This paper deals with the robust passivity synthesis problem for a class of uncertain linear systems with time-varying delay in state and control input. The parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded
and allowed to appear in all matrices of the model. The problem aims at designing an observer-based dynamic output-feedback controller that robustly stabilizes the uncertain systems and achieves the strict passivity of closed-loop systems for all admissible uncertainties. By converting the problem at hand into a class of strictly passive control problem for a parameterized system, the explicit solution is established and expressed in terms of a linear matrix inequality. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

The El Ni\~{n}o/La Ni\~{n}a Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an interannual phenomenon involved in the tropical Pacific ocean--atmosphere interactions. In this paper, a coupled system of sea--air
oscillator model is studied. The aim is to create an asymptotic solving method of nonlinear equation for the ENSO model. And based on a class of oscillators of ENSO model, employing the method of homotopic mapping, the approximate solution of corresponding problem is studied. It is proven from
the results that the homotopic method can be used for analysing the sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the thermocline depth anomaly of the atmosphere--ocean oscillation for ENSO model.

A differential equation of first order can be expressed by the equation of motion of a mechanical system. In this paper, three methods of analytical mechanics, i.e. the Hamilton--Noether method, the
Lagrange--Noether method and the Poisson method, are given to solve a differential equation of first order, of which the way may be called the mechanical methodology in mathematics.

By means of a Painlev\'{e}--B\"{a}cklund transformation and a multi-linear separation-of-variable approach, abundant localized coherent excitations of a modified Broer--Kaup system are derived. There appear possible phase shifts for the interactions of the (2+1)-dimensional novel localized structures, which are discussed in this paper.

The explicit expressions of energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of bound
states for a three-dimensional diatomic molecule oscillator with a
hyperbolic potential function are obtained approximately by means of the
hypergeometric series method. Then for a one-dimensional system, the
rigorous solutions of bound states are solved with a similar method. The
eigenfunctions of a one-dimensional diatomic molecule oscillator, expressed
in terms of the Jacobi polynomial, are employed as an orthonormal basis set,
and the analytic expressions of matrix elements for position and momentum
operators are given in a closed form.

We study analytically the generation of maximally
entangled states (MESs) formed by a two-component Bose--Einstein condensate
(BEC) trapped in an adiabatically driven single potential well. Under the condition of
the linear interaction controlled by a driven field being much stronger than
the effective nonlinear interaction between the components, MESs, as some
particular cases of superpositions of spin coherent states (SSCS), may emerge
periodically along with not only time evolution but also the equidifferent
change of the linear coupling strength at a particular time.

By taking the energy conservation and angular momentum conservation into
account, the characteristics of the quantum-tunnelling radiation of
Einstein--Maxwell--Dilaton--Axion black hole are studied and the result shows
that the tunnelling rate of such a black hole is relevant to
Bekenstein--Hawking entropy and that the obtained radiation spectrum is not
pure thermal.

The energy of the stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell dilation--axion (EMDA) black hole is studied in the context of the Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalence of general relativity (TEGR).The energy expression for the finite and arbitrary space-like two spheres
is exactly computed by means of the integral form of the constraint equations of the formalism naturally without any restriction on the metric parameters. We also show that our results give the same values obtained by other methods for some special cases.

A new kind of generalized reduced-order synchronization of different chaotic
systems is proposed in this paper. It is shown that dynamical evolution of
third-order oscillator can be synchronized with the canonical projection of
a fourth-order chaotic system generated through nonsingular states
transformation from a cell neural net chaotic system. In this sense, it is
said that generalized synchronization is achieved in reduced-order. The
synchronization discussed here expands the scope of reduced-order
synchronization studied in relevant literatures. In this way, we can achieve
generalized reduced-order synchronization between many famous chaotic
systems such as the second-order D\"{u}ffing system and the third-order
Lorenz system by designing a fast slide mode controller. Simulation results
are provided to verify the operation of the designed synchronization.

Timely detection of dynamical complexity changes in natural and man-made systems has deep scientific and practical meanings. We introduce a complexity measure for time series: the base-scale entropy. The definition directly applies to arbitrary real-word data. We illustrate our method on a practical speech signal and in a theoretical chaotic system. The results show that the simple and easily calculated measure of base-scale entropy can be effectively used to detect qualitative and quantitative dynamical changes.

The molar volume isotherms of {trans}-decahydronaphthalene (C_{10}H_{18}) between 293 and 446 K and at pressures from 10 to 200 MPa have been determined. A modified Tait equation of state is used to fit each experimental molar volume isotherm with a maximum average deviation of 0.029%. The thermal expansivity (cubic expansion coefficient) \alpha and isothermal compressibility \kappa were determined by fitting the slopes of the isobaric curves and isotherms, respectively. The coefficients in the equation V_m=C_1+C_2 T+C_3 T^2 - C_4 p - C_5 pT have been fitted with an average deviation of 1.03%.

Optical electron polarimetry is suitable for calibration of a spin-polarized
electron source, especially for measurement of polarization of
spin-polarized electron beam. In this paper, a new optical electron
polarimeter is described, which is based on the circularly polarized He
radiation induced by the bombarding of He atoms with spin-polarized
electrons. The theoretical basis of the optical electron polarimetry and the
structure of the optical electron polarimeter are discussed. The measurement
of polarization of spin-polarized electrons produced from a new GaAs (100)
spin-polarized electron source is carried out. The result of polarization of
30.8% for our spin-polarized electron source is obtained using the He
optical electron polarimeter.

Ne and Mg isotope chains are investigated based on constrained calculations in the framework of a deformed relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with the NL075 parameter set. The calculated quadrupole deformation and binding energy are compared with other theoretical results as well as the available
experimental data. It shows that the calculated deformations of Ne and Mg with the NL075 are more accurate than those obtained with the NL-SH. It is predicted that ^{19,29,32}Ne and ^{20,31}Mg maybe
have a triaxial deformation and ^{25-28}Ne and ^{27-30}Mg exhibit a shape coexistence probably. The closure effect of neutron number N=8 for ^{20}Mg is predicted to be very weak.

The topology of ^{16}O fragmentation at 3.7 A GeV in reactions with emulsion nuclei is presented. The multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments,charged secondaries and their dependences on the projectile residues are discussed.

The azimuthal distributions of final-state particles and fragments produced in high-energy nucleus--nucleus collisions are described by a modified multisource ideal gas model which contains the expansions and movements of the emission sources. The transverse structures of the sources are
given in the transverse plane by momentum components p_x and p_y,and described by parameters in the model. The results of the azimuthal distributions, calculated by the Monte Carlo method, are in good agreement with the experimental data in nucleus--nucleus collisions at high energies.

Electronic states of CF$_{2}$Cl$_{2}$ (dichlorodifluoromethane, Freon 12)
have been studied using a new type of electron momentum spectrometer with a
very high efficiency at an impact energy of 1200 eV plus binding energy. The
experimental electron momentum profiles are compared with the density
functional theory (DFT) and Hartree--Fock (HF) calculations. The relationship
between orbital assignments in different coordinate systems is
discussed. A new method of difference analysis based on the new type of
electron momentum spectrometer is used to clarify the ambiguities
regarding the orbital ordering.

We present a new type of optical filter with an ultra-narrow
bandwidth and a wide field-of-view (FOV). This kind of optical
filter consists of one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC)
incorporating an anomalous-dispersion-material (ADM) with, for
instance, an anomalous dispersion of
$6$P$_{3/2}\leftarrow6$S$_{1/2}$ hyperfine structure transition of a
caesium atom. The transmission spectra of optical filters are
calculated by using the transfer-matrix method. The simulation
results show that the designed optical filter has a bandwidth
narrower than 0.33GHz and a wide FOV of
$\pm30^{\circ}$ as well. The response of transmission spectrum to
an external magnetic field is also
investigated.

Absolute optical oscillator strength density and
double differential cross section spectra of CO below 120\,eV are
determined by fast electron impact. Some peaks above the first
ionization threshold stand out as the momentum transfer square
$K^2$ increases. The doubly excited Rydberg states converging to
$C~^2\Sigma^+$, $D~^2\Pi$, and $F~^2\Pi$ states of CO$^+$,
respectively, are confirmed in our spectra. Another peak at around
32\,eV is assigned to the transition of
$(3\sigma)^{-1}(2\pi)^1~^1\Pi\leftarrow~X^1\Sigma^+ $.

Elucidating the initial kinetics of folding pathways is critical to the
understanding of the protein folding mechanism. Transient infrared
spectroscopy has proved a powerful tool to probe the folding kinetics.
Herein we report the construction of a nanosecond laser-induced
temperature-jump ($T$-jump) technique coupled to a nanosecond time-resolved
transient mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectrometer system capable of investigating
the protein folding kinetics with a temporal resolution of 50 ns after
deconvolution of the instrumental response function. The mid-IR source is a
liquid N$_{2}$ cooled CO laser covering a spectral range of 5.0$\mu$m
(2000 cm$^{-1}) \sim $ 6.5$\mu$m (1540 cm$^{-1})$. The heating pulse
was generated by a high pressure H$_{2}$ Raman shifter at wavelength of
1.9$\mu$m. The maximum temperature-jump could reach as high as 26$\pm
$1$^{\circ}$C. The fast folding/unfolding dynamics of cytochrome $C$ was
investigated by the constructed system, providing an example.

By jointly solving two-centre material equations with a nonzero external
electric field and coupled-wave equations, we have numerically studied the
dependence of the non-volatile holographic recording in LiNbO$_{3}$:Ce:Cu
crystals on the external electric field. The dominative photovoltaic effect of
the non-volatile holographic recording in doubly doped LiNbO$_{3}$ crystals
is directly verified. And an external electric field that is applied in the
positive direction along the $c$-axis (or a large one in the negative
direction of the
$c$-axis) in the recording phase and another one that is applied in the
negative
direction of the $c$-axis in the fixing phase are both proved to benefit strong
photorefractive performances. Experimental verifications are given with a
small electric field applied externally.

We investigate the influence of Doppler broadening on absorption-dispersion
properties in a four-level atomic system that can evolve from a normal
dispersion to an anomalous dispersion. Our results show that the absorption-dispersion
properties become strongly dependent on the propagation directions of the
applied fields if Doppler broadening is taken into account. Especially, the
switchover in the sign of the dispersion is still achievable even in the
presence of Doppler broadening if properly arranging the propagation
directions of the applied fields, which is in contrast with the otherwise
behaviours in some other configurations.

In recent years, the formate ion (HCO$_2 ^-)$ as a kind of
hole-to-electron converter has attracted much attention of photographic
researchers. The formate ions can trap photo-generated holes, eliminate or
reduce the electron loss caused by electron--hole recombination in latent
image formation process. Through the hole-to-electron conversion, it can
also release an extra electron or electron carrier, improving
photosensitivity. In this paper the microwave absorption and
dielectric spectrum detection technique is used to detect the time evolution
behaviour of free photoelectrons generated by 35ps laser pulses in cubic
AgCl emulsions doped with formate ions. The influence of different
doping conditions of formate ions on the photoelectron decay kinetics of
AgCl is analysed. It is found that when the HCO$_2 ^-$ content is 10$^{ -
3}$mol/mol Ag and the doping position is 90{\%} the electron decay time and
lifetime reach their maxima due to the efficient trap of holes by formate
ions.

Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the
changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed
lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square
lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air
holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice
size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly
on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the
asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.

It is currently believed that light quantum or the quantization of light energy is beyond classical physics, and the picture of wave--particle duality,which was criticized by Einstein but has attracted a number of experimental researches, is necessary for the description of light. It is shown
in this paper, however, that the quantization of light energy in vacuum, which is the same as that in quantum electrodynamics, can be derived directly from the classical electromagnetic theory through the consideration of statistics based on classical physics. Therefore, the quantization of energy is an intrinsic property of light as a classical electromagnetic wave and has no need of being related to particles.

Three kinds of resonant modes of a single layered circular elastic
cylinder embedded in the elastic medium are analysed by considering the
oscillation of the scatter's core, based on the fact that the core moves as a
rigid body when the shell material is very compliant. The resonant
frequencies of the single resonator acquired by our method are in good
agreement with those calculated by the local interaction simulation
approach (LISA) for the local resonant phononic crystal. Therefore, the
local resonant characteristics of a single layered circular elastic cylinder can
be used to evaluate the resonant frequencies of the phononic crystal. The
effects of the geometrical and physical parameters of the shell and the core
are also studied in details. This work is significant for designing the
locally resonant phononic crystal based on the local resonant
characteristics of
the single resonator, and the resonant frequencies can be tuned by
selecting the geometrical sizes and the materials.

The orientation and concentration distributions of fibres in laminar and
turbulent channel flows are investigated numerically. The obtained results
are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the laminar flow
regime, more fibres orient to the flow direction as the Reynolds number
increases. The shear rate of fluid around a fibre plays an important role in
determining the orientation distribution of fibres, while the fibre density
and the fibre aspect-ratio have marginal influence on the orientation
distribution. In the turbulent regime, the orientation distribution of
fibres becomes more homogeneous with the increase of Reynolds number, and
the concentration profile is flatter than that in the laminar regime. The
fluctuating intensity of fibre velocity in the downstream direction is
larger than that in the lateral directions.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

The line-integrated optical measurement of impurity radiation profiles for
the study of light impurity transport is performed in the HT-7 tokamak. The
carbon impurity line emissivity is obtained by Abel inversion. The radial
transport behaviours of carbon impurities at different central line averaged
electron densities \overline {n_\e} are investigated in ohmic discharges.
The diffusion coefficient D_{k}(r), the convection velocity W_{k}(r) and
the total flux of the impurity ions \Ga _{k} decrease with the
increase of \overline {n_\e} , which shows a reduction in the impurity
particle transport at higher electron densities.

The laser pulse modulation instabilities in partially stripped plasma were discussed based on the phase and group velocities of the laser pulse and the two processes that modulation instabilities excited. The excitation condition and growth rate of the modulation instability were obtained. It
was found that the positive chirp and competition between normal and abnormal dispersions play important roles in the modulation instability. In the partially stripped plasma, the increased positive chirp enhances the modulation instability, and the dispersion competition reduces it.

The ordinary differential magnetic field line equations are solved numerically; the tokamak magnetic structure is studied on Hefei Tokamak-7 Upgrade (HT-7U) when the equilibrium field with a monotonic $q$-profile is perturbed by a helical magnetic field. We find that a single mode ($m,n$) helical perturbation can cause the formation of islands on rational surfaces with $q=m/n$ and $q=(m\pm 1, \pm 2, \pm 3,\ldots) /n$ due to the toroidicity and plasma shape (i.e. elongation and triangularity), while there are many undestroyed magnetic surfaces called Kolmogorov--Arnold--Moser (KAM) barriers on irrational surfaces. The islands on the same rational surface do not have the same size. When the ratio between the perturbing magnetic field $\tilde {B}_r (r)$ and the toroidal magnetic field amplitude $B_{\phi 0} $ is large enough, the magnetic island chains on different rational surfaces will overlap and chaotic orbits appear in the overlapping area, and the magnetic field becomes stochastic. It is remarkable that the stochastic layer appears first in the plasma edge region.

This paper describe a numerical simulation method for the
interaction between laser pulses and low density plasmas based on
hydrodynamic approximation. We investigate Backward Raman Amplifying
(BRA) experiments and their variants. The numerical results are in
good agreement with experiments.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

The nanocrystallization behaviour of Zr$_{70}$Cu$_{20}$Ni$_{10}$ metallic
glass during isothermal annealing is studied by employing a Monte Carlo
simulation incorporating with a modified Ising model and a $Q$-state Potts
model. Based on the simulated microstructure and differential scanning
calorimetry curves, we find that the low crystal-amorphous interface energy
of Ni plays an important role in the nanocrystallization of primary
Zr$_{2}$Ni. It is found that when $T

An improvement of the Peierls equation has been made by including the lattice effects. By using the
non-trivially gluing mechanism for the simple cubic lattice, in which atoms interact with its first and second nearest neighbours through a central force, the dislocation equation has been derived
rigorously for the isotropic case. In the slowly varying approximation, the Peierls equation with the improvement by including the lattice effects has been obtained explicitly. The new equation can be used to substitute for the old one in theoretical investigations of dislocations. The major change of
the predicted dislocation structure is in the core region. The width of the dislocation given by using the new equation is about three times that given by the classical Peierls--Nabarro theory
for the simple cubic lattice.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

In this paper, we present a computational study of L-serine using ab initio
molecular dynamics simulation based on density functional theory (DFT)
within the ultrasoft pseudopotentials and generalized-gradient
approximation. Taking into account the intermolecular interactions, we can
indeed simulate the features of the experimental results very well for
L-serine zwitterions in its solid state. The vibrational spectrum of
L-serine performed by DFT was in excellent agreement with our previous
inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra measured at 20K for
L-serine in the 10--200meV region on HET spectrometers at ISIS, Rutherford
Appleton Laboratory.

Based on the energy transfer process from host to dopant in an organic
electrophosphorescent (EP) device, the expression of energy transfer
probability ($\eta )$ between the host (TPD) and guest (Ir(ppy)$_{3})$ EP
systems was proposed. The results show that: ({1}) The rate of the triplet
energy transfer ($K_{\rm HG}$ and $K_{\rm GH})$ increases exponentially with
increasing donor-acceptor molecular distance ($R$), whereas decreases as the
intermolecular distance ($R_{\rm HH})$ increases from 0.8 to 2.4 nm.
Furthermore, $K_{\rm GH}$ changes more quickly than $K_{\rm HG.}$ ({2}) The energy
transfer probability ($\eta )$ increases as $R$ reduces, and the $R_{\rm HH}$
changes can be safely neglected for $R<$0.9 nm. The situation changes for
0.9nm$ < R < 1.1$nm, $R_{\rm HH }$ ($<1$nm) plays an essential role when
$\eta $ changes
and increases with the latter. However, if $R > 1.1$nm, the transfer
probability will be below zero. Here, the energy transfer principle may be
less important, and the high electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency of
phosphorescent system will be attributed to the direct electron-hole
recombination in phosphorescent molecules. ({3}) The $\eta $ will increase when the
Forster radius ($R_{0})$ increases or Gibb's energy decreases.

We have investigated the transport and ultraviolet photovoltaic properties
of Fe$_{3}$O$_{4}$ thin films grown on glass substrates by facing-target
sputtering technique. The nonlinear dependence of current-density on voltage
suggests that the transport process is most likely the tunnelling process and
grain boundaries act as barriers. Furthermore, nonequilibrium electron-hole
pairs are excited in the grains and grain boundary regions for
Fe$_{3}$O$_{4}$ film under ultraviolet laser, since the energy gap of
Fe$_{3}$O$_{4}$ is smaller than the ultraviolet photon energy. And then the
built-in electric field near the grain boundaries will separate carriers,
leading to the appearance of an instant photovoltage.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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