This paper is intended to apply the potential integration method to
the differential equations of the Birkhoffian system. The method is
that, for a given Birkhoffian system, its differential equations are
first rewritten as 2n first-order differential equations. Secondly,
the corresponding partial differential equations are obtained by
potential integration method and the solution is expressed as a
complete integral. Finally, the integral of the system is obtained.

In this paper, we make use of the auxiliary equation and the
expanded mapping methods to find the new exact periodic solutions
for (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations in mathematical
physics, which are expressed by Jacobi elliptic functions, and
obtain some new solitary wave solutions (m \to 1). This method can
also be used to explore new periodic wave solutions for other
nonlinear evolution equations.

We propose a scheme to implement the n-qubit Deutsch--Jozsa
algorithm based on resonant interaction between the atoms and a
single-mode cavity. In the scheme, the resonant transitions between
two ground states and one excited state of an atom are changed
alternately by adjusting the cavity frequency appropriately, and the
operations required to complete the algorithm can be significantly
simplified following the increment of the number of qubits. The
implementation of the scheme in experiment would show the full power
of quantum algorithm and would be significative and important for
more complicated quantum algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

An experimentally realizable physical scheme for preparing multiqubit
cluster states from a large detuned atom--cavity interaction is
proposed. The scheme is free of any type of measurement and
insensitive to the cavity decay, and the cavity field is only
virtually excited so that there is no information exchanging between
atom and cavity. The time required for the gate operations is very
short, which is important for decoherence. We also discuss the
experimental feasibility of our scheme.

Recently the performance of the quantum key distribution (QKD) is
substantially improved by the decoy state method and the
non-orthogonal encoding protocol, separately. In this paper, a
practical non-orthogonal decoy state protocol with a heralded single
photon source (HSPS) for QKD is presented. The protocol is based on
4 states with different intensities, i.e. one signal state and three
decoy states. The signal state is for generating keys; the decoy
states are for detecting the eavesdropping and estimating the
fraction of single-photon and two-photon pulses. We have discussed
three cases of this protocol, i.e. the general case, the optimal
case and the special case. Moreover, the final key rate over
transmission distance is simulated. For the low dark count of the
HSPS and the utilization of the two-photon pulses, our protocol has
a higher key rate and a longer transmission distance than any other
decoy state protocol.

In this paper we investigate the influence of the dark energy on the
time-like geodesic motion of a particle in Schwarzschild spacetime by
analysing the behaviour of the effective potential which appears in
an equation of motion. For the non-radial time-like geodesics, we
find a bound orbit when the particle energy is in an appropriate
range, and also find another possible orbit, which is that the
particle drops straightly into the singularity of a black hole or
escapes to infinity. For the radial time-like geodesics, we find an
unstable circular orbit when the particle energy is the critical
value, in which case it is possible for the particle to escape to
infinity.

We have developed a systematic analytical approach to the study on
the dynamic properties of the linear and the nonlinear excitations
for quasi-one-dimensional Bose--Einstein condensate trapped in
optical lattices. A novel linear dispersion relation and an algebraic
soliton solution of the condensate are derived analytically under
consideration of Bose--Einstein condensate with a periodic potential.
By analysing the soliton solution, we find that the interatomic
interaction strength has an important effect on soliton dynamic
properties of Bose--Einstein condensate.

This paper proposes a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm
optimization (NQPSO) for the estimation of chaos' unknown parameters
by transforming them into nonlinear functions' optimization. By means
of the techniques in the following three aspects: contracting the
searching space self-adaptively; boundaries restriction strategy;
substituting the particles' convex combination for their centre of
mass, this paper achieves a quite effective search mechanism with
fine equilibrium between exploitation and exploration. Details of
applying the proposed method and other methods into Lorenz systems
are given, and experiments done show that NQPSO has better
adaptability, dependability and robustness. It is a successful
approach in unknown parameter estimation online especially in the
cases with white noises.

This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method
for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the
transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence
property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive
synchronization and parameter identification. An index function
about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient
method is used to minimize the index function and to search the
transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key
is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional
chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can
also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise.

A backstepping control method is proposed for controlling beam
halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels (PFCs) of high-current
ion accelerator. The analysis and numerical results show that the
method, via adjusting an exterior magnetic field, is effective to
control beam halo chaos with five types of initial distribution ion
beams, all statistical quantities of the beam halo-chaos are largely
reduced, and the uniformity of ion beam is improved. This control
method has an important value of application, for the exterior
magnetic field can be easily adjusted in the periodical magnetic
focusing channels in experiment.

The dependence between neutron skin thickness and neutron abrasion
cross section ($\sigma_{\rm nabr}$) for neutron-rich nuclei is
investigated within the framework of the statistical abrasion
ablation model. Assuming that the density distributions for proton
and neutron are of Fermi-type, and adjusting the diffuseness
parameter of neutron density distribution in the droplet model, we
find out the good linear correlation between the neutron skin
thickness and the abrasion cross section $\sigma_{\rm nabr}$ for
neutron-rich nuclei. The uncertainty of neutron skin thickness
determined from $\sigma_{\rm nabr}$ is very small. It is suggested
that $\sigma_{\rm nabr}$ can be used as a new experimental observable
to extract the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nucleus. The
scaling behaviours between neutron skin thickness and $\sigma_{\rm
nabr}$, separately, for isotopes of $^{26-35}$Na, $^{44-56}$Ar,
$^{48-60}$Ca, $^{67-78}$Ni are also investigated.

This paper reports self-organized nanostructures observed on the
surface of ZnO crystal after irradiation by a focused beam of a
femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate of 250\,kHz.
For a linearly polarized femtosecond laser, the periodic nanograting
structure on the ablation crater surface was promoted. The period of
self-organization structures is about 180\,nm. The grating
orientation is adjusted by the laser polarization direction. A long
range Bragg-like grating is formed by moving the sample at a speed
of 10\,\mu m/s. For a circularly polarized laser beam, uniform
spherical nanoparticles were formed as a result of Coulomb explosion
during the interaction of near-infrared laser with ZnO crystal.

This paper uses the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method
to study the ionization and the single electron capture in collision
of highly charged Ar^{16+} ions with He atoms in the velocity
range of 1.2--1.9 a.u.. The relative importance of single ionization
(SI) to single capture (SC) is explored. The comparison between the
calculation and experimental data shows that the SI/SC cross section
ratios from this work are in good agreement with experimental data.
The total single electron ionization cross sections and the total
single electron capture cross sections are also given for this
collision. The investigation of the partial electron capture cross
section shows a general tendency of capture to larger n and l
with increasing velocity from 1.2 to 1.9 a.u..

By using the closed orbit theory, the photodetachment cross section
of H^{-} in a static electric field between two parallel elastic
interfaces is derived and calculated. It is found that the
photodetachment cross section depends on the electric field and the
distance between the ion and the elastic interface. The oscillation
of the cross section becomes more complicated than in the case of
H^{-} near one elastic interface. The results show that near the
detachment threshold, the influence of the additional interface can
be neglected. But with the increase of the energy, its influence
becomes great. At some energies, the cross sections display sharp
peaks, contrasting with the staircase structure when only one
interface exists. This study provides a new understanding of the
photodetachment process of H^{-} in the presence of external
field and interfaces.

The simulations of three-dimensional particle dynamics show that
when irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser pulse, the deuterated
methane cluster expands and the majority of deuterons overrun the
more slowly expanding carbon ions, resulting in the creation of two
separated subclusters. The enhanced deuteron kinetic energy and a
narrow peak around the energy maximum in the deuteron energy
distribution make a considerable contribution to the efficiency of
nuclear fusion compared with the case of homonuclear deuterium
clusters. With the intense laser irradiation, the nuclear fusion
yield increases with the increase of the cluster size, so that
deuterated heteronuclear clusters with larger sizes are required to
achieve a greater neutron yield.

The Raman-coupled interaction between an atom and a single mode of a
cavity field is studied. For the cases in which a light field is
initially in a coherent state and in a thermal state separately, we
have derived the analytic expressions for the time evolutions of
atomic population difference $W$, modulus $B$ of the Bloch vector,
and entropy $E$. We find that the time evolutions of these quantities
are periodic with a period of $\pi $. The maxima of $W$ and $B$
appear at the scaled interaction time points $\tau = k\pi (k =
0,1,2,\ldots)$. At these time points, $E = 0$, which shows that the
atom and the field are not entangled. Between these time points, $E
\ne 0$, which means that the atom and the field are entangled. When
the field is initially in a coherent state, near the maxima, the
envelope of $W$ is a Gaussian function with a variance of $1 /{\left(
{4\bar {n}} \right)}$ ($\bar {n}$ is the mean number of photons).
Under the envelope, $W$ oscillates at a frequency of $\bar {n} / \pi
$. When the field is initially in a thermal state, near the maxima,
$W$ is a Lorentz function with a width of $1/ \bar {n}$.

In this paper the evolution characteristics of the fidelity of
quantum information for the V-type three-level atom interacting with
number state light field in Kerr medium are investigated. It shows
that the periodicity of the evolutions of fidelity of quantum
information is influenced by the Kerr coefficient, the photon number
of the initial field and intensity of light. The evolutions of the
fidelity of quantum information are modulated by the initial number
state field. The Rabi oscillation frequency and the modulation
frequency of fidelity for the field and the system vary with the
value of the Kerr coefficient. The evolutions of fidelity of quantum
information obviously show the quantum collapse and revival
behaviours in the system of atom interacting with light field.

Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the
technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of
operators, this paper derives the Wigner functions for the
photon-depleted even and odd coherent states (PDEOCSs). Moreover, in
terms of the Wigner functions with respect to the complex parameter
$\alpha $ the nonclassical properties of the PDEOCSs are discussed.
The results show that the nonclassicality for the state $\left|
{\beta ,m} \right\rangle _{\rm o} $ (or $\left| {\beta ,m}
\right\rangle _{\rm e} )$ is more pronounced when $m$ is even (or
odd). According to the marginal distributions of the Wigner
functions, the physical meaning of the Wigner functions is given.
Further, the tomograms of the PDEOCSs are calculated with the aid of
newly introduced intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in
quantum optics.

For the beam splitter attack strategy against quantum key
distribution using two-mode squeezed states, the analytical
expression of the optimal beam splitter parameter is provided in
this paper by applying the Shannon information theory. The
theoretical secret information rate after error correction and
privacy amplification is given in terms of the squeezed parameter
and channel parameters. The results show that the two-mode squeezed
state quantum key distribution is secure against an optimal beam
splitter attack.

Sideband manipulation of population inversion in a three-level
$\Lambda$ atomic configuration is investigated theoretically.
Compared with the case of a nearly monochromatic field, a population
inversion between an excited state and a ground state has been found
in a wide sideband intensity range by increasing the difference in
frequency between three components. Furthermore, the population
inversion can be controlled by the sum of the relative phases of the
sideband components of the trichromatic pump field with respective
to the phase of the central component. Changing the sum phase from 0
to $\pi$, the population inversion between the excited state and the
ground state can increase within nearly half of the sideband
intensity range. At the same time, the sideband intensity range that
corresponds to the system exhibiting inversion $\rho_{00}>\rho_{11}$
also becomes wider evidently.

We have investigated the transverse mode pattern and the optical
field confinement factor of gallium nitride (GaN) laser diodes (LDs)
theoretically. For the particular LD structure, composed of
approximate 4 $\mu $m thick n-GaN substrate layer, the maximum
optical confinement factor was found to be corresponding to the
5$^{\rm th}$ order transverse mode, the so-called lasing mode.
Moreover, the value of the maximum confinement factor varies
periodically when increasing the n-side GaN layer thickness, which
simultaneously changes and increases the oscillation mode order of
the GaN LD caused by the effects of mode coupling. The effects of
the thickness and the average composition of Al in the AlGaN/GaN
superlattice on the optical confinement factor are also presented.
Finally, the mode coupling and optimization of the layers in the
GaN-based LD are discussed.

Size-dependence of optical properties and energy relaxation in
CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were investigated by two-colour
femtosecond (fs) pump--probe (400/800\,nm) and picosecond
time-resolved photoluminescence (ps TRPL) experiments. Pump--probe
measurement results show that there are two components for the
excited carriers relaxation, the fast one with a time constant of
several ps arises from the Auger-type recombination, which shows
almost particle size-independence. The slow relaxation component with
a time constant of several decades of ns can be clearly determined
with ps TRPL spectroscopy in which the slow relaxation process shows
strong particle size-dependence. The decay time constants increase
from 21 to 34\,ns with the decrease of particle size from 3.2 to
2.1\,nm. The room-temperature decay lifetime is due to the thermal
mixing of bright and dark excitons, and the size-dependence of slow
relaxation process can be explained very well in terms of simple
three-level model.

This paper demonstrates a compact efficient optical parametric
generator internal to a Q-switched diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO$_{4}$
laser with periodically poled MgO:LiNbO_{3}(PPMgLN). With the
Q-switch set at a repetition rate of 25kHz and the PPMgLN crystal
operated at room temperature (25\du\,), the intracavity optical
parametric generator threshold was reached as a diode pump power of
0.9\,W. A maximum signal output power of 0.34W with a pulse width
of 25\,ns and a beam quality factor of 1.4 was obtained at an
incident diode power of 3.4\,W, leading to a conversion efficiency of
10{\%} with a slope efficiency of 14.4{\%}. By varying the crystal
temperature from 25 to 200\du, the output signal wavelengths were
tuned in range of 1506--1565\,nm. Over a 30-minutes interval, the
instability of the signal power was measured to be less than 1{\%}.
In addition, the threshold pump intensity for the intracavity optical
parametric generator is theoretically investigated, and the obtained
result is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Polarization-dependent linear absorption, second-harmonic generation
(SHG) and 3rd-order nonlinearities of well-aligned ZnO nanorod
arrays have been investigated with ps pulses. The depressed spectral
width and the enhanced intensity of reflective SHG along the long
axis of ZnO nanorods were observed by using p-polarized pulses,
which is explained by the optical confinements. The nonlinear
absorption coefficient measured with s-polarization reached the
maximum 4.0$\times $10$^{4}$cm/GW at the wavelength $\sim $750\,nm,
which revealed a large two-photon resonance absorption attributed to
the quantum confined exciton when the polarization is vertical to
the long axis of ZnO nanorod.

Charged colloidal suspensions have been used as experimental models
for the study of crystal nucleation. Here we propose that the
technique of template-assisted colloidal self-assembly can be used
to visualize the effects of defect propagation in atomic crystal
films produced using epitaxial growth. Templates with periodic line
defects were used to grow [100]-oriented three-dimensional photonic
crystals by means of the template-assisted colloidal self-assembly
method, aided by capillary and gravitational forces. The defect
propagation in the [100]-oriented photonic crystal was observed
using scanning electron microscopy, both at the surface of the
crystal and on cleaved facets. This method is useful in the
understanding of defect propagation in the growth of colloidal films
on templates - and the same approach may also prove useful for the
understanding of atomic crystal growth on substrates with defects.
Additionally, the deliberate incorporation of line defects may prove
valuable as a way of introducing waveguide channels into
three-dimensional photonic crystals.

Using an exact Mie scattering solution, this paper investigates the
mode conversions during the Mie scattering of a single bi- or
one-component sphere in unbounded epoxy. Then the formation
mechanism of the first complete gap in the corresponding tri- or
bi-component phononic crystal is investigated by the
multiple-scattering method. It is shown that the heavy density of
the scatterer plays an essential role in the Mie resonance and the
formation of the gaps for both types of the phononic crystals. For
the tri-component phononic crystal, the gap is mainly induced by the
Mie resonance of the single scatterer. For the bi-component phononic
crystal, the transverse wave (by mode-conversion during the Mie
scattering under a longitudinal wave incidence) is modulated by the
periodicity and governed by the Bloch theory, which induces the gap
cooperatively.

This paper presents a reconstruction model of three-dimensional
temperature distribution in furnace based on radiative energy images
captured by charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras within the visible
wavelength range. Numerical simulation case was used in this study
and a zigzag eccentric temperature distribution was assumed to
verify the model. Least square QR-factorization (LSQR) method was
introduced to deal with reconstruction equation. It is found that
the reconstructed temperature distributions in low-temperature areas
had some fluctuations and high-temperature areas were reconstructed
well. The whole reconstruction relative error was mainly due to
errors in low-temperature areas and the relative error for
highest-temperature reconstruction was quite small.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

A plasma is produced in air by using a high-intensity Q-switch Nd:YAG
pulsed laser to irradiate a solid target, and the impulses delivering
from the plasma to the target are measured at different laser power
densities. Analysing the formation process of laser plasma and the
laser supported detonation wave (LSDW) and using fluid mechanics
theory and Pirri's methods, an approximately theoretical solution of
the impulse delivering from the plasma to the target under our
experimental condition is found. Furthermore, according to the
formation time of plasma and the variation of pressure in plasma in a
non-equilibrium state, a physical model of the interaction between
the pulse laser and the solid target is developed. The plasma
evolutions with time during and after the laser pulse irradiating the
target are simulated numerically by using a three-dimensional
difference scheme. And the numerical solutions of the impulse
delivering from the plasma to the target are obtained. A comparison
among the theoretical, numerical and experimental results and their
analyses are performed. The experimental results are explained
reasonably. The consistency between numerical results and
experimental results implies that the numerical calculation model
used in this paper can well describe the mechanical action of the
laser on the target.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

This paper reports that β-Ga_{2}O_{3} nanorods have been
synthesized by ammoniating Ga_{2}O_{3} films on a V middle layer
deposited on Si(111) substrates. The synthesized nanorods were
confirmed as monoclinic Ga_{2}O_{3} by x-ray diffraction, Fourier
transform infrared spectra. Scanning electron microscopy and
transmission electron microscopy reveal that the grown
β-Ga_{2}O_{3} nanorods have a smooth and clean surface with
diameters ranging from 100nm to 200\,nm and lengths typically up to
2\mum. High resolution TEM and selected-area electron diffraction
shows that the nanorods are pure monoclinic Ga_{2}O_{3} single
crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum indicates that the
Ga_{2}O_{3} nanorods have a good emission property. The growth
mechanism is discussed briefly.

A general one-dimensional discrete monatomic model is investigated
by using the multiple-method. It is proven that the discrete bright
breathers (DBBs) and discrete dark breathers (DDBs) exist in this
model at the anti-continuous limit, and then the concrete models of
the DBBs and DDBs are also presented by the multiple-scale approach
(MSA) and the quasi-discreteness approach (QDA). When the results
are applied to some particular models, the same conclusions as those
presented in corresponding references are achieved. In addition, we
use the method of the linearization analysis to investigate this
system without the high order terms of $\varepsilon$. It is found
that the DBBs and DDBs are linearly stable only when coupling
parameter $\chi$ is small, of which the limited value is obtained by
using an analytical method.

A systematic study of the Hugoniot equation of state, phase
transition, and the other thermodynamic properties including the
Hugoniot temperature, the electronic and ionic heat capacities, and
the Gr\"{u}neisen parameter for shock-compressed BeO, has been
carried out by calculating the total free energy. The method of
calculations combines first-principles treatment for 0\,K and
finite-T electronic contribution and the mean-field-potential
approach for the vibrational contribution of the lattice ion to the
total energy. Our calculated Hugoniot is in good agreement with the
experimental data.

In this paper, the theoretical analysis and simulating calculation
were conducted for a basic two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric
module, which contains one thermocouple in the second stage and
several thermocouples in the first stage. The study focused on the
configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric cooler,
especially investigating the influences of some parameters, such as
the current $I_1 $ of the first stage, the area $A_1 $ of every
thermocouple and the number $n$ of thermocouples in the first stage,
on the cooling performance of the module. The obtained results of
analysis indicate that changing the current $I_1 $ of the first
stage, the area $A_1 $ of thermocouples and the number $n$ of
thermocouples in the first stage can improve the cooling performance
of the module. These results can be used to optimize the
configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module
and provide guides for the design and application of thermoelectric
cooler.

The phase transition of SrS from NaCl structure (B1) to CsCl
structure (B2) is investigated by means of ab initio plane-wave
pseudopotential density functional theory, and the thermodynamic
properties of the B1 and the B2 structures are obtained through the
quasi-harmonic Debye model. It is found that the transition phase
from the B1 to the B2 structures occurs at 17.9\,GPa, which is in
good agreement with experimental data and other calculated results.
Moreover, the thermodynamic properties (including specific heat
capacity, the Debye temperature, thermal expansion and Gr\"{u}neisen
parameter) have also been obtained successfully.

This paper reports that the GaN thin films with Ga-polarity and high
quality were grown by radio-frequency molecular beam epitaxy on
sapphire (0001) substrate with a double AlN buffer layer. The buffer
layer consists of a high-temperature (HT) AlN layer and a
low-temperature (LT) AlN layer grown at 800\du\ and 600\du,
respectively. It is demonstrated that the HT-AlN layer can result in
the growth of GaN epilayer in Ga-polarity and the LT-AlN layer is
helpful for the improvement of the epilayer quality. It is observed
that the carrier mobility of the GaN epilayer increases from 458 to
858\,cm$^{2}$/V$\cdot $s at room temperature when the thickness of
LT-AlN layer varies from 0 to 20\,nm. The full width at half maximum
of x-ray rocking curves also demonstrates a substantial improvement
in the quality of GaN epilayers by the utilization of LT-AlN layer.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The electronic structures and properties of PuO_{2} and
Pu_{2}O_{3} have been studied according to the first principles
by using the all-electron projector-augmented-wave (PAW) method. The
local density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient
approximation (GGA)+U formalisms have been used to account for the
strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons.
We discuss how the properties of PuO_{2} and Pu_{2}O_{3} are
affected by choosing the values of U and exchange-correlation
potential. Also, the oxidation reaction of Pu_{2}O_{3}, leading
to the formation of PuO_{2}, and its dependence on U and
exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show
that by choosing an appropriate U it is possible to consistently
describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of
PuO_{2} and Pu_{2}O_{3}, which enable the modelling of the
redox process involving Pu-based materials.

A series of Mn-doped ZnO films have been prepared in different
sputtering plasmas by using the inductively coupled plasma enhanced
physical vapour deposition. The films show paramagnetic behaviour
when they are deposited in an argon plasma. The Hall measurement
indicates that ferromagnetism cannot be realized by increasing the
electron concentration. However, the room-temperature ferromagnetism
is obtained when the films are deposited in a mixed argon-nitrogen
plasma. The first-principles calculations reveal that
antiferromagnetic ordering is favoured in the case of the
substitution of Mn$^{2 + }$ for Zn$^{2 + }$ without additional
acceptor doping. The substitution of N for O (N$_{\rm O}^{ - })$ is
necessary to induce ferromagnetic couplings in the Zn-Mn-O system.
The hybridization between N 2p and Mn 3d provides an empty orbit
around the Fermi level. The hopping of Mn 3d electrons through the
empty orbit can induce the ferromagnetic coupling. The
ferromagnetism in the N-doped Zn-Mn-O system possibly originates
from the charge transfer between Mn$^{2 + }$ and Mn$^{3 + }$ via
N$_{\rm O}^{ - }$. The key factor is the empty orbit provided by
substituting N for O, rather than the conductivity type or the
carrier concentration.

In this paper the elastic and thermodynamic properties of the cubic
zinc-blende structure BeS at different pressures and temperatures
are investigated by using \textit{ab initio} plane-wave
pseudopotential density functional theory method within the
generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated results are
in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and
other theoretical results. It is found that the zinc-blende
structure BeS should be unstable above 60GPa. The thermodynamic
properties of the zinc-blende structure BeS are predicted by using
the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The pressure-volume-temperature
($P-V-T$) relationship, the variations of the thermal expansion
coefficient $\alpha$ and the heat capacity $C_{V}$ with pressure $P$
and temperature $T$, as well as the Gr\"{u}neisen
parameter-pressure-temperature ($\gamma -P-T$) relationship are
obtained systematically in the ranges of 0--90GPa and 0--2000K.

Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function and
equation-of-motion technique, this paper investigates the
spin-polarized transport properties of the T-shaped double quantum
dots (DQD) coupled to two ferromagnetic leads. There are both Fano
effect and Kondo effect in the system, and due to their mutual
interaction, the density of states, the current, and the
differential conductance of the system depend sensitively on the
spin-polarized strength. Thus the obtained results show that this
system is provided with excellent spin filtering property, which
indicates that this system may be a candidate for spin valve
transistors in the spintronics.

This paper studies the electronic transport in an individual
helically twisted CdS nanowire rope, on which platinum microleads are
attached by focused-ion beam deposition. The current--voltage ($I-V$)
characteristics are nonlinear from 300 down to 60\,K. Some step-like
structures in the $I-V$ curves and oscillation peaks in the
differential conductance (d$I$/d$V-V$) curves have been observed even
at room temperature. It proposes that the observed behaviour can be
attributed to Coulomb-blockade transport in the one-dimensional CdS
nanowires with diameters of 6--10\,nm.

Using diborane as doping gas, p-doped $\mu $c-Si:H layers are
deposited by using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition
(PECVD) technology. The effects of deposition pressure and plasma
power on the growth and the properties of $\mu $c-Si:H layers are
investigated. The results show that the deposition rate, the
electrical and the structural properties are all strongly dependent
on deposition pressure and plasma power. Boron-doped $\mu $c-Si:H
films with a dark conductivity as high as 1.42\,$\Omega ^{ -
1}\cdot$cm$^{ - 1}$ and a crystallinity of above 50{\%} are obtained.
With this p-layer, $\mu $c-Si:H solar cells are fabricated. In
addition, the mechanism for the effects of deposition pressure and
plasma power on the growth and the properties of boron-doped $\mu
$c-Si:H layers is discussed.

We have studied the far-infrared spectra of two-electron vertically
coupled quantum dots in an axial magnetic field by exact
diagonalization. The calculated results show an obvious difference
in role between the interactions for spin $S=1$ and for spin $S=0$.
The results support the possibility to evaluate the interactions by
far-infrared spectroscopy in vertically coupled quantum dots.

This paper studies systematically the drain current collapse in
AlGaN/GaN metal--oxide--semiconductor high electron mobility
transistors (MOS-HEMTs) by applying pulsed stress to the device.
Low-temperature layer of A1_{2}O_{3} ultrathin film used as both
gate dielectric and surface passivation layer was deposited by
atomic layer deposition (ALD). For HEMT, gate turn-on pulses induced
large current collapse. However, for MOS-HEMT, no significant
current collapse was found in the gate turn-on pulsing mode with
different pulse widths, indicating the good passivation effect of
ALD A1_{2}O_{3}. A small increase in I_{dd} in the drain
pulsing mode is due to the relieving of self-heating effect. The
comparison of synchronously dynamic pulsed I_{dd}-V_{ds}
characteristics of HEMT and MOS-HEMT further demonstrated the good
passivation effect of ALD A1_{2}O_{3}.

A thermal model of 4H-SiC MESFET is developed based on the
temperature dependences of material parameters and three-region $I-V$
model. The static current characteristics of 4H-SiC MESFET have been
obtained with the consideration of the self-heating effect on related
parameters including electron mobility, saturation velocity and
thermal conductivity. High voltage performances are analysed using
equivalent thermal conductivity model. Using the physical-based
simulations, we studied the dependence of self-heating temperature on
the thickness and doping of substrate. The obtained results can be
used for optimization of the thermal design of the SiC-based
high-power field effect transistors.

A dynamic phosphor-silicate glass (PSG) gettering method is proposed
in which the processes of the gettering of Ni by PSG and the
crystallizing of $\al$-Si into poly-Si by Ni take place
simultaneously. The effects of PSG gettering process on the
performances of solution-based metal induced crystallized (S-MIC)
poly-Si materials and their thin film transistors (TFTs) are
discussed. The crystallization rate is much reduced due to the fact
that the Ni as a medium source of crystallization is extracted by the
PSG during crystallization at the same time. The boundary between two
neighbouring grains in S-MIC poly-Si with PSG looks blurrier than
without PSG. Compared with the TFTs made from S-MIC poly-Si without
PSG gettering, the TFTs made with PSG gettering has a reduced gate
induced leakage current.

MgCNi_{3}, an intermetallic compound superconductor with a cubic
perovskite crystal structure, has been synthesized using fine Mg and
Ni powders and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as starting materials by the
conventional powder metallurgy method. The composition,
microstructure and superconductivity are characterized using x-ray
diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), and superconducting quantum interference
device (SQUID) magnetometer. The results indicate that the phases of
the synthesized samples are MgCNi_{3} (major phase) and traces of C
and MgO. The MgCNi_{3} particle sizes range from several hundreds
of nanometres to several micrometres. The onset superconducting
transition temperature T_{c} of the MgCNi_{3} sample is about
7.2\,K. The critical current density J_{c} is about 3.44×10^{4}A/cm^{2} calculated according to the Bean model from the
magnetization hysteresis loop of the slab MgCNi_{3} sample at 5K
and zero applied field.

Superconducting La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} crystals grown by
the travelling-solvent floating-zone technique were thermally treated
under various temperatures and oxygen pressures for moderately
adjusting the oxygen content. The response of intrinsic electronic
property of the crystals to the change of hole density in La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} in the vicinity of the magic doping of x =1/16\ (=0.0625) is studied in detail by magnetic measurements under
various fields up to 1\,T. It is found that when the superconducting
critical temperature (T_{\rm C}) increases with the oxygen content,
there appears also a new subtle electronic state that can be detected
from the differential curves of diamagnetic susceptibility
d$\chi$/d$T$ of the crystal sample. In contrast with the intrinsic
state, the new subtle electronic state is very fragile under the
magnetic fields. Our results indicate that a moderate change in
oxygen doping does not significantly modify the intrinsic electronic
state originally existing at the magic doping level.

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), Ferromagnetic antirresonance (FMAR)
and low field magnetoimpedance (MI) are the characteristic features
of high frequency losses in applied fields. While some results on
FMR and FMAR in CoFeNi electroplated wires were reported earlier,
here we present microwave absorption in CuBe wires electroplated by
1\,$\mu$m FeCoNi magnetic layer at very low fields. These data are
comparatively analysed together with longitudinal hysteresis loops
in order to reveal the correlation between power absorption and
magnetization processes. Microwave studies are made by using the
cavity perturbation method at 9.65\,GHz for a DC field parallel to
the sample axis, and with microwave magnetic field $h_{\rm rf}$
parallel or perpendicular to the wire axis. Two peaks have been
observed in all samples, one is due to FMR, and the other is, at
very low fields, related to MI. The MI peaks represent minima in
power absorption. By comparing with the hysteresis loop we remark
the close correspondence between the MI phenomena in the axial mode
and the concomitant magnetization process.

Dephasing mechanism of quantum tunnelling in molecular magnets has
been studied by means of the spin-coherent-state path integral in a
mean field approximation. It is found that the fluctuating
uncompensated transverse field from the dipolar-dipolar interaction
between molecular magnets contributes a random phase to the quantum
interference phase. The resulting transition rate is determined by
the average tunnel splitting over the random phase. Such a dephasing
process leads to the suppression of quenching due to the quantum
phase interference, and to the steps due to odd resonances in
hysteresis loop survived, which is in good agreement with
experimental observations in molecular nanomagnets Fe_{8} and
Mn$_{12}.$

The structure dependence of exchange bias in
ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayers has been
investigated in detail by extending Slonczewski's `proximity
magnetism' idea. Here three important parameters are discussed for
FM/AF bilayers, i.e. interfacial bilinear exchange coupling $J_{1}$,
interfacial biquadratic (spin-flop) exchange coupling $J_{2}$ and
antiferromagnetic layer thickness $t_{\rm AF}$. The results show that
both the occurrence and the variety of the exchange bias strongly
depend on the above parameters. More importantly, the small
spin-flop exchange coupling may result in an exchange bias without
the interfacial bilinear exchange coupling. However, in general, the
spin-flop exchange coupling cannot result in the exchange bias. The
corresponding critical parameters in which the exchange bias will
occur or approach saturation are also presented.

The films of two $x$-shape oligo(thiophene)s, 3, 4-dibithienyl-2,
5-dithienylthiophene (7T) and 2, 5-dibithienyl-3,
4-ditrithienylthiophene (11T), which are prepared by vacuum
evaporation, have been investigated as novel electron donor layers in
two-layer photovoltaic cells. UV--Vis absorptions show red-shifted
and broadened absorptions of the vacuum-evaporated films as compared
with those of the corresponding solutions and spin-coating films,
which is beneficial for photovoltaic properties. X-ray diffraction
(XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements show
that the vacuum-evaporated films are almost amorphous. Two-layer
photovoltaic cells have been realized by the thermal evaporation of
7T and 11T as donors and $N$, $N'-$bis(1-ethylpropyl)-3,
4:9,10-perylene bis(tetracarboxyl diimide) (EP-PTC) as an acceptor.
An energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of 0.18{\%} of the cell based
on 7T with an irradiation of white light at 100\,mw/cm$^{2}$ has been
demonstrated by the measurements of current ($I$)- voltage ($V$)
curves of the cells to be higher than the ECE of the reference system
based on donor dihexylterthienyl (H3T) that is linear and without
$\alpha $, $\beta $ linkage.

Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and photoreflectance (PR)
spectroscopy are very useful techniques for studying the properties
of materials. In this paper, the same material of Cu-rich
metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown CuGaSe$_{2}$ layer
is investigated in a temperature range from 20 to 300\,K to compare
these two techniques. Both PL and PR spectra appear red shifted, less
intense and broadened. The temperature dependence of interband
transitions is studied by using the Manoogian--Leclerc equation. The
values of the band gap energy at $T$=0\,K and the effective phonon
temperature are estimated. The temperature dependences of intensities
and broadenings of PL and PR spectral lines are also analysed. Based
on the results of the comparison, the features and applications of
the PL and PR can be shown in detail.

3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) is an organic molecule with an excited-stated
intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) effect. All-optical switchings
and beam deflections of 3-HF in three kinds of solvents (cyclohexane,
ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide) have been investigated by using the
third-harmonic generation (355\,nm) of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser as
a pump beam and a continuous-wave (cw) He-Ne laser (632.8\,nm) as a
probe beam. The nonlinear refractive indices of 3-HF in the three
different solvents are determined by using the Z-scan technique under
an ultraviolet (UV) pump beam at a wavelength of 355\,nm. It has been
found that the optical switching and beam deflection effects result
from the change in refractive index of 3-HF under the irradiation of
the pump beam. On the basis of the analyses of absorption spectra and
fluorescence spectra, we conclude that the change in refractive index
of 3-HF is due to not the thermal effect but the ESIPT effect of 3-HF
under the pump beam. As the ESIPT is exceedingly fast, 3-HF might be
an excellent candidate for high-speed optical switching.

Nano-sheet carbon films are prepared on Si wafers by means of
quartz-tube microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) in a
gas mixture of hydrogen and methane. The structure of the fabricated
films is investigated by using field emission scanning electron
microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. These nano-carbon films
are possessed of good field emission (FE) characteristics with a low
threshold field of 2.6\,V/$\mu $m and a high current density of
12.6\,mA/cm$^{2}$ at an electric field of 9\,V/$\mu $m. As the FE
currents tend to be saturated in a high $E$ region, no simple
Fowler--Nordheim (F--N) model is applicable. A modified F--N model
considering statistic effects of FE tip structures and a
space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) effect is applied successfully
to explaining the FE data observed at low and high electric fields,
respectively.

This paper investigates the dependence of current--voltage
characteristics of AlAs/Insub>0.53Ga_{0.47}As/InAs resonant
tunnelling diodes (RTDs) on spacer layer thickness. It finds that the
peak and the valley current density J in the negative differential
resistance (NDR) region depends strongly on the thickness of the
spacer layer. The measured peak to valley current ratio of RTDs
studied here is shown to improve while the current density through
RTDs decreases with increasing spacer layer thickness below a
critical value.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge,
we have made a detailed study of thermal pulse-asymptotic giant
branch (TP-AGB) stars by using a population synthesis code. The
effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the
ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the
Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance
which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood
(close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the
rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large
mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the
number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

In this paper, we use a method to determine some basic parameters for
the $\gamma$-ray loud blazars. The parameters include the central
black mass ($M$), the boosting factor ($\delta$), the propagation
angle (${\it {\it\Phi}}$), the distance along the axis to the site of
the $\gamma$-ray production ($d$). A sample including 32 $\gamma$-ray
loud blazars with available variability time scales has been used to
discuss the above properties. In this method, the $\gamma$-ray
energy, the emission size and the property of the accretion disc
determine the absorption effect. If we take the intrinsic
$\gamma$-ray luminosity to be $\lambda$ times the Eddington
luminosity, i.e. $L_{\gamma}^{\rm in}=\lambda{L_{\rm Edd}}$, then we
have the following results: the mass of the black hole is in the
range of $(0.59-67.99)\times10^{7}M_{\odot} \ (\lambda=1.0)$ or
$(0.90-104.13)\times10^{7}M_{\odot} \ (\lambda=0.1)$; the boosting
factor ($\delta$) in the range of $0.16-2.09(\lambda=1.0)$ or
$0.24-2.86\ (\lambda=0.1)$; the angle (${\it\Phi}$) in the range of
$9.53^{\circ}-73.85^{\circ}\ (\lambda=1.0)$ or
$7.36^{\circ}-68.89^{\circ}\ (\lambda=0.1)$; and the distance
($d/R_{\rm g}$) in the range of $22.39-609.36\ (\lambda=1.0)$ or
$17.54-541.88\ (\lambda=0.1)$.

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