion through the coherent state representation and the
technique of integration within an ordered product of operators.

We devise three sorts of doped left-handed materials (DLHMs) by
introducing inductors and capacitors into the traditional
left-handed material (LHM) as heterogeneous elements. Some new
properties are presented through finite-difference time-domain
(FDTD) simulations. On the one hand, the resonance in the
traditional LHM is weakened and the original pass band is narrowed
by introducing inductors. On the other hand, the original pass band
of the LHM can be shifted and a new pass band can be generated by
introducing capacitors. When capacitors and inductors are introduced
simultaneously, the resonance of traditional LHM is somewhat
weakened and the number of original pass bands as well as its
bandwidth can be changed.

This paper presents a new method to synchronize different chaotic
systems with disturbances via an active radial basis function (RBF)
sliding controller. This method incorporates the advantages of active
control, neural network and sliding mode control. The main part of
the controller is given based on the output of the RBF neural
networks and the weights of these single layer networks are tuned
on-line based on the sliding mode reaching law. Only several radial
basis functions are required for this controller which takes the
sliding mode variable as the only input. The proposed controller can
make the synchronization error converge to zero quickly and can
overcome external disturbances. Analysis of the stability for the
controller is carried out based on the Lyapunov stability theorem.
Finally, five examples are given to illustrate the robustness and
effectiveness of the proposed synchronization control strategy.

This paper studies the chaotic behaviours of the fractional-order
unified chaotic system. Based on the approximation method in
frequency domain, it proposes an electronic circuit model of tree
shape to realize the fractional-order operator. According to the tree
shape model, an electronic circuit is designed to realize the
2.7-order unified chaotic system. Numerical simulations and circuit
experiments have verified the existence of chaos in the
fraction-order unified system.

This paper studies the global exponential stability of competitive
neural networks with different time scales and time-varying delays.
By using the method of the proper Lyapunov functions and inequality
technique, some sufficient conditions are presented for global
exponential stability of delay competitive neural networks with
different time scales. These conditions obtained have important
leading significance in the designs and applications of global
exponential stability for competitive neural networks. Finally, an
example with its simulation is provided to demonstrate the
usefulness of the proposed criteria.

The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) may have chaotic
behaviours for the uncertain values of parameters or under certain
working conditions, which threatens the secure and stable operation
of motor-driven. It is important to study methods of controlling or
suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this paper, robust stabilities of PMSM
with parameter uncertainties are investigated. After the uncertain
matrices which represent the variable system parameters are
formulated through matrix analysis, a novel asymptotical stability
criterion is established. Some illustrated examples are also given to
show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

A new Hash function based on the generalized Henon map is proposed.
We have obtained a binary sequence with excellent pseudo-random
characteristics through improving the sequence generated by the
generalized Henon map, and use it to construct Hash function. First
we divide the message into groups, and then carry out the Xor
operation between the ASCII value of each group and the binary
sequence, the result can be used as the initial values of the next
loop. Repeat the procedure until all the groups have been processed,
and the final binary sequence is the Hash value. In the scheme, the
initial values of the generalized Henon map are used as the secret
key and the messages are mapped to Hash values with a designated
length. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has strong
diffusion and confusion capability, good collision resistance, large
key space, extreme sensitivity to message and secret key，and it is
easy to be realized and extended.

Bifurcation characteristics of the Langford system in a general form
are systematically analysed, and nonlinear controls of periodic
solutions changing into invariant tori in this system are achieved.
Analytical relationship between control gain and bifurcation
parameter is obtained. Bifurcation diagrams are drawn, showing the
results of control for secondary Hopf bifurcation and sequences of
bifurcations route to chaos. Numerical simulations of quasi-periodic
tori validate analytic predictions.

Considering such a fact that travellers dynamically adjust their
routes and the resultant link traffic flows in a network evolve over
time, this paper proposes a dynamical evolutionary model of the
traffic assignment problem with endogenous origin--destination (OD)
demands. The model's stability is analysed and the resultant user
equilibrium (UE) state is shown to be stable under certain
conditions. Numerical results in a grid network indicate that the
model can generate convergent flow patterns and finally terminates at
the UE state. Impacts by the parameters associated with OD demand
function and link cost function are also investigated.

In this paper, cascading failure is studied by coupled map lattice
(CML) methods in preferential attachment community networks. It is
found that external perturbation R is increasing with modularity
$Q$ growing by simulation. In particular, the large modularity $Q$
can hold off the cascading failure dynamic process in community
networks. Furthermore, different attack strategies also greatly
affect the cascading failure dynamic process. It is particularly
significant to control cascading failure process in real community
networks.

This paper presents a reduced-order model to describe the mechanical
behaviour of microbeam-based magnetic devices. The integration for
magnetic force is calculated by dividing the microbeam into several
segments, and the nonlinear equation set has been developed based on
the magnetic circuit principle. In comparison with previous models,
the present macromodel accounts for both the micro-magnetic-core
reluctance and the coupling between the beam deflection and magnetic
force. This macromodel is validated by comparing with the
experimental results available in some papers and finite-element
solutions.

By using star product method, the He--McKellar--Wilkens (HMW) effect
for spin-one neutral particle on non-commutative (NC) space is
studied. After solving the Kemmer-like equations on NC space, we
obtain the topological HMW phase on NC space where the additional
terms related to the space--space non-commutativity are given
explicitly.

Applying the improved Rayleigh--Schr?dinger perturbation theory
based on an integral equation to helium-like ions in ground states
and treating electron correlations as perturbations, we obtain the
second-order corrections to wavefunctions consisting of a few terms
and the third-order corrections to energicity. It is demonstrated
that the corrected wavefunctions are bounded and quadratically
integrable, and the corresponding perturbation series is convergent.
The results clear off the previous distrust for the convergence in
the quantum perturbation theory and show a reciprocal development on
the quantum perturbation problem of the ground state helium-like
systems.

The significant modifications to our recently constructed electron
momentum spectrometer have been implemented. Compared with our
previous report, the energy and the angle resolutions are
significantly improved and reach ΔE=0.45eV, Δθ=±0.53^{o} and Δπ=±0.84^{o},
respectively. Moreover, the details of data reduction and the
relation between azimuthal angle range and the sensitivity are
discussed.

The splitting of potential energy levels for ground state X^{2}π_{g} of O_{2}^{x}(x=+1, -1) under
spin--orbit coupling (SOC) has been calculated by using the
spin--orbit (SO) multi-configuration quasi-degenerate perturbation
theory (SO-MCQDPT). Their Murrell--Sorbie (M--S) potential functions
are gained, and then the spectroscopic constants for electronic
states ^{2}π_{1/2} and ^{2}π_{3/2} are
derived from the M--S function. The vertical excitation energies for
O_{2}^{x}(x=+1, -1) are \nu [O_{2}^{+1}
(^{2}π_{3/2}→ X^{2}π_{1/2})]=195.652cm^{-1}, and \nu [O_{2}^{-1}(^{2}π_{1/2}
→X^{2}π_{3/2} )]=182.568cm^{-1}, respectively. All
the spectroscopic data for electronic states ^{2}π_{1/2} and ^{2}π_{3/2} are given for the first time.

Taking two Laguerre--Gaussian beams with topological charge l=±1 as an example, this paper studies the composite optical vortices
formed by two noncollinear Laguerre--Gaussian beams with different
phases, amplitudes, waist widths, off-axis distances, and their
propagation in free space. It is shown by detailed numerical
illustrative examples that the number and location of composite
vortices at the waist plane are variable by varying the relative
phase β, amplitude ratio η, waist
width ratio \textitζ, or off-axis distance ratio μ. The net topological charge l_{net} is not always equal to
the sum l_{sum} of charges of the two component beams. The
motion, creation and annihilation of composite vortices take place
in the free-space propagation, and the net charge during the
propagation remains unchanged and equals to the net charge at the
waist plane.

By using the generalized Debye diffraction integral, this paper
studies the spatial correlation properties and phase singularity
annihilation of apertured Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams in the
focal region. It is shown that the width of the spectral degree of
coherence can be larger, less than or equal to the corresponding
width of spectral density, which depends not only on the scalar
coherence length of the beams, but also on the truncation parameter.
With a gradual increase of the truncation parameter, a pair of phase
singularities of the spectral degree of coherence in the focal plane
approaches each other, resulting in subwavelength structures.
Finally, the annihilation of pairs of phase singularities takes
place at a certain value of the truncation parameter. With
increasing scalar coherence length, the annihilation occurs at the
larger truncation parameter. However, the creation process of phase
singularities outside the focal plane is not found for GSM beams.

It is shown that a Gaussian light beam transmitting through a planar
thin dielectric slab in the air undergoes four different effects,
i.e. lateral Goos--H\"{a}nchen-like (GHL) displacement, angular
deflection, width modification and longitudinal focal shift as
compared with the results predicted by geometrical optics. According
to the Taylor expansion of the exponent of transmission coefficient
when expressed as an exponential form, the lateral GHL displacement
and the angular deflection are the first-order effects and can be
negative or positive. The width modification and the longitudinal
focal shift are the second-order effects and can also be positive or
negative. Owing to the waist-width dependent term, the
non-geometrical effects of transmitted beam are not identical with
the non-specular effects of reflected beam. The conditions for the
validity of those effects are suggested and numerical simulations
are also given.

Laguerre--Gaussian beams, as a special model with spiral phase
structure, have been intensively investigated. Holographic grating
method is a convenient method of generating Laguerre--Gaussian beams
and measuring their orbital angular momenta. But due to some
inevitable adverse factors such as lateral displacement, angular
deflection and elliptical incident profile of incident beam, the
practical effectiveness should be reevaluated. This paper is devoted
to the study on the influences of the abovementioned three adverse
factors on the holographic grating method. The characteristics of
the mode decomposition of diffractive order and the relative powers
of the orbital angular momentum eigen-states are also given.

This paper discusses the amplitude-squared squeezing for the
superposition of two coherent states with their phase differences
being separately π/2, 3π/2, and π, as well as for the
superposition state of two pseudoclassical states. According to the
analysis, it is found that the superposition state of two coherent
states with their phase differences π/2 and 3π/2, and the
superposition state of two pseudoclassical states both do exhibit
the amplitude-squared squeezing. Also, some specific states are
found to exhibit even stronger squeezing effects when relative phase
of the superposition is equal to the average photon number.
Amplitude-squared squeezing is dependent on the difference in phase
between two coherent states.

This paper studies the entanglement properties in a system of two
dipole--dipole coupled two-level atoms resonantly interacting with a
single-mode thermal field. The results show that, when the
temperature of the cavity is high enough (corresponding to the large
value of the mean photon number), the entanglement is greatly
enhanced due to the initial atomic coherence. These results are
helpful for controlling the atomic entanglement by changing the
initial parameters of the system.

This paper introduces the generalized excited pair coherent state
(GEPCS). Using the entangled state | η>
representation of Wigner operator, it obtains the Wigner function
for the GEPCS. In the ρ--γ phase space, the variations
of the Wigner function distributions with the parameters q,
α, k and l are discussed. The tomogram of the GEPCS is
calculated with the help of the Radon transform between the Wigner
operator and the projection operator of the entangled state |
η_{1},η_{2},t_{1},t_{2}>. The entangled
states | η> and |η_{1}, η_{2},
t_{1}, t_{2}}\right\rangle provide two good representative
space for studying the Wigner functions and tomograms of various
two-mode correlated quantum states.

In this paper, we have analysed in detail the quantum interference of
the degenerate narrowband two-photon state by using a Mach--Zehnder
interferometer, in which an electromagnetically induced transparency
(EIT) medium is placed in one of two interfering beams. Our results
clearly show that it is possible to coherently keep the quantum state
at a single photon level in the EIT process, especially when the
transparent window of the EIT medium is much larger than the
bandwidth of the single photon. This shows that the EIT medium is
possibly a kind of memory or repeater for the narrowband photons in
the areas of quantum communication and quantum computer. This kind of
experiment is feasible within the current technology.

An X-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO)
is designed and investigated numerically and experimentally for the
first time. The X-band MILO is optimized in detail with KARAT code.
In simulation, the X-band MILO, driven by a 720kV, 53kA electron
beam, comes to a nonlinear steady state in 4.0ns. High-power
microwaves (HPM) of TEM mode is generated with an average power of
4.1GW, a frequency of 9.3GHz, and power conversion efficiency of
10.8% in durations of 0--40ns. The device is fabricated
according to the simulation results. In experiments, when the
voltage is 400kV and the current is 50kA, the radiated microwave
power reaches about 110MW and the dominating frequency is
9.7GHz. Because the surfaces of the cathode end and the beam dump
are destroyed, the diode voltage cannot increase continuously.
However, when the diode voltage is 400kV, the average power output
is obtained to be 700MW in simulation. The impedance of the device
is clearly smaller than the simulation prediction. Moreover, the
duration of the microwave pulse is obviously shorter than that of
the current pulse. The experimental results are greatly different
from the simulation predictions. The preliminary analyses show that
the generations of the anode plasma, the cathode flare and the anode
flare are the essential cause for the remarkable deviation of the
experimental results from the simulation predictions.

A theoretical model to simulate an end-pumped CW
Nd^{3+}:GdVO_{4} laser at 1063nm is presented. Its essence is
to use the propagation equations to demonstrate the spatial
evolutions of the pump and the laser powers in the cavity, hence it
is applicable to both low and high gain lasers. The simulation
results obtained by this model are in good agreement with the
experimental observations reported in the literature for a
Ti:sapphire-pumped Nd^{3+}:GdVO_{4} laser. Moreover, some
parameters, such as the reflectivity of output coupler, the spot
size of laser beam and the crystal length, are discussed with a view
to optimizing the laser performance.

Stimulated photoluminescence (PL) emission has been observed from an
oxide structure of silicon when optically excited by a radiation of
514nm laser. Sharp twin peaks at 694 and 692nm are dominated by
stimulated emission, which can be demonstrated by its threshold
behaviour and linear transition of emission intensity as a function
of pump power. The oxide structure is formed by laser irradiation on
silicon and its annealing treatment. A model for explaining the
stimulated emission is proposed, in which the trap states of the
interface between an oxide of silicon and porous nanocrystal play an
important role.

This paper gives a detailed theoretical investigation on phase
conjugation induced by nearly degenerate four-wave mixing in single
mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with weak
optical injection. Considering VCSELs that can work in linearly
polarized or elliptically polarized states, it derives the
theoretical expression of the conjugated field by small signal
analysis based on the vectoral rate equations---the spin-flip model.
For linearly polarized state, VCSELs show similar conjugate spectra
to edge-emitting semiconductor lasers. For the elliptically
polarized state, dichroism and birefringence parameters as well as
the spin-flip rate can change the conjugate spectra. Especially, when
frequency detuning of the probe and pump waves is between the
positive and negative relaxation oscillation frequency, changes are
evident. For specific values of parameters, conjugate efficiency
between 20\,dB to 40dB are obtained.

Self-compression of femtosecond pulses in noble gases with an input
power close to the self-focusing threshold has been investigated
experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that either
multiphoton ionization (MPI) or space--time focusing and
self-steepening effects can induce pulse shortening, but they
predominate at different beam intensities during the propagation.
The latter effects play a key role in the final pulse
self-compression. By choosing an appropriate focusing parameter,
action distance of the space--time focusing and self-steepening
effects can be lengthened, which can promote a shock pulse structure
with a duration as short as two optical cycles. It is also found
that, for our calculation cases in which an input pulse power is
close to the self-focusing threshold, either group velocity
dispersion (GVD) or multiphoton absorption (MPA) has a negligible
influence on pulse characteristics in the propagation process.

Two-dimensional (2D) closed-cavity single quantum well (SQW) and
multiple quantum well (MQW) structures are proposed based on the
traditional 2D open-cavity SQW structures of photonic crystals. The
numerical calculation results show that the proposed structures can
greatly improve the optical characteristics compared with the
traditional structures. It is found that the barrier thickness has a
great impact on the optical characteristics of the closed-cavity MQW
structures: when the barrier thickness is narrower, each resonant
peak which appears in the SQW would split, the number of split times
is just equal to the number of wells, and each well in the MQW
structures is a travelling-wave-well, similar to the well in the
open-cavity SQW structures; when the barrier thickness is wider,
there is no effect of spectral splitting, and each well in the MQW
structures is a standing-wave-well, just like the well in the
closed-cavity SQW. The physical origin of different field
distributions and the effect of the spectral splitting are provided.

Taking the Gaussian Schell-model beam as a typical example of
partially coherent beams, this paper applies the simulated annealing
(SA) algorithm to the design of phase plates for shaping partially
coherent beams. A flow diagram is presented to illustrate the
procedure of phase optimization by the SA algorithm. Numerical
examples demonstrate the advantages of the SA algorithm in shaping
partially coherent beams. An uniform flat-topped beam profile with
maximum reconstruction error RE<1.74% is achieved. A further
extension of the approach is discussed.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

This paper analyses the effect of configuration complex on
dielectronic recombination (DR) process in highly ionized plasmas
(Xe^{26+}, Dy^{38+}, W^{46+}) by using the
multiconfiguration relativistic Hartree--Fock method. Resonant and
nonresonant radiative stabilizing transitions and decays to
autoionizing levels followed by radiative cascades are included.
Collisional transitions following electron capture are neglected. The
remarkable difference between the isoelectronic trend of the rate
coefficients for DR through 3d^{9}414l' and through 3d^{9}4l
5l' is emphasized. The trend of DR through 3d^{9}4l4l'
shows irregularities at relatively low temperature due to the
progressive closing of DR channels as atomic number Z increases.

Measurements of dust plasma parameters were carried out in the
discharges of (SiH_{4}/C_{2}H_{4}/Ar) mixtures. Dust particles
were formed in the capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge of
these reactive mixtures in a cylindrical chamber. Langmuir probe was
employed for diagnosing and measuring the important plasma
parameters such as electron density and electron temperature. The
results showed that the electron density dropped, and in contrast
the electron temperature rose when the dust particles formed. The
curves of the electron density and temperature versus the RF power
and pressure were presented and analysed. Further, it was found that
the variations of electron temperature and the size of dust void
with the RF power followed the similar trends. These trends might be
useful for understanding more about the characteristics of dusty
voids.

This paper theoretically studies the high-electron-mobility
transistor (HEMT) driven by the terahertz radiation. It calculates
the gate-to-source/drain admittance and the detection responsivity
of the HEMT as a function of the signal frequency. It finds that the
peaks of the admittances and the responsivity show redshift, and the
heights of the peaks decrease with increasing the lengths of the
source-to-gate and gate-to-drain spacing. Such phenomena may be
useful in designing different HEMTs by utilizing the effects
associated with the plasma oscillations excitation.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Co_{1-x}Zn_{x}Fe_{2}O_{4} nanoparticles, prepared by the
polyvinyl alcohol sol--gel method, have been investigated by x-ray
diffraction and M?ssbauer spectroscopy. These results are
compared with those for the bulk material. The lattice parameters of
CoZn ferrite nanoparticles are larger than those of the bulk
material. Thermal scanning of M?ssbauer measurement shows that
the transition temperatures for nanoparticles are higher than those
of the bulk material except for the sample CoFe_{2}O_{4}.

This paper presents a cellular automaton model for single-lane
traffic flow. On the basis
of the Nagel--Schreckenberg (NS) model, it further considers the
effect of headway-distance between two successive cars on the
randomization of the latter one. In numerical simulations, this model
shows the following characteristics. (1) With a simple structure,
this model succeeds in reproducing the hysteresis effect, which is
absent in the NS model. (2) Compared with the slow-to-start models,
this model exhibits a local fundamental diagram which is more
consistent to empirical observations. (3) This model has much higher
efficiency in dissolving congestions compared with the so-called NS
model with velocity-dependent randomization (VDR model). (4) This
model is more robust when facing traffic obstructions. It can resist
much longer shock times and has much shorter relaxation times on the
other hand. To summarize, compared with the existing models, this
model
is quite simple in structure, but has good characteristics.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The Monte Carlo simulation is performed to investigate the quantum
mechanical (QM) effects on heat generation in nano-scale metal oxide
semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) by solving the
quantum Boltzmann equation. The influence of QM effects both in real
space and $K$ space on the heat generation is investigated.

First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the ground state electronic properties of BaFeO_{3} (BFO). Local spin density approximation (LSDA) plus U (LSDA+U) treatment modified the metallic behaviour to insulated one with a band gap of 4.12eV. The spontaneous polarization was found to be 89.3\muC/cm^{2} with Berry phase scheme in terms of the modern theory of polarization. Fe-3d e_{g} were split into two singlet states (d_{z2} and d_{ x2-y2}}), and Fe-3d t_{2g} were split into one doublet states(d_{xz} and d_{yz}) and one singlet states(d_{xy}) after Fe and O displaced along the c axis. Meanwhile the occupation numbers of d_{z2}, d_{yz}, d_{xz} and O_{T} p_{z} (on the top of Fe) were increased at the expense of those in xy plane. Our results showed that it was the sensitivity of hybridization to ferroelectric distortions, not just the total change of hybridization, that produced the possibility of ferroelectricity. Moreover, the increasing occupation numbers of O_{T} p_{z} and Fe d_{z2} favoured the 180^{o} coupling between Fe-3d e_{g} and Fe-3d t_{2g}, leading to ferromagnetic ordering, which has been confirmed by the increase of magnetic moment by 0.13μ_{B} per formula unit in the polarized direction. Hence, the magnetization can be altered by the reversal of external electric field.

We studied the structural and electronic properties of carbon
nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures based on molecular dynamics
simulations and first principles band structure calculations. It is
found that carbon nanotubes experience a hard-to-soft transition as
external pressure increases. The bulk modulus of soft phase is two
orders of magnitude smaller than that of hard phase. The band
structure calculations show that band gap of (10, 0) nanotube
increases with the increase of pressure at low pressures. Above a
critical pressure (5.70GPa), band gap of (10, 0) nanotube drops
rapidly and becomes zero at 6.62GPa. Moreover, the calculated charge
density shows that a large pressure can induce an
{sp}^{2}-to-{sp}^{3} bonding transition, which is confirmed by
recent experiments on deformed carbon nanotubes.

High performance pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFT) were
designed and fabricated using SiO_{2} deposited by electron beam
evaporation as gate dielectric material. Pentacene thin films were
prepared on glass substrate with S--D electrode pattern made from ITO
by means of thermal evaporation through self-organized process. The
threshold voltage V_{TH} was --2.75± 0.1V in 0---50V
range, and that subthreshold slopes were 0.42± 0.05V/dec. The
field-effect mobility (μ_{EF}) of OTFT device increased with
the increase of V_{DS}, but the μ_{EF} of OTFT device
increased and then decreased with increased V_{GS} when V_{DS} was kept constant. When V_{DS} was --50V, on/off current
ratio was 0.48× 10^{5} and subthreshold slope was 0.44V/dec.
The μ_{EF} was 1.10cm^{2}/(V.s), threshold voltage
was --2.71V for the OTFT device.

This paper solves a self-consistent equation for the d-wave
superconducting gap and the effective exchange field in the
mean-field approximation, and studies the Zeeman effects on the
d-wave superconducting gap and thermodynamic potential. The Josephson
currents in the d-wave superconductor(S)/insulating layer(I)/d-wave S
junctions are calculated as a function of the temperature, exchange
field, and insulating barrier strength under a Zeeman magnetic field
on the two d-wave Ss. It is found that the Josephson critical
currents in d-wave S/d-wave S junction to a great extent depend on
the relative orientation of the effective exchange field of the two S
electrodes, and the crystal orientation of the d-wave S. The exchange
field under certain conditions can enhance the Josephson critical
current in a d-wave S/I/d-wave S junction.

The magnetization reversal of Fe/Cu(100) ultrathin films grown at
room temperature is investigated by using an in situ
magneto-optical Kerr effect polarimeter with a magnet that can
rotate in a plane of incidence. There occur spin reorientation
transitions from out-of-plane to in-plane magnetizations in 8 and 12
monolayers (ML) thick iron films. The coercive fields are observed
to be proportional to the reciprocal of the cosine with respect to
the easy axis, suggesting that the domain-wall displacement plays a
main role in the magnetization reversal process.

In this paper, the Sr_{3}Y_{2} (BO_{3})_{4}:Eu^{3+} phosphor was synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method and the luminescence characteristics were investigated. The emission spectrum exhibits one strong red emission at 613nm corresponding to the electric dipole ^{5}D_{0}--^{7}F_{2} transition of Eu^{3+} under 365nm excitation, this is because Eu^{3+} substituted for Y^{3+} occupied the non-centrosymmetric position in the crystal structure of Sr_{3}Y_{2} (BO_{3})_{4}. The excitation spectrum indicates that the phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (254nm, 365nm and 400nm) and blue (470nm) light. The effect of Eu^{3+} concentration on the red emission of Sr_{3}Y_{2} (BO_{3})_{4}:Eu^{3+} was measured, the result shows that the emission intensities increase with increasing Eu^{3+} concentration, then decrease. The Commission Internationale del'Eclairage chromaticity (x, y) of Sr_{3}Y_{2}(BO_{3})_{4}:Eu^{3+} phosphor is (0.640,0.355) at 15 mol% Eu^{3+}.

Organic light emitting diodes employing magnesium doped electron
acceptor 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride
(Mg:PTCDA) as electron injection layer and silver as cathode were
demonstrated. As compared to Mg:Ag cathode, the combination of
the Mg:PTCDA layer and silver provided enhanced electron
injection into tris (8-quinolinolato) aluminium. The device with
1:2 Mg:PTCDA and Ag showed an increase of about 12% in the
maximum current efficiency, mainly due to the improved hole-electron
balance, and an increase of about 28% in the maximum power
efficiency, as compared to the control device using Mg:Ag
cathode. The properties of Mg:PTCDA composites were studied as
well.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

The observed tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in the western
North Pacific (WNP) monsoon region has an interdecadal variability
with a period of 40--50 yr. That suggests a weaker effect of the TBO
on the East Asia followed by a stronger one. A simple analytic model
was designed to investigate the mechanism of the interdecadal
variability of the TBO. The results indicated that a local TBO
air--sea system not only supports the TBO variability in the WNP
monsoon region but also produces an interdecadal variability of the
TBO.

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