This paper deals with time series of the Yellow River daily
flows at Tongguan hydrological station, from the year 2000 to
2005. Power spectrum analysis and statistical moment scaling
function on a range of scales revealed scaling qualities of the
data. The partition function, which displayed a convex
curvature, and the generalized dimension function showed that
multifractality is presented. The singularity spectrum, which is
single-humped, has shown strong multifractality degree.

This paper presents a discrete variational principle and a method to
build first-integrals for finite dimensional Lagrange--Maxwell
mechanico-electrical systems with nonconservative forces and a
dissipation function. The discrete variational principle and the
corresponding Euler--Lagrange equations are derived from a discrete
action associated to these systems. The first-integrals are obtained
by introducing the infinitesimal transformation with respect to the
generalized coordinates and electric quantities of the systems. This
work also extends discrete Noether symmetries to mechanico-electrical
dynamical systems. A practical example is presented to illustrate the
results.

The EI Ni\~{n}o/La Ni\~{n}a--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an
interannual phenomenon involved in the tropical Pacific
ocean--atmosphere interactions. In this paper, a class of coupled
system of the ENSO mechanism is considered. Based on a class of
oscillator of ENSO model, the asymptotic solution of a corresponding
problem is studied by employing the approximate method. It is proved
from the results that the perturbation method can be used for
analysing the sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial
eastern Pacific and the thermocline depth anomaly of the
atmosphere--ocean oscillation for the ENSO model.

This paper shows that first integrals of discrete equation of motion for
Birkhoff systems can be determined explicitly by investigating the invariance properties of
the discrete Pfaffian. The result obtained is a discrete
analogue of theorem of Noether in the
calculus of variations. An example is given to illustrate
the application of the results.

Though various integrable
hierarchies of evolution equations were obtained by choosing
proper U in zero-curvature equation U_{t}-V_{x}+[U,V]=0, but in this paper, a new integrable hierarchy possessing
bi-Hamiltonian structure is worked out
by selecting V with spectral potentials.
Then its expanding Lax integrable model of the hierarchy possessing a simple
Hamiltonian operator \widetilde{J} is presented
by constructing a subalgebra
\widetilde{G } of the loop algebra \widetilde A_{2}. As
linear expansions of the above-mentioned integrable hierarchy and
its expanding Lax integrable model with respect to their
dimensional numbers, their (2+1)-dimensional forms are derived
from a (2+1)-dimensional zero-curvature equation.

In this paper a type of 9-dimensional vector loop algebra \tilde{F}
is constructed, which is devoted to establish an isospectral problem.
It follows that a Liouville integrable coupling system of the m-AKNS
hierarchy is obtained by employing the Tu scheme, whose Hamiltonian
structure is worked out by making use of constructed quadratic
identity. The method given in the paper can be used to obtain many
other integrable couplings and their Hamiltonian structures.

In this paper Mei symmetry is introduced for a nonconservative system. The necessary and
sufficient condition for a Mei symmetry to be also a Lie symmetry is
derived. It is proved that the Mei symmetry leads to a non-Noether
conservative quantity via a Lie symmetry, and deduces a Lutzky conservative
quantity via a Lie point symmetry.

A general scheme for generating a multi-component
integrable equation hierarchy is proposed. A simple
3M-dimensional loop algebra \tilde{X} is produced. By taking
advantage of \tilde{X}, a new isospectral problem is established
and then by making use of the Tu scheme the multi-component Dirac
equation hierarchy is obtained. Finally, an expanding loop algebra
\tilde{F}_{M} of the loop algebra \tilde{X} is presented. Based
on the \tilde{F}_{M}, the multi-component integrable coupling
system of the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is
investigated. The method in this paper can be applied to other
nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.

The trace identity is extended to the general loop algebra. The
Hamiltonian structures of the integrable systems concerning vector
spectral problems and the multi-component integrable hierarchy can be
worked out by using the extended trace identity. As its
application, we have obtained the Hamiltonian structures of the Yang
hierarchy, the Korteweg-de--Vries (KdV) hierarchy, the
multi-component Ablowitz--Kaup--Newell--Segur (M-AKNS) hierarchy, the
multi-component Ablowitz--Kaup--Newell--Segur Kaup--Newell
(M-AKNS--KN) hierarchy and a new multi-component integrable hierarchy
separately.

This paper presents a modified secure direct communication
protocol by using the blind polarization bases and particles'
random transmitting order. In our protocol, a sender (Alice)
encodes secret messages by rotating a random polarization angle of
particle and then the receiver (Bob) sends back these particles as
a random sequence. This ensures the security of communication.

We present a scheme for realizing probabilistic teleportation of an unknown
$N$-atom state via cavity QED. This scheme requires only a nonmaximally
entangled pair to be used as a quantum channel, so the requirement of
entanglement is reduced. In addition, our scheme does not involve the Bell-state
measurement and is insensitive to the cavity decay, which is important from
the experimental point of view. If the quantum channel is a two-atom
maximally entangled state, teleportation of an unknown $N$-atom state can be
realized by a simpler scheme via cavity QED.

The generation of the entanglement between two two-level atoms
interacting with the third atom driven by white noise is investigated
when the coupling between atoms is modulated by a pulse function.
This paper finds that the initial triggering time and the width of
the pulse can generate a peak in the entanglement. There is an
optimal width of the pulse for which the entanglement can reach a
maximum. The asymmetry of the coupling between atoms can generate
different entanglement in the system. The multiple triggers can
generate multiple peaks in the entanglement. The separation between
two peaks is increased as the width of the pulse is increased.

The E\"{o}tv\"{o}s experiment on the verification of equivalence
between inertial mass and gravitational mass of a body is famous for
its accuracy. A question is, however, can these experimental results
be applied to the case of a physical space in general relativity,
where the space coordinates could be arbitrary? It is pointed out
that it can be validly applied because it has been proven that
Einstein's equivalence principle for a physical space must have a
frame of reference with the Euclidean-like structure. Will claimed
further that such an overall accuracy can be translated into an
accuracy of the equivalence between inertial mass and each type of
energy. It is shown that, according to general relativity, such a
claim is incorrect. The root of this problem is due to an inadequate
understanding of special relativity that produced the famous equation
$E=mc^2$, which must be understood in terms of energy conservation.
Concurrently, it is pointed out that this error is a problem in
Will's book, `Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics'.

This paper proposes a scheme for entanglement
concentration of unknown triparticle $W$ class states with a certain
probability. This protocol is mainly based on the coincidences of
single-photon detectors and requires single-photon detectors and linear
optical elements. The scheme is feasible within current technology.

In this paper, the solution of the time-dependent Fokker--Planck
equation of non-degenerate optical parametric amplification is
used to deduce the condition demonstrating the
Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen (EPR) paradox. The analytics and
numerical calculation show the influence of pump depletion on
the error in the measurement of continuous variables. The
optimum realization of EPR paradox can be achieved by adjusting
the parameter of squeezing. This result is of practical
importance when the realistic experimental conditions are taken
into consideration.

The atomic population oscillations between two Bose--Einstein
condensates with time-dependent nonlinear interaction in a
double-well potential are studied. We first analyse the stabilities
of the system's steady-state solutions. And then in the perturbative
regime, the Melnikov chaotic oscillation of atomic population
imbalance is investigated and the Melnikov chaotic criterion is
obtained. When the system is out of the perturbative regime,
numerical calculations reveal that regulating the nonlinear parameter
can lead the system to step into chaos via period doubling
bifurcations. It is also numerically found that adjusting the
nonlinear parameter and asymmetric trap potential can result in the
running-phase macroscopic quantum self-trapping (MQST). In the
presence of a weak asymmetric trap potential, there exists the
parametric resonance in the system.

This paper presents chaos synchronization between two different
four-dimensional (4D) hyperchaotic Chen systems by nonlinear feedback
control laws. A modified 4D hyperchaotic Chen system is obtained by
changing the nonlinear function of the 4D hyperchaotic Chen system,
furthermore, an electronic circuit to realize two different 4D
hyperchaotic Chen systems is designed. With nonlinear feedback
control method, chaos synchronization between two different 4D
hyperchaotic Chen systems is achieved. Based on the stability theory,
the functions of the nonlinear feedback control for synchronization
of two different 4D hyperchaotic Chen systems is derived, the range
of feedback gains is determined. Numerical simulations are shown to
verify the theoretical results.

This paper presents a novel adaptive control scheme for
synchronization of the latest hyperchaotic Lü system. Based on
the Lyapunov stability theory, a feedback controller and a parameter
update law are designed for the synchronization of hyperchaotic
L\"{u} systems with uncertainty. Numerical simulations are given to
demonstrate the validity of the synchronization technique.

In this paper, the quantum-mechanical photodetachment cross
section of S^{-} in uniform electric and magnetic fields at
arbitrary angles is presented. It compares the
quantum-mechanical cross section with the quantum source
formalism cross section. The results show that at large angle,
the two results have good agreements, however, with the decrease
of the angles, they deviate obviously from each other. The
reasons for this discrepancy are also discussed.

Response of the wave packet of a one-dimensional Coulomb atom
to an intense laser field is calculated using the symmetrized
split operator fast Fourier method. The high-order harmonic
generation (HHG) of the initial state separately being the ground and excited states
is presented. When the hardness parameter \alpha in the soft
Coulomb potential V(x)=-1/\sqrt{x^2+\alpha} is chosen to be small
enough, the so-called hard Coulomb potential
V(x)=-1/|x| can be obtained. It is well known that the hard one-dimensional Coulomb atom
has an unstable ground
state with an energy eigenvalue of $\sim0.5$ and it
has no states corresponding to physical states in the true atoms, and
has the first and second excited states being degenerate. The parity effects on the HHG
can be seen from the first and second excited states of the hard
one-dimensional Coulomb atom. The HHG spectra of the excited states
from both the soft and hard Coulomb atom models are shown to have more
complex structures and to be much stronger than the corresponding
HHG spectrum of the ground state of the soft Coulomb model with
$\alpha=2$ in the same laser field. Laser-induced non-resonant
one-photon emission is also observed.

The accurate dissociation energy and harmonic frequency for the highly
excited 2^{1}\Pi_{u}state of dimer ^{7}Li_{2} have been calculated
using a symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction method in
complete active space. The calculated results are in
excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The potential energy curves at numerous basis sets
for this state are obtained over a wide internuclear separation range from
about 2.4a_{0} to 37.0a_{0}. And the conclusion is gained that the basis
set 6-311++G(d,p) is a most suitable one. The calculated spectroscopic
constants D_{e}, R_{e}, {\omega }_{e}, {\omega }_{e}{\chi }_{e}, {\alpha }_{e} and B_{e} at
6-311++G(d,p) are 0.9670~eV, 0.3125~{nm}, 238.6~{cm}^{-1}, 1.3705~{cm}^{-1},
0.0039~{cm}^{-1} and 0.4921~{cm}^{-1}, respectively. The vibrational levels
are calculated by solving the radial Schr\"{o}dinger equation of nuclear
motion. A total of 53 vibrational levels are found and reported for the first
time. The classical turning points have been computed. Comparing with the
measurements, in which only the first nine vibrational levels have been
obtained so far, the present calculations are very encouraging. A careful
comparison of the present results of
the parameters D_{e} and {\omega }_{e}
with those obtained from previous theories
clearly shows that the present calculations are
much closer to the measurements than previous theoretical results,
thus representing an improvement on the accuracy of the {\it ab initio}
calculations of the potentials for this state.

The density functional theory method (DFT) (b3p86) of Gaussian 03 has
been used to optimize the structure of the Mn_{2} molecule. The
result shows that the ground state of the Mn_{2} molecule is an
11-multiple state, indicating a spin polarization effect in the Mn_{2} molecule, a transition metal element molecule. Meanwhile, we have
not found any spin pollution because the wavefunction of the ground
state does not mingle with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So
the ground state for Mn_{2} molecule being of an 11-multiple state
is the indicative of spin polarization effect of the Mn_{2} molecule
among those in the transition metal elements: that is, there are 10
parallel spin electrons in a Mn_{2} molecule. The number of
non-conjugated electrons is the greatest. These electrons occupy
different spacious orbitals so that the energy of the Mn_{2}
molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of
parallel spin in the Mn_{2} molecule is larger than the effect of
the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of
electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell--Sorbie
potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and
other states of the Mn_{2} molecule are derived. The dissociation
energy
D_{e} for the ground state of the Mn_{2} molecule is 1.4477eV, equilibrium bond
length R_{e} is 0.2506nm, vibration frequency \omega_{e}
is 211.51cm^{-1}.
Its force constants f_{2}, f_{3}, and f_{4} are 0.7240aJ\cdotnm^{-2},
-3.35574aJ\cdotnm^{-3}, 11.4813aJ\cdotnm^{-4}
respectively. The other
spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Mn_{2} molecule
\omega _{e}\chi_{e}, B_{e}, \alpha_{e}
are 1.5301~cm^{-1},
0.0978~cm^{-1}, 7.7825\times 10^{-4}cm^{-1} respectively.

Using the closed orbit theory, we study the classical motion and calculate the
photoabsorption spectra of Rydberg hydrogen atom between two parallel metallic
surfaces. The results show that the metallic surfaces have a significant effect
on the photoabsorption process. When the distances between the hydrogen atom
and the two metallic surfaces are close to a critical value d_{c}, the number
of the closed orbits is the greatest. When the distance larger or smaller
than d_{c}, the number of the closed orbits decreases and the absorption
spectra are shown to exhibit a damping oscillation. This work is an
interesting new application of closed-orbit theory and is of potential
experimental interest.

Absorption spectra for S_{2} clusters (n=2\ldots8) are calculated
using an adiabatic time-dependent density functional formalism within
the local density approximation (LDA). We compare the calculated
spectra with those computed using a simple LDA approach. The
time-dependent LDA (TDLDA) spectra display a significant blue shift
with respect to the LDA spectra. The calculated spectra present a
variety of features that can be used for comparison with future
experimental investigations. We also obtain a significant threshold
absorption, which can distinguish between different ground states of
the sulfur clusters. In addition, the polarizabilities of the
clusters are calculated by using the higher-order finite-difference
pseudopotential density functional method in real space. We find that
the polarizabilities of the clusters considered are higher than the
value estimated from the `hard sphere' model using the bulk static
dielectric constant. The computed polarizabilities per atom tend to
decrease with increasing cluster size. The polarizabilities are
closely related to the HOMO--LUMO gaps and the geometrical
configurations.

This paper proposes a scheme to guide cold polar molecules by using a single charged
wire half embanked in an insulating substrate and a homogeneous bias
electric field, which is generated by a plate capacitor composed of two
infinite parallel metal plates. The spatial distributions of the
electrostatic field produced by the combination of the charged wire and the
plate capacitor and the corresponding Stark potentials (including dipole
forces) for metastable CO molecules are calculated, the relationships
between the electric field and the parameters of our charged-wire layout are
analysed.
It also studies the influences of the insulator on the electric field
distribution and the discharge effect. This study shows that the proposed
scheme can be used to guide cold polar molecules in the weak-field --
seeking
states, and to form various molecule-optical elements, such as molecular
funnel, molecular beam-splitters and molecule interferometer, even to
construct a variety of integrated molecule-optical elements and their
molecule chips.

This paper investigates the control role of the relative phase
between the probe and driving fields on the gain, dispersion and
populations in an open \Lambda system with spontaneously
generated coherence (SGC).
It shows that by adjusting the value of the relative phase,
a change from lasing with inversion to lasing without inversion can be
realized; the values and frequency spectrum regions of the inversionless
gain and dispersion can be obviously varied; high refractive index
with zero absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency can be
achieved. It is also found that when the driving field is resonant, the
shapes of the dispersion and the gain curves versus the probe detuning are
very similar if the relative phase of the dispersion lags \pi/2
than that of the gain, however for the off-resonant driving field the
similarity will disappear; the gain, dispersion and populations are
periodical functions of the relative phase, the modulation period is
always 2\pi; the contribution of SGC to the inversionless gain and
dispersion is much larger than that of the dynamically induced coherence.

Some kinds of low-dimensional nanostructures can be formed by irradiation of
laser on the pure silicon sample and the SiGe alloy sample. This
paper has studied
the photoluminescence (PL) of the hole-net structure of silicon and the
porous structure of SiGe where the PL intensity at 706nm and 725nm
wavelength increases obviously. The effect of intensity-enhancing in the PL
peaks cannot be explained within the quantum confinement alone. A
mechanism for increasing PL emission in the above structures is proposed, in which the
trap states of the interface between SiO_{2} and nanocrystal play an
important role.

This paper reports that the polymer/organic heterojunction doped
light-emitting diodes using a novel poly-TPD as hole transport
material and doping both hole transport layer and emitter layer with
the highly fluorescent rubrene and DCJTB has been successfully
fabricated. The basic structure of the heterostructure is
PTPD/Alq_{3}. When hole transport layer and electron transport layer
are doped simultaneously with different dopant, the
electroluminescence quantum efficiencies are about 3 times greater
than that of the undoped device. Compared with undoped device and
conventional TPD/Alq_{3} diode, the stability of the doping device is
significantly improved. The process of emission for doped device may
include carrier trapping as well as F\"{o}rster energy transfer.

The optic-bound effect on fibre optic gyro (FOG) precision is
analysed theoretically, and formulas describing the change of FOG
light power under the action of optic-bound effect are given. It is
confirmed that optic-bound effect is a main instantaneous
non-reciprocity effect of FOG in addition to the Sagnac effect and
can lead to a dynamic error of FOG in practical environments. An
approach to suppressing or eliminating the error due to the
optic-bound effect is presented and verified experimentally. The
result shows that the approach is valid and the precision of FOG is
improved observably.

Steering light into logic patterns with two-dimensional cascaded
multimode waveguide is demonstrated. By employing the imaging
properties of 2D multimode interference (MMI) and partial phase
modulation method, the design ideas and the implementing methods of
the 2^{(2×2)} bits type spatial logic steering are discussed;
therefore the structure of logical pattern is proposed. Numerical
simulation is carried out to verify the design in detail by using the
beam propagation method. It is expected to realize logic coders by
using the integrated optical methods and exploit their potential
applications in the field of optical logic.

The nonaxisymmetric acousto-electric field excited by
an eccentric acoustic source in the borehole based on Pride seismoelectric
theory is considered. It is shown that the acoustic field inside the borehole,
converted electric and magnetic fields and coupled fields outside the borehole
are composed of an infinitude of multipole fields with different orders.
The numerical results show that
both the electromagnetic waves and the seismoelectric field in the borehole,
and the three components of both electric field and magnetic field
can be detected. Measurements on the borehole axis will be of
advantage to determining shear velocity information. The components
of the symmetric and nonsymmetric acoustic and electromagnetic fields
can be strengthened or weakened by adding or subtracting the two full
waveforms logged in some azimuths. It may be a new method of directly
measuring the shear wave velocity by using the borehole
seismoelectric effect.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

We restudy the master-equation approach to aggregation in
freeway traffic based on the theory of birth--death
process, in which the clustering behaviour in one-lane freeway
traffic model is investigated.
The transition probabilities for the jump processes
are reconstructed by using Greenshields' model, and the equation of
the mean size of the cluster at any time t is derived from the
birth--death equation. Numerical experiments show the clustering
behaviours varying with time very well.

Relaxation oscillations due to plasma instabilities at frequencies
ranging from a few Hz to tens of kHz have been observed in various
types of plasma processing discharges. Relaxation oscillations have
been observed in electropositive capacitive discharges between a
powered anode and a metallic chamber whose periphery is grounded
through a slot with dielectric spacers. The oscillations of
time-varying optical emission from the main discharge chamber show,
for example, a high-frequency (\sim 40~kHz) relaxation
oscillation at 13.33Pa, with an absorbed power being nearly the
peripheral breakdown power, and a low-frequency ( \sim 3 Hz)
oscillation, with an even higher absorbed power. The high-frequency
oscillation is found to ignite plasma in the slot, but usually not in
the peripheral chamber. The kilohertz oscillations are modelled using
an electromagnetic model of the slot impedance, coupled to a circuit
analysis of the system including the matching network. The model
results are in general agreement with the experimental observations,
and indicate a variety of behaviours dependent on the matching
conditions. In low-pressure inductive discharges, oscillations appear
in the transition between low-density capacitively driven and
high-density inductively driven discharges when attaching gases such
as SF_{6} and Ar/SF_{6} mixtures are used. Oscillations of
charged particles, plasma potential, and light, at frequencies
ranging from a few Hz to tens of kHz, are seen for gas pressures
between 0.133 Pa and 13.33 Pa and discharge powers in a range of
75--1200 W. The region of instability increases as the plasma becomes
more electronegative, and the frequency of plasma oscillation
increases as the power, pressure, and gas flow rate increase. A
volume-averaged (global) model of the kilohertz instability has been
developed; the results obtained from the model agree well with the
experimental observations.

A cold and uniform plasma-filled travelling wave tube with
sinusoidally corrugated slow wave structure is driven by a finite
thick annular intense relativistic electron beam with the entire
system immersed in a strong longitudinal magnetic field. By means of
the linear field theory, the dispersion relation for the relativistic
travelling wave tube (RTWT) is derived. By numerical computation, the
dispersion characteristics of the RTWT are analysed in different
cases of various geometric parameters of the slow wave structure and
plasma densities. Also the gain versus frequency for three different
plasma densities and the peak gain of the tube versus plasma density
are analysed. Some useful results are obtained on the basis of the
discussion.

To investigate the imploding characteristics of cylindrical wire
array, experiments with load current varying from 1.5\,MA to 1.7\,MA
were carried out on the Qiangguang-1 facility. The complicated
temporal-spatial distribution of x-ray radiation was measured by the
one-dimensional (1D) x-ray imaging system. Other diagnostic
equipments including the x-ray power meter (XRPM) and the
time-integrated pinhole camera were used to record time-resolved
x-ray power pulse and pinhole x-ray images. Analysis shows that the
fast leading edge of the local x-ray radiation pulse is of primary
importance in sharpening x-ray power pulse rather than the temporal
synchrony and the spatial uniformity of implosion. Experimental
results indicated that the better axial imploding synchrony, the
faster the increase of x-ray power for an array consisting of 32
tungsten wires of 5\mum diameter than for the others, and the
higher the x-ray radiation power with maximal convergence ratio
(r_0/r_1) of 10.5. A `zipper-like' effect of x-ray radiation
extending from the anode to the cathode was also observed.

Pulsed breakdown of dry air at ambient pressure has been investigated
in the point-plane geometry, using repetitive nanosecond pulses with
10 ns risetime, 20--30 ns duration, and up to 100 kV amplitude. A
major concern in this paper is to study the dependence of breakdown
strength on the point-electrode polarity. Applied voltage, breakdown
current and repetitive stressing time are measured under the
experimental conditions of some variables including pulse voltage
peak, gap spacing and repetition rate. The results show that
increasing the E-field strength can decrease breakdown time lag,
repetitive stressing time and the number of applied pulses as
expected. However, compared with the traditional polarity dependence
it is weakened and not significant in the repetitive nanosecond-pulse
breakdown. The ambiguous polarity dependence in the experimental
study is involved with an accumulation effect of residual charges and
metastable states. Moreover, it is suggested that the reactions
associated with the detachment of negative ions and impact
deactivation of metastable species could provide a source of primary
initiating electrons for breakdown.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

In this paper neutron diffraction experiments were performed for Fe-substituted Mn_{12}
in order to determine the sites of Fe atoms. The results of structure
refinements for the sample with our accessed highest Fe content showed that
all Fe atoms occupied Mn(3) sites in the Mn_{12} skeleton. The x-ray
absorption fine structure experiments as well as multiple scattering
simulations gave the same result. Thus we concluded that Fe atoms only
occupied Mn(3) sites. This conclusion also means that Fe-substituted
Mn_{12} series only includes the four single-molecule magnets of [Mn_{12-x}Fe_{x}O_{12}(CH_{3}COO)_{16}(H_{2}O)_{4}]\cdot
2CH_{3}COOH\cdot 4H_{2}O (x = 1, 2, 3, and 4), denoted by
Mn_{11}Fe_{1}, Mn_{10}Fe_{2}, Mn_{9}Fe_{3}, and
Mn_{8}Fe_{4}, respectively.

In this paper the dependence of structural properties of the
quaternary CuIn_{1-x}Ga_{x}Se_{2} films with tetragonal
structure on the Ga content has been systematically investigated
by Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction spectra. The shift of
the dominant A_{x} mode, unlike the lattice constants, does
not follow the linear Vegard law with increasing Ga content x,
whereas exhibits approximately polynomial change from
174\,cm^{-1} for CuInSe_{2} to 185cm^{-1} for
CuGaSe_{2}. Such behaviour should be indicative of presence of
the asymmetric distribution of Ga and In on a microscopic scale
in the films, due to Ga addition. The changes in the tetragonal
distortion \eta lead to a significant variation in the anion
displacement parameter U, which should be responsible for the
evolution of bond parameters and resultant Raman bands with x.

The early stages of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H)
films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition were
characterized by atomic force microscopy. To increase the density of
nanocrystals in the nc-Si:H films, the films were annealed by rapid
thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperatures and then analysed
by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the recrystallization
process of the film was optimal at around 1000℃. The effects
of different RTA conditions on charge storage were characterized by
capacitance--voltage measurement. Experimental results show that
nc-Si:H films obtained by RTA have good charge storage
characteristics for nonvolatile memory.

Microwave characteristics of MgB_{2}/_{2}O_{3}
superconducting thin films were investigated by coplanar resonator
technique. The thin films studied have different grain sizes
resulting from different growth techniques. The experimental results
can be described very well by a grain-size model which combines
coplanar resonator theory and Josephson junction network model. It
was found that the penetration depth and surface resistance of thin
films with smaller grain sizes are larger than those of thin films
with larger grain sizes.

With the multiphase field method, the stability of lamellar basic
state is investigated during the directional solidification of
eutectic alloy CBr_{4}--C_{2}Cl_{6}. A great number of lamellar
patterns observed in experiments are simulated, and a stability
diagram for lamellar pattern selections is presented. The simulated
growth behaviours of these patterns are found to be qualitatively
consistent with Karma \textit{et al}'s numerical calculations and
experimental results. The formation of the primary instability is
attributed to the destabilization of solute boundary layer.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Two kinds of corner effects existing in double-gate (DG) and
gate-all-around (GAA) MOSFETs have been investigated by
three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations. It is
found that the corner effect caused by conterminous gates, which is
usually deemed to deteriorate the transistor performance, does not
always play a negative role in GAA transistors. It can suppress the
leakage current of transistors with low channel doping, though it
will enhance the leakage current at high channel doping. The study of
another kind of corner effect, which exists in the corner at the
bottom of the silicon pillar of DG/GAA vertical MOSFETs, indicates
that the D-top structure with drain on the top of the device pillar
of vertical transistor shows great advantage due to lower leakage
current and better DIBL (drain induced barrier lowering) effect
immunity than the S-top structure with source on the top of the
device pillar. Therefore the D-top structure is more suitable when
the requirement in leakage current and short channel character is
critical.

Usually GaAs/AlGaAs is utilized
as an active layer material in laser diodes operating
in the spectral range of 800--850 nm. In this work, in addition to a
traditional unstrained GaAs/AlGaAs distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode,
a compressively strained InGaAlAs/AlGaAs DFB laser
diode is numerically investigated in characteristic. The simulation results show that the
compressively strained DFB laser diode has a lower transparency carrier
density, higher gain, lower Auger recombination rate, and higher stimulated
recombination rate, which lead to better a device performance, than
the traditional unstrained GaAs/AlGaAs DFB laser diode.

The hot-carrier degradation for 90~nm gate length lightly-doped drain
(LDD) NMOSFET with ultra-thin (1.4~nm) gate oxide under the low gate
voltage (LGV) (at V_{g}=V_{th}, where V_{th} is the
threshold voltage) stress has been investigated. It is found that the
drain current decreases and the threshold voltage increases after the
LGV (V_{g}=V_{th} stress. The results are opposite to the
degradation phenomena of conventional NMOSFET for the case of this
stress. By analysing the gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current
before and after stresses, it is confirmed that under the LGV stress
in ultra-short gate LDD-NMOSFET with ultra-thin gate oxide, the hot
holes are trapped at interface in the LDD region and cannot shorten
the channel to mask the influence of interface states as those in
conventional
NMOSFET do, which leads to the different degradation phenomena from those of the
conventional NMOS devices. This paper also discusses the degradation in the
90~nm gate length LDD-NMOSFET with 1.4~nm gate oxide under the LGV stress at
V_{g}=V_{th} with various drain biases. Experimental results show that
the degradation slopes (n) range from 0.21 to 0.41. The value of
n is
less than that of conventional MOSFET (0.5-0.6) and also that of the long gate
length LDD MOSFET (\sim0.8).

The upper critical field of clean MgB_{2} is investigated
using the two-band layered Ginzburg--Landau (GL) theory. The
calculated results are fitted to the experimental data of clean
MgB_{2} crystal very well in a broad temperature range. Based
on the GL theory for clean superconductors, a phenomenological
theory for dirty superconductor is proposed. Selecting appropriate
parameters, two-band layered GL theory is successfully applied to
the crystal of Mg(B_{1-x}C_{x})_{2} and the neutron
irradiation samples of MgB_{2}.

This paper obtains the energy-spectrum and eigenstate corrections of
two-mode Bose--Einstein condensates (BECs) coupled by quantum
tunnelling
by perturbation method in both strong and weak tunnelling
regions. The population imbalance between two BECs are then studied
in terms of the low-lying eigenstates which also characterize the
intrinsic entanglement between the two-mode BECs. The strong parity
effect in the weak tunnelling region is also investigated.

This paper reports that the transient laser-induced voltages have been observed in La_{2/3}Ca_{1/3}MnO_{3} thin films on MgO (001) in the absence of an applied current. A
peak voltage of \sim 0.15 V was detected in response to 0.015 J pulse of
308 nm laser. It is demonstrated that the signal polarity is reversed when
the films are irradiated through the substrate rather than at the air/film
interface. Off-diagonal thermoelectricity may support the inversion of the
signal when the irradiation direction is reversed.

The initial field electron emission degradation behaviour of original
nano-structured sp^{2}-bonded amorphous carbon films has been
observed, which can be attributed to the increase of the work
function of the film in the field emission process analysed using a
Fowler--Nordheim plot. The possible reason for the change of work
function is suggested to be the desorption of hydrogen from the
original hydrogen termination film surface due to field emission
current-induced local heating.For the explanation of the emission degradation behaviour of the
nano-structured sp^{2}-bonded amorphous carbon film, a cluster model
with a series of graphite (0001) basal surfaces has been presented,
and the theoretical calculations have been performed to investigate
work functions of graphite (0001) surfaces with different hydrogen
atom and ion chemisorption sites by using first principles method
based on density functional theory-local density approximation.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Observations of PKS 1510-089 indicate the existence of a deep
flux minimum with a timescale of \sim 35 min and an interval of about
336±14 d. A binary black hole system is proposed to be at
the nucleus of this object. The secondary black hole orbits around
the primary black hole. The minimum is caused by the periodic
eclipse of the primary black hole by the secondary black hole.
Based on the observations of PKS 1510-089, we estimate the
parameters of the binary black hole system. The masses for the primary and secondary
black holes are 1. 37×10^{9}M_{\odot} (M_{\odot} is the solar mass)
and 1. 37 \times 10^{7}M_{\odot} ,
and the major axis for this pair being about 0.1 parsec(pc).

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