The algebraic structure and Poisson's integral theory of mechanico-electrical
systems are studied. The Hamilton canonical equations and generalized Hamilton
canonical equations and their the contravariant algebraic forms for
mechanico-electrical systems are obtained. The Lie algebraic structure and the
Poisson's integral theory of Lagrange mechanico-electrical systems are derived. The
Lie algebraic structure admitted and Poisson's integral theory of the
Lagrange--Maxwell mechanico-electrical systems are presented. Two examples are
presented to illustrate these results.

The Hamilton--Jacobi method for solving ordinary differential equations is presented
in this paper. A system of ordinary differential equations of first order or second
order can be expressed as a Hamilton system under certain conditions. Then the
Hamilton--Jacobi method is used in the integration of the Hamilton system and the
solution of the original ordinary differential equations can be found. Finally, an
example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

In this paper the Lie-form invariance of the non-holonomic systems with
unilateral constraints is studied. The definition and the criterion of the
Lie-form invariance of the system are given. The generalized Hojman
conserved quantity and a new type of conserved quantity deduced from the
Lie-form invariance are obtained. Finally, an example is presented to
illustrate the application of the results.

This paper presents an inverse problem in analytical dynamics. The
inverse problem is to construct the Lagrangian when the integrals of
a system are given. Firstly, the differential equations are obtained
by using the time derivative of the integrals. Secondly, the
differential equations can be written in the Lagrange equations
under certain conditions and the Lagrangian can be obtained.
Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the application of the
result.

In this paper, the definition of three-order form invariance is given. Then
the relation between the three-order form invariance and the three-order Lie
symmetry is discussed and the sufficient and necessary condition of Lie
symmetry, which comes from the three-order form invariance, is obtained.
Finally a three-order Hojman conserved quantity is studied and an example is
given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

A symmetry and a conserved quantity of the Birkhoff system are studied. The
symmetry is called the Birkhoff symmetry. Its definition and criterion are
given in this paper. A conserved quantity can be deduced by using the
symmetry. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

A three- and an (N+1)-party dense coding scheme in the case of non-symmetric
Hilbert spaces of the particles of a quantum channel are investigated by using a
multipartite entangled state. In the case of the (N+1)-party dense coding scheme,
we show that the amount of classical information transmitted from N senders to one
receiver is improved.

We propose a simple experimental scheme in which an unknown two-qubit state
is faithfully and deterministically teleported from Alice to Bob. The scheme
is constructed with four photons from parametric down conversion, linear
optical elements, and conventional photon detectors, all of which are
available in current technology. It is shown that the probability of
successful teleportation ideally reaches 100% based on single-photon
two-qubit-assisted Bell-state measurement, which can distinguish all
four Bell-states simultaneously via conventional photon detectors. By
generalizing the scheme, the teleportation of an unknown multi-qubit system
can also be realized.

Using the generalized Bell states and quantum gates, we introduce a quantum
encryption scheme of d-level states (qudits). The scheme can detect and
correct arbitrary transmission errors using only local operations and
classical communications between the communicators. In addition, the
entanglement key used to encrypt can be recycled. The protocol is
informationally secure, because the output state is a totally mixed one for
every input state \rho .

We present a protocol for multi-party superdense coding
by using multi-atom in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).
It is shown that, with a highly detuned
cavity mode and a strong driving field, the protocol is insensitive
to both cavity decay and thermal field. It is even certain to
identify GHZ states via detecting the atomic states. Therefore we can
realize the quantum dense coding in a simple way in the multiparty
system.

This paper proposes a scheme for information concentration of two remote two-level
atoms in cavity QED. This scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurement. During
the interaction between atom and cavity, the cavity frequency is large-detuned from
the atomic transition frequency, thus the scheme is insensitive to both the cavity
decay and the thermal field. This idea can directly be generalized in the case of
multi-atom information concentration.

In this paper we investigate the dynamics of a test particle in
the gravitational field with a quadrupole. By constructing
Poincaré sections for different values of the parameters and
initial conditions, we find a chaotic evolution. From these
Poincaré sections, we further confirm that the chaotic
evolution of the test particle originates from the quadrupole.

Extending Parikh's semi-classical quantum tunnelling model, this paper has studied
the Hawking radiation of the charged particle via tunnelling from the horizon of the
axisymmetric Sen black hole. Different from the uncharged massless particle, the
geodesics of the charged massive particle tunnelling from the horizon is not
light-like. The derived result supports Parikh's opinion and provides a correct
modification to Hawking strictly thermal spectrum developed by the fixed background
space-time and not considering the energy conservation and the self-gravitation
interaction.

An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain
L\"{u} system is proposed. Since the uncertain L\"{u} system is minimum
phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the
essential conditions are studied by which uncertain L\"{u} system could be
equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using
passive theory, the uncertain L\"{u} system could be globally asymptotically
stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.

Based on the mechanism for the generation of chaos in a buck converter, a pole
placement method is proposed and applied to controlling the chaos in a circuit.
The control circuit is designed and tested. Numerical calculation and
circuit implementation demonstrate the validity of this chaos control
method.

Energy transfers in two kinds of peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2) of
{Rhodobacter sphaeroides} (RS) 601 are studied by using femtosecond pump--probe
spectroscopy with tunable laser wavelength at room temperature. These two complexes
are native LH2 (RS601) and green carotenoid mutated LH2 (GM309). The obtained
results demonstrate that, compared with spheroidenes with ten conjugated double
bonds in native RS601, carotenoid in GM309 containing neurosporenes with nine
conjugated double bonds can lead to a reduction in energy transfer rate in the
B800-to-B850 band and the disturbance in the energy relaxation processes within the
excitonic B850 band.

For weakly absorbing materials, image contrast can be enhanced by
phase contrast in formation. The effectiveness of the in-line phase
contrast technique relies on its ability to record intensity data
which contain information on the x-ray's phase shift. Four kinds of
approaches to the relationship between intensity distribution and
phase shift are reviewed and discussed. A micro-focal x-ray source
with high geometrical magnification is used to acquire phase
contrast images. A great improvement on image quality is shown and
geometrical parameters are modified for comparison between different
imaging positions.

An isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamical model (IQMD) is developed, with the
isospin degree of freedom in the momentum-dependent interaction(MDI) included in
IQMD, to obtain an isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction (IMDI) in IQMD. We
investigate the effect of IMDI on the isospin fractionation ratio and its dynamical
mechanism in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. It is found that the IMDI
induces the significant reductions in the isospin fractionation ratio for all of
beam energies, impact parameters, neutron--proton ratios and mass number of
colliding systems. However, the strong dependence of isospin fractionation ratio on
the symmetrical potential is preserved, with the isospin degree of freedom included
in the MDI, i.e. the isospin fractionation ratio is still a good probe for
extracting the information about the equation of state of isospin asymmetrical
nuclear matter.

We have established a caesium double magneto-optical trap (MOT) system for
cavity-QED experiment, and demonstrated the continuous transfer of cold caesium
atoms from the vapour-cell MOT with a pressure of ～ 1×10^{-6} Pa to
the ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) MOT with a pressure of ～ 8×10^{-8} Pa via a
focused continuous-wave transfer laser beam. The effect of frequency detuning as
well as the intensity of the transfer beam is systematically investigated, which
makes the transverse cooling adequate before the atoms leak out of the vapour-cell
MOT to reduce divergence of the cold atomic beam. The typical cold atomic flux got
from vapour-cell MOT is ～2×10^{7} atoms/s. About 5×10^{6}
caesium atoms are recaptured in the UHV MOT.

In this paper a possible mechanism of current in medium is presented. Comparison
between this current and the magnetization current was made. Expression for this
current was derived. This work is helpful to understanding the interaction between
medium and electromagnetic wave.

In this paper based on the equivalence principle and the reciprocity theorem, the
scattered field up to second-order by two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in
a Gaussian beam is considered. The first-order solution can easily be obtained by
calculating the scattered field from isolated targets when illuminated by a Gaussian
beam. However, because of the difficulty in formulating the couple scattering field,
it is almost impossible to find an analytical solution for the second-order
scattered field if the shapes of 2D targets are not canonical geometries. In order
to overcome this problem, in this paper, the second-order solution is derived by
using the technique based on the reciprocity theorem and the equivalence principle.
Meanwhile, the relation between the secondary scattered field from target #1 and
target {\#}2 is obtained. Specifically, the bi- and mono-static scattering of
Gaussian beam by two parallel adjacent inhomogeneous plasma-coated conducting
circular cylinders is calculated and the dependence of attenuation of the scattering
width on the thickness of the coated layer, electron number density, collision
frequency and radar frequency is discussed in detail.

This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in
terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the
relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is
characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It
shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the
characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd
coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of
teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum
distance function.

Negative-index refraction is demonstrated in a lamellar composite with
epsilon-negative (ENG) and mu-negative (MNG) materials stacked alternatively. Based
on the effective medium approximation, simultaneously negative effective
permittivity and permeability of such a lamellar composite are obtained
theoretically and further proven by full-wave simulations. Consequently, the
renowned left-handed metamaterial comprising split ring resonators and wires is
interpreted as an analogy of such ENG--MNG layers. In addition, beyond the
effective medium approximation, the propagating field squeezed near the ENG/MNG
interface is demonstrated to be left-handed surface waves with backward phase
velocity.

Based on the analysis of spectrum characteristics of intensity fluctuations while
light beams pass through stack gas flow in an industrial setting, this paper puts
emphasis upon discussing the spectrum of optical intensity fluctuations by the
variety of particle concentration in stack gas flow. This paper also gives the
primary theoretical explanation of the measurement results in the stack of
coal-fired utility boilers. Meanwhile, the cross-correlation formula is given as the
theoretical basis of velocity measurement by using particle concentration
scintillation.

The recording density of multilevel photochromic memory is limited
by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the readout signal. In this
paper, shot noise and material noise are investigated through
theoretical analysis of SNR. When the bandwidth of a system is less
than 1MHz, the material noise takes a prominent position; when the
bandwidth of the system is more than 10MHz, the shot noise becomes
dominant. The thickness of recording layer can be optimized to
maximize the SNR and reduce the influence of the bandwidth of the
system on SNR.

The advantages of read-only storage is the predominance of optical recording
relative to magnetic and other rewritable methods. Multilevel (ML) read-only
technology has been a trend to improve the data capacity and transfer rate. Based on
the principle and coding method of ML, this paper demonstrates some ML read-only
recording methods, of which a new ML read-only recording is developed. This
recording method integrates amplitude modulation achieved by the reaction mechanism
of physics and chemistry of photoresist with the run-length-limited technology. The
discs can be achieved using standard photoresist mastering and replication
techniques with great compatibility to conventional binary read-only discs.

This paper proposes a scheme for entanglement swapping based on cavity
QED. The two atoms to be entanglement-swapped can be separated
over long distance. The scheme is a non-post-selection one with
the success probability of 1/2.

A simple three-level system is proposed to produce high index of refraction with
zero absorption in an Er^{3+}-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) crystal,
which is achieved for a probe field between the excited state ^{4}I_{13/2}
and ground state ^{4}I_{15/2} by adjusting a strong coherent driving field
between the upper excited state ^{4}I_{11/2} and ^{4}I_{15/2}. It is
found that the changes of the frequency of the coherent driving field and the
concentration of Er^{3+} ions in the YAG crystal can maximize the index of
refraction accompanied by vanishing absorption. This result could be useful for the
dispersion compensation in fibre communication, laser particle acceleration, high
precision magnetometry and so on.

Taking into account oxidation temperature, N_{2} carrier gas flow, and the
geometry of the mesa structures this paper investigates the characteristics of
selective oxidation during the fabrication of the vertical cavity surface emitting
laser (VCSEL) in detail.
Results show that the selective oxidation follows a
law which differs from any reported in the literature. Below 435℃
selective oxidation of Al_{0.98}Ga_{0.02}As follows a linear growth law for the
two mesa structures employed in VCSEL. Above 435℃ approximately increasing
parabolic growth is found, which is influenced by the geometry of the mesa
structures. Theoretical analysis on the difference between the two structures for
the initial oxidation has been performed, which demonstrates that the geometry of
the mesa structures does influence on the growth rate of oxide at higher
temperatures.

We present a theoretical model to analyse the propagation of a Gaussian laser beam
through double-sided nonlinear media. This model is based on the Huygens--Fresnel
diffraction integral method. This theoretical model is not only consistent
with the cascade structure model for a small nonlinear phase-shift but also can be
used for a large nonlinear phase-shift. It has been verified that it is suitable to
characterize the double-sided nonlinear media compared with the cascade structure
model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the results from the
theoretical model is obtained. It will be useful for the design of multi-sided
nonlinear materials.

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and BaTiO_{3} composite films have been prepared by
pulsed-laser deposition technique at room temperature and high temperature of
600℃, separately. The structures of the composite films are investigated by
using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The optical behaviours of
the samples produced at different temperatures are compared with Raman spectroscopy,
and UV-visible absorption. And the observation by Z-scan technique reveals that
the composite films have a larger optical nonlinearity, and the samples prepared at
high temperatures have better transmittance and opposite sign imaginary part of
optical third-order nonlinearity.

Chirped fibre Bragg gratings (CFBGs) are required to be concatenated to compensate
the fibre dispersion in the dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) systems.
When the channel spacing is small, the performance of CFBGs is degraded, which
restricts the usage of fibre gratings. The origin of the interactions between the
gratings is analysed and methods of suppressing the interactions are also proposed.

A modified alternating direction implicit algorithm is proposed to solve the
full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method formulation based
on $H$ fields. The cross-coupling terms are neglected in the first sub-step, but
evaluated and doubly used in the second sub-step. The order of two sub-steps
is reversed for each transverse magnetic field component so that the
cross-coupling terms are always expressed in implicit form, thus the
calculation is very efficient and stable. Moreover, an improved six-point
finite-difference scheme with high accuracy independent of specific
structures of waveguide is also constructed to approximate the
cross-coupling terms along the transverse directions. The imaginary-distance
procedure is used to assess the validity and utility of the present method.
The field patterns and the normalized propagation constants of the
fundamental mode for a buried rectangular waveguide and a rib waveguide are
presented. Solutions are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results from
the modal transverse resonance method.

In this paper, the linear propagation characteristics of the exponential optical
pulse with initial linear and nonlinear frequency chirp are numerically studied in a
single mode fibre for \be_{2}<0. It can be found that the temporal full width at
half maximum and time-bandwidth product of exponential pulse monotonically increase
with the increase of propagation distance and decrease with the increase of linear
chirp C for C<0.5, go through an initial decreasing stage near \zeta=1, then
increase with the increase of propagation distance and linear chirp C for
C\geq0.5. The broadening of pulses with negative chirp is faster than that with
positive chirp. The exponential pulse with linear chirp gradually evolves into a
near-Gaussian pulse. The effect of nonlinear chirp on waveform of the pulse is much
greater than that of linear chirp. The temporal waveform breaking of exponential
pulse with nonlinear chirp is first observed in linear propagation. Furthermore, the
expressions of the spectral width and time-bandwidth product of the exponential
optical pulse with the frequency chirp are given by use of the numerical analysis
method.

In this paper, a refractive index profile design enabling us to obtain a flat modal
field around the fibre centre is investigated. The theoretical approach for
designing such multilayer large flattened mode (LFM) optical fibres is presented. A
comparison is made between the properties of a three-layer LFM structure and a
standard step-index profile with the same core size. The obtained results indicate
that the effective area of the LFM fibre is about twice as large as that of the
standard step-index fibre, but the LFM fibre has less effective ability to filter
out the higher order modes than the standard step-index fibre with the same bending
radius.

Based on a better understanding of the lattice vibration modes, two simple
spring--mass models are constructed in order to evaluate the frequencies on both the
lower and upper edges of the lowest locally resonant band gaps of the ternary
locally resonant phononic crystals. The parameters of the models are given in a
reasonable way based on the physical insight into the band gap mechanism. Both the
lumped-mass methods and our models are used in the study of the influences of
structural and the material parameters on frequencies on both edges of the lowest
gaps in the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. The analytical evaluations
with our models and the theoretical predictions with the lumped-mass method are in
good agreement with each other. The newly proposed heuristic models are helpful for
a better understanding of the locally resonant band gap mechanism, as well as more
accurate evaluation of the band edge frequencies.

To investigate the reliability of electrode materials for chalcogenide
random access memory (C-RAM) applications, the geometry and time evolution
of the worm-like delamination patterns on a tungsten/Sb$_{2}$Te$_{3}$
bilayer system surface are observed by field emission scanning electronic
microscope (FESEM) and optical microscopy. The tungsten film stress and
interface toughness are estimated using a straight-side model. After
confirming the instability of this system being due to large compressive stress
stored in the tungsten film and relative poor interface adhesion, a
preliminary solution as the inset of a TiN adhesion layer is presented to
improve the system performances.

By coupling the non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme for boundary condition with the
multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, this paper finds that the stability
of the multi-relaxation-time model can be improved greatly, especially on
simulating high Reynolds number (Re) flow. As a discovery, the super-stability
analysed by Lallemand and Luo is verified and the complex structure of the cavity
flow is also exhibited in our numerical simulation when Re is high enough. To the
best knowledge of the authors, the maximum of Re which has been investigated by
direct numerical simulation is only around 50,000 in the literature; however,
this paper can readily extend the maximum to 1000,000 with the above combination.

The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical study of the aerosol penetration
through an electret fibrous filter, using a numerical approach. The aerosol sizes
considered in this study were in the submicron range, and in the numerical model,
the conventional mechanical mechanisms (impaction, interception, diffusion and
gravitationally settling) were taken into consideration along with the electrostatic
mechanisms, including the Coulombic and dielectrophoretic effects. The aerosol
penetration through an electret fibrous filter is heavily dependent on the aerosol
penetration of a single fibre. The aerosol penetration through a single electret
fibre under various filtration conditions was calculated. The effects of aerosol
diameter, aerosol and fibre charge state, face velocity, packing density and aerosol
dielectric constant on the aerosol penetration were investigated.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

This paper proposes a method for calculating the Landau damping of a low-energy
collective mode in a harmonically trapped Bose--Einstein condensate. Based on the
divergence-free analytical solutions for ground-state wavefunction of the condensate
and eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for thermally excited quasiparticles, obtained
beyond Thomas--Fermi approximation, this paper calculates the coupling matrix
elements describing the interaction between the collective mode and the
quasiparticles. With these analytical results this paper
evaluates the Landau damping rate of a monopole mode in a spherical
trap and discusses its dependence on temperature, particle number
and trapping frequency of the system.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The paper reports that HfTiO dielectric is deposited by reactive co-sputtering of Hf
and Ti targets in an Ar/O_{2} ambience, followed by an annealing in different gas
ambiences of N_{2}, NO and NH_{3} at 600℃ for 2 min.
Capacitance--voltage and gate-leakage properties are characterized and compared. The
results indicate that the NO-annealed sample exhibits the lowest interface-state and
dielectric-charge densities and best device reliability. This is attributed to the
fact that nitridation can create strong Si \equiv \!\!\equivN bonds to passivate
dangling Si bonds and replace strained Si--O bonds, thus the sample forms a hardened
dielectric/Si interface with high reliability.

Thermo-luminescence (TL) is a kind of luminescence decay measured with
varying temperature. In the process of TL the decay parameter itself
involves the temperature effect of traps. Thus the trap depth is inseparable
from the decay parameter. There are two separate peaks in the TL curve of
ZnS:Cu,Co if the measurement starts from liquid nitrogen temperature. In the
experiment we started from zero Celsius temperature to isolate the deeper
traps. We have proposed and realized three methods for simultaneous
determination of trap depth and decay parameter based on the
quasi-equilibrium model and experimental data. If we treat the case of
kinetic order \alpha =1 as \alpha =2, the error might be as large as
100%.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

This paper reports the fabrication and test of a high-T_{c} SQUID planar
gradiometer which is patterned from YBCO thin film deposited on a SrTiO\xj{3}
bicrystal substrate. The measurement of noise spectrum at 77K shows that the white
noise at 200 Hz is about 1×10^{-4}{\Phi_{0}/\sqrt Hz. The
minimal magnetic gradient is measured and the results suggest that the minimal
magnetic gradient is 94 pT/m. The planar gradiometer is used in non-destructive
evaluation (NDE) experiments to detect the artifacts in conducting aluminium plates
by performing eddy current testing in an unshielded environment. The effect of the
exciting coil dimension on the NDE results is investigated. By mapping out the
induced field distribution, flaws about 10mm below the plate surface can be clearly
identified.

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