Single-particle microbeam is uniquely capable of precisely delivering a preset number of charged particles to individual cells or sub-cellular targets to be determined in vitro. It is crucial to find a reference point that relates the microbeam's location to the microscope's plane, and align
individual targets at this reference point for cell irradiation. To choose an appropriate reference point, an approach based on analysing the intensity distribution of fluorescence in a thin scintillator excited by traversing particles is newly developed using the CAS-LIBB single-particle microbeam,which features decisive physical signification and sufficient resolution. As its bonus, this on-line analysis provides precise and fast response to the determination of beam profile and potentially optimizes the microbeam quality by further adjusting hardware setup.

New forms of different-periodic travelling wave solutions for the
(2+1)-dimensional Zakharov--Kuznetsov (ZK) equation and the
Davey--Stewartson (DS) equation are obtained by the linear
superposition approach of Jacobi elliptic function. A sequence of
cyclic identities plays an important role in these procedures.

A class of coupled system for the El Ni\~{n}o--Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
mechanism is studied. Using the method of variational iteration for
perturbation theory, the asymptotic expansions of the solution for ENSO
model are obtained and the asymptotic behaviour of solution for corresponding
problem is considered.

We propose a scheme for teleportation of an unknown $N$-atom state
using a two-atom entangled state within a cavity QED and show the
feasibility in experiment. Our scheme does not involve the
Bell-state measurement and is insensitive to the cavity decay, which
is important from the experimental point of view. Another feature of
the scheme is that teleporting a N-atom state just requires a small
amount of entanglement (i.e. a two-atom entangled state) and
less classical bits (two bits).

Quantum entanglement and quantum nonlocality of N-photon entangled states |\psi_{N m}\rangle
=C_{m}[\cos\gamma|N-m\rangle_{1}|m\rangle_{2} +\e^{{\i\θm}}\sin\gamma|m\rangle_{1}|N-m\rangle_{2}] and their superpositions are studied. We point out that the relative
phase θ_{m} affects the quantum nonlocality but not the quantum
entanglement for the state |\psi_{N m}\rangle. We show that
quantum nonlocality can be controlled and manipulated by adjusting
the state parameters of |\psi_{N m}\rangle, superposition
coefficients, and the azimuthal angles of the Bell operator. We
also show that the violation of the Bell inequality can reach its
maximal value under certain conditions. It is found that quantum
superpositions based on |\psi_{N m}\rangle can increase the
amount of entanglement, and give more ways to reach the maximal
violation of the Bell inequality.

According to the railway transportation system's characteristics, a new
cellular automaton model for the single-line railway system is presented in
this paper. Based on this model, several simulations were done to imitate
the train operation under three working diagrams. From a different angle the
results show how the organization of train operation impacts on the railway
carrying capacity. By using the non-parallel train working diagram the
influence of fast-train on slow-train is found to be the strongest. Many
slow-trains have to wait in-between neighbouring stations to let the
fast-train(s) pass through first. So the slow-train will advance like a wave
propagating from the departure station to the arrival station. This also
resembles the situation of a highway jammed traffic flow. Furthermore, the
nonuniformity of travel times between the sections also greatly limits the
railway carrying capacity. After converting the nonuniform sections into the
sections with uniform travel times while the total travel time is kept
unchanged, all three carrying capacities are improved greatly as shown by
simulation. It also shows that the cellular automaton model is an effective
and feasible way to investigate the railway transportation system.

Surface cell Madelung constant is firstly defined for calculating the
surface free energy of nanosized crystal grains, which explains the physical
performance of small crystals and may be greatly beneficial to the analysis
of surface states and the study of the dynamics of crystal nucleation and
growth. A new approximative expression of the surface energy and relevant
thermodynamic data are used in this calculation. New formula and computing
method for calculating the Madelung constant α of any complex
crystals are proposed, and the surface free energies and surface
electrostatic energies of nanosized crystal grains and the Madelung constant
of some complex crystals are theoretically calculated in this paper. The
surface free energy of nanosized-crystal-grain TiO_{2} and the surface
electrostatic energy(absolute value) of nanosized-crystal-grain α
-Al_{2}O_{3} are found to be the biggest among all the crystal grains
including those of other species.

The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with hydrogen clusters
has been experimentally studied. The hydrogen clusters were produced from
expansion of high-pressure hydrogen gas (backed up to 8\tm10^{6}Pa) into vacuum
through a conical nozzle cryogenically cooled by liquid nitrogen. The
average size of hydrogen clusters was estimated by Rayleigh scattering
measurement and the maximum proton energy of up to 4.2keV has been obtained
from the Coulomb explosion of hydrogen clusters under 2×10^{16} W/cm^{2} laser irradiation. Dependence of the maximum proton energy on cluster size and laser intensity was
investigated, indicating the correlation between the laser intensity and the
cluster size. The maximum proton energy is found to be directly proportional
to the laser intensity, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

The positive z direction relative light extraction efficiency of GaN
light-emitting diodes with microstructure slab is calculated by
three-dimensional finite-difference
time-domain method, where the microstructure slab consists of a graphite
lattice of pillars. The
results show that the two-dimensional
graphite-arranged pillars suppress light extraction. When there is a thick
pillar in the middle of the pillars, the structure can enhance light
extraction of the light-emitting diodes. The tower-like pillars, which are
thin on the top of the pillars and thick on the bottom of the pillars,
benefit the light extraction when the angle of the tower-like pillars is
proper.

This paper investigates the influences of phase shift on superresolution
performances of annular filters.
Firstly, it investigates the influence of phase shift on axial
superresolution.
It proves theoretically that axial superresolution can not
be obtained by two-zone phase filter with phase shift π, and it
gets the
phase shift with which axial superresolution can be brought by two-zone
phase filter. Secondly, it studies the influence of phase shift on transverse
superresolution. It finds that the three-zone phase filter with arbitrary phase
shift has an almost equal optimal transverse gain to that of commonly used
three-zone phase filter, but can produce a much higher axial
superresolution gain. Thirdly, it investigates the influence of phase shift on
three-dimensional superresolution. Three-dimensional
superresolution capability and design margin of three-zone complex filter
with arbitrary phase shift are obtained, which presents the theoretical
basis for three-dimensional superresolution design. Finally, it
investigates the
influence of phase shift on focal shift. To obtain desired focal shifts,
it
designs a series of three-zone phase filters with different phase shifts. A
spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to implement the designed filters. By
regulating the voltage imposed on the SLM, an accurate focal shift control
is obtained.

In this paper, a new method is proposed to generate broad supercontinuum
(SC) spectra in the single-mode optical fibre with concave dispersion
profile. We numerically simulate pulse evolutions and discuss physics
mechanism in detail for SC spectrum generation in the optical fibre with
concave dispersion profile. Furthermore, general criteria are presented for
specifying the shape of SC spectrum by introducing normalized parameters,
which are related to the fibres and the initial pump pulses. The results
show that the flat and broad SC spectra are indeed generated in our proposed
optical fibre.

This paper theoretically studies the effects of the vacuum-induced coherence
on one- and two-photon absorption in a four-level atomic medium.
It finds that the one- and two-photon absorption and amplification
properties are quite sensitive to the vacuum-induced coherence. It
is also shown that the one- and two-photon absorption spectra can
be dramatically affected by modulating the relative phase of the
applied fields. With the proper choice of the relative phase, the
amplification without inversion for the probe field can be
realized.

Anomalous long-time increase of the diffraction efficiency is observed in
dark-decay experiments of photorefractive gratings in Ce:BaTiO_{2}. It is
deduced that a phase-conjugate beam is induced by the writing beam at acute
angle to the +c axis of the crystal and it interferes with the other writing
beam to form a second grating which is perpendicular to the first grating
formed by the interference between two writing beams. The rising behaviour of
the diffraction efficiency results from the different decay rates of
these two photorefractive gratings. Furthermore, a simplified model of two
gratings, both induced by two deep traps, is proposed to account for this
phenomenon and the fitting results agree well with the experimental results.

Two basic types of depolarization mechanisms, carrier-carrier (CC)
and carrier-phonon (CP) scattering, are investigated in optically
excited bulk semiconductors (3D), in which the existence of the
transverse relaxation time is proven based on the vector property
of the interband transition matrix elements. The dephasing rates
for both CC and CP scattering are determined to be equal to one half
of the total scattering-rate-integrals weighted by the factors
(1-\cos\chi), where \chi are the scattering angles. Analytical
expressions of the polarization dephasing due to CC scattering are
established by using an uncertainty broadening approach, and
analytical ones due to both the polar optical-phonon and non-polar
deformation potential scattering (including inter-valley
scattering) are also presented by using the sharp spectral functions
in the dephasing rate calculations. These formulas, which reveal
the trivial role of the Coulomb screening effect in the
depolarization processes, are used to explain the experimental
results at hand and provide a clear physical picture that is
difficult to extract from numerical treatments.

The three-photon absorption (3PA) properties of two thiophene-fluorene
derivatives (abbreviated as MOTFTBr and {ATFTBr}) have been determined by using a
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pumped with 38ps pulses at 1064nm in DMF. The
measured 3PA cross-sections are 152\times 10^{-78}cm^{6}s^{2} and
139\times 10^{-78}cm^{6}s^{2}, respectively. The optimized
structures were obtained by AM1 calculations and the results indicate that
these two molecules show nonplanar structures, and attaching different
donors has different effects on the molecular structure. The charge density
distributions during the excitation were also systematically studied by
using AM1 method. In addition, an obvious optical power limiting effect
induced by 3PA has been demonstrated for both derivatives.

This paper studies the random internal wave equations describing the
density interface
displacements and the velocity potentials of N-layer stratified fluid
contained between two rigid walls at the top and bottom. The
density interface displacements and the velocity potentials were solved to
the second-order by an expansion approach used by Longuet-Higgins (1963) and
Dean (1979) in the study of random surface waves and by Song (2004) in the
study of second-order random wave solutions for internal waves in a
two-layer fluid. The obtained results indicate that the first-order
solutions are a linear superposition of many wave components with different
amplitudes, wave numbers and frequencies, and that the amplitudes of
first-order wave components with the same wave numbers and frequencies
between the adjacent density interfaces are modulated by each other. They
also show that the second-order solutions consist of two parts: the first
one is the first-order solutions, and the second one is the solutions of the
second-order asymptotic equations, which describe the second-order nonlinear
modification and the second-order wave--wave interactions not only among the
wave components on same density interfaces but also among the wave
components between the adjacent density interfaces. Both the first-order and
second-order solutions depend on the density and depth of each layer. It is
also deduced that the results of the present work include those derived by
Song (2004) for second-order random wave solutions for internal waves in a
two-layer fluid as a particular case.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

In this paper we report a new method to fabricate nanostructured films.
La_{0.67}Ca_{0.33}MnO_{3} (LCMO) nanostructured films have been
fabricated by using pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) on anodized
aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. The magnetic and electronic transport
properties are investigated by using the Quantum Design physics properties
measurement system (PPMS) and magnetic properties measurement system
(MPMS). The resistance peak temperature (T_{p}) is about 85\,K and the Curie
temperature (T_{c} is about 250\,K for the LCMO film on an AAO membrane
with a pore diameter of 20\,nm. Large magnetoresistance ratio (MR) is
observed near T_{p}. The MR is as high as 85% under 1\,T magnetic field.
The great enhancement of MR at low magnetic fields could be attributed to
the lattice distortion and the grain boundary that are induced by the
nanopores on the AAO membrane.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Cr-doped CdS nanowires were synthesized in large scale through thermal
co-evaporation of CdS and metal Cr powders. General morphology, detailed
microstructure and optical properties were characterized using various
techniques. Devices consisting of individual Cr-doped CdS nanowire were
fabricated and they exhibited remarkable rectifying characteristics.
I-V curves of individual Cr-doped CdS nanowire devices demonstrate that the
present nanowires are n-type doped and have high conductivity (10.96 \Omega
^{-1}cm^{-1}, indicating great potential applications in nanoscale
electronic and optoelectronic devices.

The dendrite growth and solute microsegregation of Fe-C
binary alloy are simulated during solidification process by using cellular
automaton method. In the model the solid fraction is deduced from the
relationship among the temperature, solute concentration and curvature of
the solid/liquid interface unit, which can be expressed as a quadric
equation, instead of assuming the interface position and calculating the
solid fraction from the interface velocity. Then by using this model a dendrite
with 0 and 45 degree of preferential growth direction are simulated
respectively. Furthermore, a solidification microstructure and solute
microsegregation are simulated by this method. Finally, different
Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and liquid solute diffusing coefficient are
adopted to investigate their influences on the morphology of dendrite.

The hardening of the buried oxide (BOX) layer of separation by implanted
oxygen (SIMOX) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers against total-dose irradiation
was investigated by implanting ions into the BOX layers. The tolerance to
total-dose irradiation of the BOX layers was characterized by the
comparison of the transfer
characteristics of SOI NMOS transistors before and after irradiation to
a total dose of 2.7
Mrad(SiO_{2}. The experimental results show that the implantation of
silicon ions into the BOX layer can improve the tolerance of the BOX layers
to total-dose irradiation. The investigation of the mechanism of the
improvement suggests that the deep electron traps introduced by silicon
implantation play an important role in the remarkable improvement in
radiation hardness of SIMOX SOI wafers.

The stability and electronic structure of hypothetical InN nanotubes were
studied by first-principles density functional theory. It was found that the
strain energies of InN nanotubes are smaller than those of carbon nanotubes
of the same radius. Single-wall zigzag InN nanotubes were found to be
semiconductors with a direct band gap while the armchair counterparts
have an indirect band gap. The band gaps of nanotubes decrease with
increasing diameter,
similar to the case of carbon nanotubes.

The transition phase of GaAs from the zincblende (ZB)
structure to the rocksalt (RS) structure is investigated by ab initio plane-wave
pseudopotential density functional theory method, and the thermodynamic
properties of the ZB and RS structures are obtained through the
quasi-harmonic Debye model. It is found that the transition from the ZB
structure to the RS structure occurs at the pressure of about 16.3\,GPa,
this fact is well consistent with the experimental data and other theoretical results. The
dependences of the relative volume V/V_{0} on the pressure P, the Debye
temperature \Th and specific heat C_{V} on the pressure P, as well as
the specific heat C_{V} on the temperature T are also obtained
successfully.

The processes of multilayer thin Cu films grown on Cu (100) surfaces at
elevated temperature (250--400\,K) are simulated by mean of kinetic Monte
Carlo (KMC) method, where the realistic growth model and physical parameters
are used. The effects of small island (dimer and trimer) diffusion,
edge diffusion along the islands, exchange of the adatom with an atom in the
existing island, as well as mass transport between interlayers are included
in the simulation model. Emphasis is placed on revealing the influence of
the Ehrlich--Schwoebel (ES) barrier on growth mode and morphology during
multilayer thin film growth. We present numerical evidence that the ES
barrier does exist for the Cu/Cu(100) system and an ES barrier $E_{\rm
B} >0.125$\,eV is estimated from a comparison of the KMC simulation with
the realistic experimental images. The transitions of growth modes with
growth conditions and the influence of exchange barrier on growth mode
are also investigated.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The method of numerical simulation is used to fit the relationship between
the photoconductivity in films and the illumination time. The generation and
process rule of kinds of different charged defect states during illumination
are revealed. It is found surprisingly that the initial photoconductivity
determines directly the total account of photoconductivity degradation of
sample.

Molecular dynamic simulations based on a coarse-grained, bead-spring model
are adopted to investigate the spreading of both nonfunctional and
functional perfluoropolyether (PFPE) on solid substrates. For nonfunctional
PFPE, the spreading generally exhibits a smooth profile with a precursor
film. The spreading profiles on different substrates are compared, which
indicate that the bead-substrate interaction has a significant effect on the
spreading behaviour, especially on the formation of the precursor film. For
functional PFPE, the spreading generally exhibits a complicated terraced
profile. The spreading profiles with different endbeads are compared, which
indicate that the endbead-substrate interaction and the endbead--endbead
interaction, especially the latter, have a significant effect on the
spreading behaviour.

The single-particle Green's function for a dc-biased superlattices
with single impurity potential varying harmonically with time has
been obtained in the framework of U(t,t') method and
Floquet--Green's function. The calculation of the local density of
states shows that new states will emerge between the resonant
Wannier--Stark states as a result of the intervention of
time-dependent impurity potential, and the increase in electric field
strength of impurity will result in the growing of the number of
new states between the gaps of neighbouring Stark ladders.

We have calculated the transport properties of electron through an
artificial quantum dot by using the numerical renormalization group
technique in this paper. We obtain the conductance for the system of
a quantum dot which is embedded in a one-dimensional chain in zero
and finite temperature cases. The external magnetic field gives rise
to a negative magnetoconductance in the zero temperature case. It
increases as the external magnetic field increases. We obtain the
relation between the coupling coefficient and conductance. If the
interaction is big enough to prevent conduction electrons from
tunnelling through the dot, the dispersion effect is dominant in this
case. In the Kondo temperature regime, we obtain the conductivity of
a quantum dot system with Kondo correlation.

The NBTI degradation phenomenon and the role of hydrogen during NBT stress
are presented in this paper. It is found that PBT stress can recover a
fraction of V_{th} shift induced by NBTI. However, this recovery is
unstable. The original degradation reappears soon after reapplication of the NBT
stress condition. Hydrogen-related species play a key role during a device's NBT
degradation. Experimental results show that the diffusion species are
neutral, they repassivate Si dangling bond which is independent of the gate
voltage polarity. In addition to the diffusion towards gate oxide, hydrogen
diffusion to Si-substrate must be taken into account for it also has
important influence on device degradation during NBT stress.

Fast photoelectric effects have been observed in MgB_{2} thin film
fabricated by chemical vapour deposition. The rise time was $\sim $10
ns and the full width at half-maximum was \sim185\,ns for the photovoltaic
pulse when the film was irradiated by a 308\,nm laser pulse of 25\,ns in
duration. X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope revealed
that the film was polycrystalline with preferred c-axis orientation. We
propose that nonequilibrium electron--hole pairs are excited in the grains
and grain boundary regions for MgB_{2} film under ultraviolet laser and
then the built-in electric field near the grain boundaries separates
carriers, which lead to the appearance of an instant photovoltage.

Within the framework of the effective-field theory with self-spin correlations
and the differential operator technique, the ground state magnetizations of
the biaxial crystal field spin system on the honeycomb lattices have been
studied. The influences of the biaxial crystal field on the magnetization in
the ground state have been investigated in detail.

The unit cell volume and phase transition temperature of
LaFe_{11.4}Al_{1.6}C_{x} compounds have been studied. The
magnetic entropy change, refrigerant capacity and the type of magnetic
phase transition are investigated in
detail for LaFe_{11.4}Al_{1.6}C_{x} with x=0.1. All the
LaFe_{11.4}Al_{1.6}C_{x} (x=0--0.8) compounds have the cubic
NaZn_{13}-type
structure. The addition of carbon atoms brings about a considerable
increase in
the lattice parameter. The bulk
expansion results in the change of phase transition temperature ($T_{\rm c})$.
T_{c} increases from 187\,K to 269\,K with x
varying from 0.1 to 0.8. Meanwhile an increase in the lattice parameter can
also cause a change of the
magnetic ground state from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic.
Large magnetic entropy change \vert \Delta S\vert is
found over a large temperature range around T_{c} and the refrigerant
capacity is about 322J/kg for LaFe_{11.4}Al_{1.6}C_{0.1}.
The magnetic phase transition belongs in weakly first-order one for x=0.1.

We have studied the transport property of the composites
(La_{0.83}Sr_{0.17} MnO_{3})_{1-x}(ITO)_{x}
[ITO=(In_{2}O_{3})_{0.95} (SnO_{2})_{0.05}], which were fabricated
by mechanically mixing La_{0.83}Sr_{0.17} MnO_{3} and ITO grains. A
giant positive magnetoresistance (PMR) has been observed above the Curie
temperature T_{c} for samples with x around 0.40, in addition to
the negative
magnetoresistance related to spin-dependent interfacial tunnelling below
T_{c}. For (La_{0.83}Sr_{0.17}MnO_{3})_{0.6}(ITO)_{0.4}, the
magnetoresistive ratio for the PMR can reach 39.3% under a magnetic field
H=2.24\tm10^{5}A/m. Theoretical analysis suggests that the
magnetic-field-induced
broadening of the p--n barrier between both kinds of grains and
the density of the p--n heterostructures should be responsible for the
PMR behaviour.

Raman spectra of ceramic Sr_{2}Bi_{4}Ti_{5}O_{18} (SBTi5) are
reported to consist of four different Raman bands.Temperature-dependent spectra reveal the relationship between the lattice vibration and the material's structure. There appears a relatively large change in structure of the material at about 273K.The anharmonic potential of the material has a great influence on its phonon mode full width at half maximum (FWHM), which can be expressed by a
function of temperature. Theoretical fittings of the FWHMs for the two modes at around 312\,cm^{-1} and 464\,cm^{-1} indicate that the latter phonon
mode is more anharmonic than the former one.

The microstructure and optical absorption of Au--MgF_{2}
nanoparticle cermet films with different Au contents are studied. The
microstructural analysis shows that the films are mainly composed of the
amorphous MgF_{2} matrix with embedded fcc Au nanoparticles with a mean
size of 9.8--21.4nm. Spectral analysis suggests that the surface plasma
resonance (SPR) absorption peak of Au particles appears at \lambda
=492--537nm. With increasing Au content, absorption peak intensity
increases, profile narrows and location redshifts. Theoretical absorption
spectra are calculated based on Maxwell-Garnett theory and compared with
experimental spectra.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

In this paper, an analogue correction method of errors (ACE) based on a
complicated atmospheric model is further developed and applied to numerical
weather prediction (NWP). The analysis shows that the ACE can effectively
reduce model errors by combining the statistical analogue method with the
dynamical model together in order that the information of plenty of
historical data is utilized in the current complicated NWP model. Furthermore,
in the ACE, the differences of the similarities between different historical
analogues and the current initial state are considered as the weights for
estimating model errors. The results of daily, decad and monthly prediction
experiments on a complicated T63 atmospheric model show that the performance
of the ACE by correcting model errors based on the estimation of the errors
of 4 historical analogue predictions is not only better than that of the
scheme of only introducing the correction of the errors of every single
analogue prediction, but is also better than that of the T63 model.

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