A time-delay sea--air oscillator coupling model is studied. Using
Mawhin's continuation theorem, the result on the existence of
periodic solutions for the sea--air oscillator model is obtained.

The purpose of this paper is to study the solution of the celebrated
Whittaker equations by using analytical mechanics methods, including
the Lagrange--Noether method, Hamilton--Poisson method and potential
integral method.

In this paper, we have introduced a shell-model of Kraichnan's passive
scalar problem. Different from the original problem, the prescribed
random velocity field is non-Gaussian and $\delta$ correlated in
time, and its introduction is inspired by She and L\'{e}v\^{e}que (Phys. Rev. Lett.
{\bf 72}, 336 (1994)). For comparison, we also give the passive
scalar advected by the Gaussian random velocity field. The
anomalous scaling exponents $H(p)$ of passive scalar advected by
these two kinds of random velocities above are determined for
structure function with values of $p$ up to 15 by Monte Carlo simulations of the
random shell model, with Gear methods used to solve the stochastic
differential equations. We find that the $H(p)$ advected by
the non-Gaussian random velocity is not more anomalous than that
advected by the Gaussian random velocity. Whether the advecting
velocity is non-Gaussian or Gaussian, similar scaling exponents of
passive scalar are obtained with the same molecular diffusivity.

With the help of the time-dependent gauge transformation technique, we have
studied the geometric phase of a spin-half particle in a rotating magnetic
field. We have found that the slow but finite frequency of the rotating
magnetic field will make the difference between the adiabatic geometric phase and
the exact geometric phase. When the frequency is much smaller than the
energy space and the adiabatic condition is perfectly guaranteed, the
adiabatic approximation geometric phase is exactly consistent with the
adiabatic geometric phase. A simple relation for the accuracy of the
adiabatic approximation is given in terms of the changing rate of the frequency of
the rotating magnetic field and the energy level space.

In this paper, we present a two-way quantum dense key distribution protocol.
With double check modes, our scheme is secure regardless of the
presence of noises. And with a quantum teleportation process, secret
message can be encoded deterministically even if the quantum channel is highly
lossy. Therefore, our scheme can be used in a realistic quantum channel
regardless of the presence of noises and channel losses.

This paper presents a scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an
arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum
channel. The sender Alice first teleports the coefficients of the
unknown state to the receiver Bob, and then Bob reconstructs the
state with an auxiliary particle and some unitary operations if the
teleportation succeeds. This scheme has the advantage of
transmitting much less particles for teleporting an arbitrary
GHZ-class state than
others. Moreover, it discusses the application of this
scheme in quantum state sharing.

In this paper, by using properties of quantum controlled-not
manipulation and entanglement states, we have designed a novel (2,
3) quantum threshold scheme based on the Greenberger- Horne
-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. The proposed scheme involves two phases,
i.e. a secret sharing phase and a secret phase. Detailed proofs
show that the proposed scheme is of unconditional security. Since
the secret is shared among three participants, the proposed scheme
may be applied to quantum key distribution and secret sharing.

We propose a scheme for realizing a controlled teleportation of random
$M$-qudit quantum information under the control of $N$ agents. The resource
consumption includes a prearranged $(2M + N + 1)$-qudit entangled quantum
channel and $(2M + N + 1)\log _2 d$-bit classical communication. And the
quantum operations used in the teleportation process are a series of
generalized Bell-state measurements, single-qudit measurements, qudit
$H$-gates, qudit-Pauli gates and qudit phase gates. It is shown that the
original state can be restored by the receiver only on condition that
all the agents work in collaboration with each others.
If one agent does not cooperate with the other, the original
state cannot be fully recovered.

We present a realistic scheme for the entanglement swapping of continuous
variable, in which a two-mode squeezed vacuum state serves as a quantum
channel. The position sum and momentum difference of two local modes are
measured. By taking the input entangled state also as a two-mode squeezed
vacuum state, we investigate the average fidelity and the von Neumann
entropy of the output state. The results show that the
perfect teleportation can be
achieved by increasing the squeezing of the quantum channel and that any
nonzero squeezing in both the quantum channel and the input entangled state
is sufficient to swap the entanglement.

The stability problem of the Rindler spacetime is carefully
studies by using the scalar wave perturbation. Using two different
coordinate systems, the scalar wave equation is investigated. The
results are different in the two cases. They are analysed and
compared with each other in detail. The following conclusions are
obtained: (a) the Rindler spacetime as a whole is not stable; (b) the
Rindler spacetime can exist stably only as part of the Minkowski
spacetime, and the Minkowski spacetime can be a real entity
independently; (c) there are some defects for the scalar wave
equation written by the Rindler coordinates, and it is unsuitable for
the investigation of the stability properties of the Rindler
spacetime. All these results may shed some light on the stability
properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. It is natural and
reasonable for one to infer that: (a) perhaps the Regge--Wheeler
equation is not sufficient to determine
the stable properties; (b) the Schwarzschild black hole as a whole
might be really unstable; (c) the Kruskal spacetime is stable and can
exist as a real physical entity; whereas the Schwarzschild black hole
can occur only as part of the Kruskal spacetime.

In this paper, we have improved the calculation of the relic
gravitational waves (RGW) in two aspects. First, we investigate the
transfer function by taking into consideration the
redshift-suppression effect, the accelerating expansion effect, the
damping effect of free-streaming relativistic particles, and the
damping effect of cosmic phase transition, and give a simple
approximate analytic expression, which clearly illustrates the
dependence on the cosmological parameters. Second, we develop a
numerical method to calculate the primordial power spectrum of RGW in
a very wide frequency range, where the observed constraints on
$n_{\rm s}$ (the scalar spectral index) and $P_{\rm S}(k_0)$ (the
amplitude of primordial scalar spectrum) and the Hamilton--Jacobi
equation are used. This method is applied to two kinds of
inflationary models, which satisfy the current constraints on $n_{\rm
s}$, $\alpha$ (the running of $n_{\rm s}$) and $r$ (the
tensor--scalar ratio). We plot them in the $r-{\it\Omega}_{\rm g}$
diagram, where ${\it\Omega}_{\rm g}$ is the strength of RGW, and
study their measurements from the cosmic microwave background (CMB)
experiments and laser interferometers.

In this paper, a very simple generalized synchronization method between
different chaotic systems is presented. Only a scalar controller is used in
this method. The method of obtaining the scalar controller from chaotic
systems is established. The sufficient and necessary condition of
generalized synchronization is obtained from a rigorous theory,
and the
sufficient and necessary condition of generalized synchronization is
irrelative to chaotic system itself. Theoretical analyses
and simulation results
show that the method established in this paper is effective.

The dynamical behaviour of the erbium-doped fibre single-ring laser
with an optical delay feedback is discussed. Simulation shows that as
the delay
rate increases, the
lasing light displays period-doubling which leads to chaos and via reverse
period-doubling route returns from chaos to periodic. At a particular delay rate the intermittently chaotic route to chaos is also
observed. The identical synchronization based on
chaos in this ring laser is demonstrated by
numerical simulation.

In this paper, we have developed an algorithm based on singular value
decomposition (SVD) for matrix. And the novel SVD algorithm with normalized
period of cardiac cycles is presented. The results from real
magnetocardiography (MCG) data processing show that the new algorithm is
better than the standard one not only in suppressing noises, but also in
providing high-fidelity MCG signals.

A code has been developed to simulate the neutralization
and grazing process of slow highly charged ion Xe^{q+} on Al(111)
surface under the classical-over-the-barrier model. The image energy gain of
Xe^{q+} ions are calculated and compared with experiment data. The
simulation results of image energy gain are in good agreement with the
experiment data. Meanwhile, in the present work, the reflection coefficient
of incident Xe^{q+} on Al(111) surface as a function of the incidence
angle, energy and charge state is also studied.

Using the time-dependent multilevel approach, we have calculated the
coherent population transfer between the quantum states of potassium
atom by a single frequency-chirped laser pulse. The result shows that
a pair of sequential `broadband' frequency-chirped laser pulses can
efficiently transfer population from the initial state of the ladder
system to the target state. It is also found that the population can
be efficiently transferred to a target state and trapped there by
using an `intuitive' or a `counterintuitive' frequency sweep laser
pulse in the case of `narrowband' frequency-chirped laser pulse. Our
research shows that the complete population transfer is related to
the pulse duration, chirp rate, and amplitude of the laser pulse.

We have observed the dominant wing spectroscopy of energy pooling collision
near the boundary layer involving Cs atoms under the condition of
moderate-to-high optical depths at line-centre. It appears from our experimental
investigations that the energy-pooling fluorescence presents about
16 spectral lines, and all the lines can be assigned to the Cs atomic
transitions. We find that all lines of the energy-pooling
retrofluorescence from the heated Cs atomic vapour cell show two-peak
profiles. In addition, its pumping power linear dependence in the
energy pooling process has been measured and analysed.

Based on NII spectra, some transition probabilities for 2p4f--2p3d
and 2s2p$^2$3d--2s2p$^2$3p are obtained by a semiclassical method.
The results are in good agreement with other measurements and the
data reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
The transition probability for a line of 424.18nm is reported for the
first time. Meanwhile, a feasible method of calculating transition
parameters related to special excited configurations or highly
excited states is provided.

The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been
investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved
electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator
strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d,
4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s $\leftarrow$ 4p of krypton atom have
been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized
oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole
excitations in $5\p \leftarrow 4\p$ are compared with the calculations
of Amusia \it et al. (\it Phys. Rev. A \textbf67
022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and
theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.

Using the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger
equation of a one-dimensional model atom in a two-colour laser field,
we have investigated the effects of the potential models on coherent
control of atomic multiphoton ionization. It is found that the
photoelectron spectra are obviously different for the long-range
(Coulomb-like) and short-range (with no excited bound states)
potential model atoms, which are produced by two-colour coherent
control of atomic multiphoton ionization in a few laser cycles. Our
results indicate that two-colour coherent control of atomic
multiphoton ionization can be observed in simulations, depending on
the choice of the model potentials.

The intramolecular vibrational dynamics due to extremely irrational
couplings is demonstrated by contrast to the resonance couplings, for
the three-mode case of H$_2$O as an example. The extremely
irrational couplings are shown to impose such strong hindrance to
intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) that they act as
barriers. They restrict the direct action/energy transfer between the
two stretching modes, though they allow the transfer between a
stretching and a bending modes. In contrast, the resonance is more
mediated by the bending mode and leads to chaotic IVR. It is also
shown that there is a region in the dynamical space in which
resonance and extremely irrational couplings coexist.

The laser-induced vibrational state-selectivity of product HF in
photoassociation reaction H+F$\rightarrow$HF is theoretically
investigated by using the time-dependent quantum wave packet method.
The population transfer process from the continuum state down to the
bound vibrational states can be controlled by the driving laser. The
effects of laser pulse parameters and the initial momentum of the two
collision atoms on the vibrational population of the product HF are
discussed in detail. Photodissociation accompanied with the
photoassociation process is also described.

The density functional theory (B3LYP, B3P86) and the quadratic
configuration-interaction method including single and double
substitutions (QCISD(T), QCISD) presented in Gaussian03 program
package are employed to calculate the equilibrium internuclear
distance $R_{\rm e}$, the dissociation energy $D_{\rm e }$ and the
harmonic frequency $\omega _{\rm e}$ for the $X{}^{1}\Sigma^{ +
}_{\rm g}$ state of sodium dimer in a number of basis sets. The
conclusion is gained that the best $R_{\rm e}$, $D_{\rm e}$ and
$\omega _{\rm e}$ results can be attained at the
QCISD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level of theory. The potential energy curve at
this level of theory for this state is obtained over a wide
internuclear separation range from 0.16 to 2.0~nm and is fitted to
the analytic Murrell--Sorbie function. The spectroscopic parameters
$D_{\rm e}$, $D_{0}$, $R_{\rm e}$, $\omega _{\rm e}$,
$\omega _{\rm e}\chi _{\rm e}$,
$\alpha _{\rm e}$
and $B_{\rm e}$ are calculated to be 0.7219~eV,
0.7135~eV, 0.31813~nm, 151.63~cm$^{ - 1}$, 0.7288~cm$^{ - 1}$,
0.000729~cm$^{ - 1}$ and 0.1449~cm$^{ - 1}$, respectively, which are in good
agreement with the measurements. With the potential obtained at the
QCISD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level of theory, a total of 63 vibrational
states is found when $J=0$ by solving the radial Schr\"{o}dinger equation
of nuclear motion. The vibrational level, corresponding classical turning
point and inertial rotation constant are computed for each vibrational
state. The centrifugal distortion constants
($D_{\upsilon }\, H_{\upsilon }$,
$L_{\upsilon }$, $M_{\upsilon }$, $N_{\upsilon }$ and $O_{\upsilon })$ are
reported for the first time for the first 31 vibrational states when $J=0$.

Based on the idea of adiabatic evolution, we propose two
probabilistic but simple schemes for generating maximally entangled
states for two distant atoms and concentrating unknown atomic
entangled states. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atoms
have no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous
emission is suppressed. Furthermore, in the two schemes accurate
adjustment of the interaction time is not required.

An analysis is made of the effect of Doppler broadening on gain
without inversion (GWI) from different aspects in a closed
lambda-type three-level system with an incoherent pump. It is shown
that, regardless of the driving field being on resonance or not, for
the counter- or co-propagating of the probe and driving fields (PDF),
GWI does not monotonically decrease or increase with increasing
Doppler width. Except for the case of counter-propagating PDF with
off-resonance driving field, at a suitable Doppler width one can
obtain a gain maximum value much larger than that without Doppler
broadening; especially in the situation of the resonant driving
field, the co-propagating geometry leads to a larger GWI. In
addition, for the counter-propagating geometry, when Doppler width is
larger enough, GWI oscillation occurs, and the oscillation amplitude
and region increase with increasing Doppler width. These conclusions
are very different from that obtained in previous investigation
(Lukin {\it et al}, {\it Laser Phys.} {\bf 6} 436 (1996)).

A scheme is proposed for generating entangled W states with four
cavity modes. In this scheme, we send a V-type three-level atom
through two identical two-mode cavities in succession. After the
atom exits from the second cavity, the four cavity modes are
prepared in the W state. On the other hand we can obtain
three-atom W states by sending three V-type three-level atoms
through a two-mode cavity in turn. The present scheme does not
require conditional measurement, and it is easily generalized to
preparing $2n$-mode W states and $n$-atom W states.

The dressed four- and six-wave mixings in a V-type four-level system
are considered. Under two different dressed conditions, two- and
three-photon resonant Autler--Townes splittings, accompanied by
enhancement and suppression of wave mixing signal, are obtained
analytically. Meanwhile, an electromagnetic induced transparency of
multi-wave mixing is presented, which shows multiple peaks and
asymmetric effects caused by one-photon, two-photon and three-photon
resonances, separately. The slow light propagation multiple region of
multi-wave mixing signal is also obtained.

An intracavity coherent coupling Michelson erbium-doped fibre (EDF)
laser (MCEDFL) is proposed and demonstrated. By using this laser
system, we find a means to obtain a maximum power output at the same
pumping power level. From the experiment based on fibre Bragg
gratings (FBGs) with different reflectivities from 6{\%} to 100{\%},
we find that the reflectivity of the FBG plays a vital role in
improving the performance of the MCEDFL. At the same time, the MCEDFL
with a polarizer can be coherently combined effectively. This type of
system, in principle, is compatible with other more powerful pumping
methods, such as cladding pumping, and brings some novel perspectives
to the realization of high power lasers.

An analytic solution derived by multisection model to the
small-signal frequency response (SSFR) of wavelength conversion based
on cross-gain modulation (XGM) in semiconductor optical amplifiers
(SOAs) is presented. The result contains details that can affect the
characteristics of SSFR significantly more than previous ones.

Dynamics of (1+1)D spatial solitons in a Kerr medium with a
transversely symmetrical refractive index profile is investigated.
Propagation of solitons is analysed theoretically by using an
effective-particle approach. Analytical results show that the soliton
oscillates periodically with a variable acceleration. The expression
of oscillatory period is derived by introducing a concept of `average
acceleration'. Both acceleration and oscillatory period are
determined by the parameters of the input soliton and the waveguide.
Propagations of solitons are simulated numerically and good agreement
is obtained between the theoretical and numerical results.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

In ultra-intense laser--matter interactions, intense electric fields
formed at the rear surface of a foil target may have strong
influences on the motion of energetic electrons, and thereby affect
the electromagnetic emissions from the rear surface, usually ascribed
to transition radiation. Due to the electric fields, transition
radiation occurs twice and bremsstrahlung radiation also happens
because the electrons will cross the rear surface twice and have
large accelerations. In the optic region, transition radiation is
dominant. The radiation spectrum depends on the electric field only
when the electrons are monochromatic, and becomes independent of the
electric field when the electrons have a broadband momentum
distribution. Therefore, in an actual experiment, the electric field
at the rear surface of a foil could not be studied just with the
measurement of optic emissions. In the terahertz region, both
bremsstrahlung and transition radiations should be taken into
account, and the radiation power could be enhanced in comparison with
that without the inclusion of bremsstrahlung radiation. The frequency
at which the maximum terahertz radiation appears depends on the
electric field.

Discharge characteristics have been investigated in different gases
under different pressures using a dielectric barrier surface
discharge device. Electrical measurements and optical emission
spectroscopy are used to study the discharge, and the results
obtained show that the discharges in atmospheric pressure helium and
in low-pressure air are diffuse, while that in high-pressure air is
filamentary. With decreasing pressure, the discharge in air can
transit from filamentary to diffuse one. The results also indicate
that corona discharge around the stripe electrode is important for
the diffuse discharge. The spectral intensity of N$_2^+$ (391.4\,nm)
relative to N$_{2}$ (337.1\,nm) is measured during the transition
from diffuse to filamentary discharge. It is shown that relative
spectral intensity increases during the discharge transition. This
phenomenon implies that the averaged electron energy in diffuse
discharge is higher than that in the filamentary discharge.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

A new phasing procedure has been proposed for dealing with single
isomorphous replacement (SIR) x-ray diffraction data.
The procedure combines {SOLVE/RESOLVE} with the
dual-space fragment extension involving {OASIS}. Two sets of SIR data at
0.28~nm resolution taken from the protein (R)-phycoerythrin (PDB code: 1LIA) were used in
the test. For one of the two SIR data sets, a default run of {SOLVE/RESOLVE} based on the
heavy-atom substructure found by {SHLEXD} led automatically to an interpretable
electron density map. {OASIS} could not effectively improve the result. For the
other set of SIR data, {SOLVE/RESOLVE} resulted in a fragmented model
consisting of 454 of
the total 668 residues, in which only 29 residues were docked into the
sequence. Based on this model, 7 iteration cycles of {OASIS-DM-RESOLVE}
(build only) yielded
automatically a model of 547 residues with 133 residues docked into the
sequence. The overall-averaged phase error decreased considerably and the
quality of electron density map was improved significantly.
Two more cycles of iterative
{OASIS}-{DM}-{RESOLVE} were carried out, in which the output phases and
figures of merit from {DM} were
merged with that from the original run of {SOLVE/RESOLVE} before they were passed onto
{RESOLVE} (build only). This led automatically to a model containing 452 residues
with 173 docked into the sequence. The resultant electron density map is
manually traceable. It is concluded that when results of
{SOLVE/RESOLVE} are not sufficiently satisfactory, the combination of
{SOLVE/RESOLVE} and {OASIS}-{DM}-{RESOLVE} (build only) may significantly improve
them.

The heteroepitaxial growth of multilayer Cu/Pd(100) thin film via
pulse laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature is simulated by
using kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method with realistic physical
parameters. The effects of mass transport between interlayers, edge
diffusion of adatoms along the islands and instantaneous deposition
are considered in the simulation model. Emphasis is placed on
revealing the details of multilayer Cu/Pd(100) thin film growth and
estimating the Ehrlich--Schwoebel (ES) barrier. It is shown that the
instantaneous deposition in the PLD growth gives rise to the
layer-by-layer growth mode, persisting up to about 9 monolayers (ML)
of Cu/Pd(100). The ES barriers of $0.08\pm0.01$\,eV is estimated by
comparing the KMC simulation results with the real scanning
tunnelling microscopy (STM) measurements.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7}(YBCO) thin films have been prepared by
thermal coevaporation on LaAlO_{3}(LAO) substrates, and
Tl_{2}Ba_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}(TBCCO) thin films are synthesized
by magnetron sputtering method on LAO substrates. The transition
temperature T_{c} is 90\,K for YBCO/LAO and 104\,K for
TBCCO/LAO. Microwave responses of the films are studied
systematically by coplanar resonator technique. Energy gaps of the
films obtained are {\it\Delta}_{0}=1.04k_{B}T_{c} for YBCO
films and ${\it\Delta}_0=0.84k_{B}T_{c} for TBCCO films by
analysing the temperature dependence of resonant frequencies of
coplanar resonator. Penetration depth at 0\,K \lambda _{0}=198nm
for YBCO films and \lambda_{0} =200nm for TBCCO films could also
be obtained by using the weak coupling theory and two fluid theory.
Results of penetration depth and energy gap confirm the weak coupling
properties of the films. In addition, microwave surface resistances
R_{s} of YBCO/LAO and TBCCO/LAO are also investigated by
analysing the quality factor and insert loss of the coplanar
resonator. Surface resistance of TBCCO/LAO is less than that of
YBCO/LAO, so that TBCCO/LAO films may have more potential
applications.

The local crystal structures and electronic structures of
LiM_{x}Fe_{1-x}PO_{4} $(M$ = Co, Ni, Rh) are studied through
first-principles calculations. The lattice constants and unit cell
volumes are smaller for the Co and Ni doped materials than for pure
LiFePO$_{4}$, while larger than for the Rh doped material. The local
structures around $M$ atoms in the doped materials are studied in
details. The total density of states (DOS) and atomic projected DOS
(PDOS) are all calculated and analysed in detail. The results give a
reasonable prediction to the improvement of electronic conductivity
through Fe-site doping in LiFePO_{4} material.

The lattice parameter, bulk modulus and pressure derivative of
BeB_{2} are calculated by using the Cambridge Serial Total Energy
Package (CASTEP) program in the frame of density function theory.
The calculated results agree well with the average experimental data
and other theoretical results. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye
model, the dependences of the normalized lattice parameters $a/a_{0,
}c/c_{0} and the normalized primitive cell volume $V/V_{0} on
pressure $P$, the variation of the thermal expansion coefficient
$\alpha $ with pressure $P$ and temperature $T$, as well as the
dependences of the heat capacity C_{V} on pressure $P$ and
temperature $T$ are obtained systematically.

The coherent exciton plays an important role in the photosynthetic
primary process, and its functions are deeply dependent on the
orientation arrangements of local transition dipole moments (TDMs).
We theoretically and systematically study the physical property of
the coherent exciton at different orientation arrangements of the
local TDMs in circular light-harvesting (LH) complexes. Especially,
if the orientation arrangements are different, the delocalized TDMs
of the coherent excitons and the energy locations of the optically
active coherent excitons (OACEs) can be obviously different, and
then there are more manners to capture, store and transfer light
energy in and between LH complexes. Similarly, if the orientation
arrangements are altered, light absorption and radiative intensities
can be converted fully between the OACEs in the upper and lower
coherent exciton bands, and then the blue and red shifts of the
absorption and radiative bands of the pigment molecules can occur
simultaneously at some orientation arrangements. If the systems are
in the vicinities of the critical orientation arrangements, the weak
static disorder or small thermal excitation can destroy the coherent
electronic excitations, and then the coherent exciton cannot exist
any more.

A 2D electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon interaction Hamiltonian is
derived and used to calculate the ground-state energy of the acoustic
polarons in two dimensions. The numerical results for the
ground-state energy of the acoustic polarons in two and three
dimensions are obtained. The 3D results agree with those obtained by
using the Feynman path-integral approach. It is found that the
critical coupling constant of the transition from the quasifree state
to the self-trapped state in the 2D case is much smaller than in the
3D case for a given cutoff wave-vector. The theory has been used to
judge the possibility of the self-trapping for several real
materials. The results indicate that the self-trappings of the
electrons in AlN and the holes in AlN and GaN are expected to be
observed in 2D systems.

Many mechanical problems can be induced from differential equations
with boundary conditions; there exist analytic and numerical methods
for solving the differential equations. Usually it is not so easy
to obtain analytic solutions. So it is necessary to give numerical
solutions. The reproducing kernel particle (RKP) method is based on
the Garlerkin Meshless method. According to the Sobolev space and
Fourier transform, the RKP shape function is mathematically proved in
this paper.

We extend the Blonder, Tinkham and Klapwijk (BTK) theory to the study
of the coexistence between ferromagnetism and s-wave
superconductivity in ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. It
is found that the ferromagnetism and s-wave superconductivity can
coexist near the F/S interface, which is induced by proximity
effects. On the F side, the density of states (DOS) exhibits some
superconducting-like properties, and it displays a damped oscillation
from `0' to `$\pi$' states with increasing either the thickness of F
film or the exchange energy. We also study the influences of the
spin-polarized exchange splitting in the F and the spin-degeneracy by
Rashba spin--orbit coupling (RSOC) in the two-dimensional electron
gas (2DGE) on the proximity effects. It is shown that the case of
Rashba spin-degeneracy is very different from that of the
spin-polarized exchange splitting.

This paper detailedly studies the transmission probability, the spin
polarization and the conductance of the ballistic electron in a
nanostructure with the periodic magnetic-electric barriers. These
observable quantities are found to be strongly dependent not only on
the magnetic configuration, the incident electron energy and the
incident wave vector, but also on the number of the periodic
magnetic-electric barriers. The transmission coefficient and the spin
polarization show a periodic pattern with the increase of the
separation between two adjacent magnetic fields, and the resonance
splitting increases as the number of periods increases. Surprisingly,
it is found that a polarization can be achieved by spin-dependent
resonant tunnelling in this structure, although the average magnetic
field of the structure is zero.

We propose in this paper that a dual waveguide coupled by a finite
barrier be able to serve as an energy filter under a perpendicular
magnetic field. In the waveguide direction, the conductance exhibits
a periodic square-wave pattern in which the miniband is controlled
by the magnetic and potential modulation. The electrons with
energies in the miniband can completely transfer along one waveguide
while the other electrons undergo filtration. Compared with the
coupled waveguide without magnetic modulation, the structure under
magnetic field is found to be a good directional coupler. By
adjusting the potential barrier and magnetic field, the electrons
input from one port of waveguide can transfer to any other ports.

On the basis of quantization of charge, the loop equations of quantum
circuits are investigated by using the Heisenberg motion equation for
a mesoscopic dissipation transmission line. On the supposition that
the system has a symmetry under translation in charge space, the
quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum in the mesoscopic
transmission line are given by solving their eigenvalue equations.
Results show that the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum
are not only related to the parameters of the transmission line, but
also dependent on the quantized character of the charge obviously.

The quantization scheme of a double-qubit structure with
superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is given.
By introducing unitary matrices and using spectral
decompositions, the Hamiltonian operator of the system is
exactly formulated in compact forms in spin-1/2 notation. A
scheme of designing controlled-phase-shift (CPS) gates is also
proposed by using this circuit system.

The shallow trench isolation (STI) induced mechanical stress
significantly affects the CMOS device off-state leakage behaviour. In
this paper, we designed two types of devices to investigate this
effect, and all leakage components, including sub-threshold leakage
($I_{\rm sub})$, gate-induced-drain-leakage ($I_{\rm GIDL})$, gate
edge-direct-tunnelling leakage ($I_{\rm EDT})$ and
band-to-band-tunnelling leakage ($I_{\rm BTBT})$ were analysed. For
NMOS, $I_{\rm sub}$ can be reduced due to the mechanical stress
induced higher boron concentration in well region. However, the GIDL
component increases simultaneously as a result of the high well
concentration induced drain-to-well depletion layer narrowing as well
as the shrinkage of the energy gap. For PMOS, the only mechanical
stress effect on leakage current is the energy gap narrowing induced
GIDL increase.

Polycrystalline thick film of zinc oxide (ZnO) is grown on a unique
silicon substrate with a hierarchical structure, silicon nanoporous
pillar array (Si-NPA), by using a vapour phase transport method. It
is found that as-grown ZnO film is composed of closely packed ZnO
crystallites with an average size of $\sim$$10\,\mu$m. The film
resistivity of ZnO/Si-NPA is measured to be
$\sim$$8.9\Omega\cdot$\,cm by the standard four probe method. The
lengthwise $I$-$V$ curve of ZnO/Si-NPA heterostructure is measured.
Theoretical analysis shows that the carrier transport across
ZnO/Si-NPA heterojunction is dominated by two mechanisms, i.e. a
thermionic process at high voltages and a quantum tunnelling process
at low voltages.

The behaviours of three types of hot-hole injections in ultrashort
channel lightly doped drain (LDD) nMOSFETs with ultrathin oxide
under an alternating stress have been compared. The three types of
hot-hole injections, i.e. low gate voltage hot hole injection
(LGVHHI), gate-induced drain leakage induced hot-hole injection
(GIDLIHHI) and substrate hot-hole injection (SHHI), have different
influences on the devices damaged already by the previous hot
electron injection (HEI) because of the different locations of
trapping holes and interface states induced by the three types of
injections, i.e. three types of stresses. Experimental results show
that GIDLIHHI and LGVHHI cannot recover the degradation of electron
trapping, but SHHI can. Although SHHI can recover the device's
performance, the recovery is slight and reaches saturation quickly,
which is suggested here to be attributed to the fact that trapped
holes are too few and the equilibrium is reached between the
trapping and releasing of holes which can be set up quickly in the
ultrathin oxide.

A junction composed of ultrathin La_{0.9}Ca_{0.1}MnO_{3 + \delta} (LCMO) film and 1 wt.{\%} Nb-doped SrTiO$_{3}$ was fabricated and
its magnetoresistance (MR) was studied and compared with LCMO film.
It was found that the resistance of the junction has a similar
dependence on magnetic field as that of the LCMO film: the curvature
of $R$--$H$ curves is upward above Curie temperature ($T_{\rm C}$)
and downward below $T_{\rm C}$. These behaviours strongly suggest
that the rotation of ferromagnetic clusters in manganite also causes
MR in the corresponding junction. This MR can be qualitatively
understood by the change of the width of the barrier induced by the
rotation of ferromagnetic clusters. These results suggest a
possibility to obtain junctions with large low-field MR.

Dense nanocrystalline BaTiO_{3} ceramics with a homogeneous
grain size of 30\,nm was obtained by pressure assisted
sintering. The ferroelectric behaviour of the ceramics was
characterized by the dielectric peak at around 120\,\du, the
$P$-$E$ hysteresis loop and some ferroelectric domains. These
experimental results indicate that the critical grain size for
the disappearance of ferroelectricity in nanocrystalline
BaTiO_{3} ceramics fabricated by pressure assisted sintering
is below 30\,nm. The ferroelectric property decreasing with
decreasing grain size can be explained by the lowered
tetragonality and the `dilution' effect of grain boundaries.

Ce^{4+}-doped Ca_{2}SnO$_{4}$ with a one-dimensional
structure, which emits bright blue light, is prepared by using a
solid-state reaction method. The x-ray diffraction results show
that the Ce^{4+} ions doped in Ca$_{2}$SnO$_{4}$ occupy the
Sn^{4+} sites. The excitation and emission spectra of
Ca$_{2}$Sn$_{1-x}$Ce$_{x}$O$_{4}$ appear to have broad bands
with peaks at $\sim$\,268\,nm and $\sim$\,442\,nm, respectively.
A long excited-state lifetime ($\sim$\,83\,$\mu$s) for the
emission from Ca$_{2}$Sn$_{1-x}$Ce$_{x}$O$_{4}$ suggests that
the luminescence originates from a ligand-to-metal Ce^{4+}
charge transfer (CT). The luminescent properties of
Ca$_{2}$Sn$_{1 - x}$Ce$_{x}$O$_{4}$ have been compared with
those of Sr$_{2}$CeO$_{4}$, which is the only material reported
so far to show Ce$^{4 + }$ CT luminescence. More interestingly,
it is observed that the emission intensity of Ca$_{2}$Sn$_{1 -
x}$Ce$_{x}$O$_{4}$ with a small doping concentration (x
$\sim$\,0.03) is comparable to that of Sr$_{2}$CeO$_{4}$ in
which the concentration of active centre is 100{\%}.

Local thermal effect influencing the fluorescence of triply ionized
rare earth ions doped in nanocrystals is studied with laser
spectroscopy and theory of thermal transportation for transparent
oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing nanocrystals. The result shows
that the local temperature of the nanocrystals embedded in glass
matrices is much higher than the environmental temperature of the
sample. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent thermal energy
induced by the light absorption must be considered when the theory of
thermal transportation is applied to the study of local thermal
effect.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

A new improved nuclear partition function is employed to calculate
the nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) in core-collapse supernova
environment. The results show that the change of nucleus abundance
is slight even though the temperature is higher than 10$^{11}$\,K
when shock propagates, which indicates that the effect of the
nuclear partition function is not so important as shown in the
previous calculations, but it can also be considered in detailed
simulation if it is sensitive to weak interaction rates in
core-collapse supernova.

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