Utilizing both the general quantum teleportation and the two-step protocol, a new method is presented by which multi-qubit quantum information can be teleported in a much easier way from a sender Alice to a receiver Bob via the control of many agents in a network than by Yang et al's method. In this method, only all the agents collaborate with Bob can the unknown states in Alice's qubits be fully reconstructed in Bob's qubits. Comparisons between the method and Yang et al's method are made. Results show that, in this method,the preparation difficulty of initial states and the identification difficulty of entangled states are considerably reduced, new method is more feasible in technique, and Hadamard operations are not needed at all.

The Internet presents a complex topological structure, on which computer viruses can easily spread. By using theoretical analysis and computer simulation methods, the dynamic process of disease spreading on finite size networks with complex topological structure is investigated. On the finite size networks, the spreading process of SIS (susceptible--infected--susceptible) model is a finite Markov chain with an absorbing state. Two parameters, the survival probability and the conditional infecting probability, are introduced to describe the dynamic properties of disease spreading on finite size networks. Our results can help understanding computer virus epidemics and other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks. Also, knowledge about the dynamic character of virus spreading is helpful for adopting immunity policy.

By using an improved projective Riccati equation method, this paper obtains several types of exact travelling wave solutions to the Benjamin Ono equation which include multiple soliton solutions, periodic soliton solutions and Weierstrass function solutions. Some of them are found for the first time. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

A realizable quantum encryption algorithm for qubits is presented by employing bit-wise quantum computation. System extension and bit-swapping are introduced into the encryption process, which makes the ciphertext space expanded greatly. The security of the proposed algorithm is analysed in detail and the schematic physical implementation is also provided. It is shown that the algorithm, which can prevent quantum attack strategy as well as classical attack strategy, is effective to protect qubits. Finally, we extend our algorithm to encrypt classical binary bits and quantum entanglements.

We construct a general form of propagator in arbitrary dimensions and give an exact wavefunction of a time-dependent forced harmonic oscillator in D(D \ge 1) dimensions. The coherent states, defined
as the eigenstates of annihilation operator, of the D-dimensional harmonic oscillator are derived. These coherent states correspond to the minimum uncertainty states and the relation between them is investigated.

Combination of the wavelet transform and independent component analysis (ICA) was employed for blind source separation (BSS) of multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG). After denoising the original signals by discrete wavelet transform, high frequency components of some noises and artifacts
were removed from the original signals. The denoised signals were reconstructed again for the purpose of ICA, such that the drawback that ICA cannot distinguish noises from source signals can be overcome
effectively. The practical processing results showed that this method is an effective way to BSS of multichannel EEG. The method is actually a combination of wavelet transform with adaptive neural network, so it is also useful for BBS of other complex signals.

A new second-order neural Volterra filter (SONVF) with conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is proposed to predict chaotic time series based on phase space delay-coordinate reconstruction of chaotic dynamics system in this paper, where the neuron activation functions are introduced to constraint
Volterra series terms for improving the nonlinear approximation of second-order Volterra filter (SOVF). The SONVF with CG algorithm improves the accuracy of prediction without increasing the computation complexity. Meanwhile, the difficulty of neuron number determination does not exist here. Experimental results show that the proposed filter can predict chaotic time series effectively, and one-step and multi-step prediction performances are obviously superior to those of SOVF, which demonstrate that the proposed SONVF is feasible and effective.

The synchronization transition in two coupled chaotic Morris--Lecar (ML) neurons with gap junction is studied with the coupling strength increasing. The conditional Lyapunov exponents,along with the synchronization errors are calculated to diagnose synchronization of two coupled chaotic ML neurons. As a result, it is shown that the increase in the coupling strength leads to incoherence, then induces a transition process consisting of three different synchronization states in succession, namely, burst synchronization, near-synchronization and embedded burst synchronization, and achieves complete synchronization of two coupled neurons finally.These sequential transitions to synchronization reveal a new transition route from incoherence to complete synchronization in coupled systems with multi-time scales.

The digital communication of two-dimensional messages is investigated when two solid state multi-mode chaotic lasers are employed in a master-slave configuration. By introducing the time derivative of
intensity difference between the receiver (carrier) and the transmittal (carrier plus signal), several signals can be encoded into a single pulse. If one signal contains several binary bits,
two-dimensional messages in the form of a matrix can be encoded and transmitted on a single pulse. With these improvements in secure communications using chaotic multi-mode lasers, not only the
transmission rate can be increased but also the privacy can be enhanced greatly.

Time-dependent hybrid density functional theory in combination with polarized continuum model is applied to study the solvent effects on the geometrical and electronic structures as well as one- and two-photon absorption processes, of a newly synthesized asymmetrical charge-transfer organic molecule
bis-(4-bromo-phenyl)-[4-(2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine (BPYPA).There exist two charge-transfer states for the compound in visible region. The two-photon absorption cross section calculated by a three-state model and solvatochromic shift of the charge-transfer states are found to be solvent-dependent, where a nonmonotonic behaviour with respect to the polarity of the solvents is observed. The numerical results show that the organic molecule exhibits a rather large two-photon absorption cross section as compared with the compound 4-trans-[p-(N, N-Di-n-butylamino)-p-stilbenyl vinyl] pyridine (DBASVP) reported previously, and is predicted to be a good two-photon polymerization initiator. The hydrogen-bond effect is analysed. The computational results are in good agreement with the measurements.

A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules (SO_{2}, H_{2}S, OCS,CS_{2} and SO_{3}) containing the larger atom, sulfur, at 30--5000eV by using the additivity rule model at Hartree--Fock level. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with those obtained in experiments and other calculations wherever available, and good
agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom can give the results closer to the experiments than the one unmodified by it. So, the introduction of bonded-atom concept in complex optical model
potential betters the accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electrons from the molecules containing the larger atom, sulfur.

ATP synthase is a rotary motor which is composed of two portions: the `rotor' F_{0}, consisting of a c-ring, and the `stator' F_{1}, consisting of an \alpha_{3}\beta_{3} hexamer. In different species, the number of c-subunits which form the c-ring is varied from 10 to 14, whereas the \alpha_{3} \beta_{3} hexamer is fixed to be 3-fold symmetrical. We have numerically studied the rotational coupling between F_{0} with varied number of c-subunits and F_{1}. It is found that, for any number of c-subunits, the rotor F_{0} advances 3 steps per revolution on average, which is determined by the period of F_{1}, whereas the exact angular pausing positions are determined by the period of F_{0}. When the symmetry of the c-ring of F_{0} is matched with the 3-fold symmetry of F_{1}, the three steps have equivalent sizes. If not matched, the three steps become nonequivalent: both the step size and average dwell time are different for these steps.

Two schemes for the implementation of the two-qubit Grover search algorithm in the ion trap system are proposed. These schemes might be experimentally realizable with presently available techniques. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward more complex
quantum computation in the ion trap system.

The third-order optical nonlinearity of two sandwich-type phthalocyaninato and porphyrinato europium complexes, including double- and triple-deckers Eu[Pc(OC_{5}H_{11})_{8}]_{2}, Eu_{2}(Pc)(TPP)_{2}, Pc=phthalocyanine, TPP=5, 10, 15, 20- tetraphenylporphyrinate), was
investigated by using the femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr gate method at 830 nm wavelength. Their second-order hyperpolarizability is estimated to be 0.74×10^{-30}esu and 3.0×10^{-30}esu respectively. This exhibits an evident enhancement in comparison with 0.47×10^{-30}esu for one-decker Eu(Pc)(acac) (acac=acetylacetonate), which is also measured under the same conditions. The enhancement is attributed to the introduction of lanthanide metal to the
large \pi -conjugated system, intermacrocycle interaction and two-photon resonance etc.

The phenomena of acoustic emission in LiNbO_{3}:Fe:Ce crystals have been observed in the process of light-induced quasi-breakdown. It is found that the ultra-high frequency acoustic signal introduced into the crystal is modulated by the low frequency acoustic waves. Its frequency increases with the increase of the intensity of incident light and its jump period of breakdown is the same as that of the photovoltaic current I_{c}, the change of light-induced refractive index \Delta n and the diffracted light intensity L. This phenomenon has been analysed in this paper, which is caused by the inverse piezoelectric strain effect of the jump of space charge field during the quasi-breakdown.

A method is presented to analyse the effect of
structure random disturbances on the confinement loss and the chromatic
dispersion characterizations of microstructured optical fibres, which
combines multipole methods with the random statistics process. Some useful
results to the fabrication of microstructured optical fibres have been
obtained.

The local density of photonic states (LDPS) of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) composed of rotated square-pillars in a 2D square lattice is calculated in terms of the plane-wave expansion method in a combination with the point group theory. The calculation results show that
the LDPS strongly depends on the spatial positions. The variations of the LDPS as functions of the radial coordinate and frequency exhibit ``mountain chain'' structures with sharp peaks. The LDPS with large value spans a finite area and falls abruptly down to small value at the position corresponding to the interfaces between two different refractive index materials. The larger/lower LDPS occurs inward the lower/larger dielectric-constant medium. This feature can be well interpreted by the continuity of electric-displacement vector at the interface. In the frequency range of the
pseudo-PBG (photonic band gap), the LDPS keeps very low value over the whole Wiger--Seitz cell.
It indicates that the spontaneous emission in 2D PCs cannot be prohibited completely, but it can be inhibited intensively when the resonate frequency falls into the pseudo-PBG.

The upconversion properties of Er^{3+}-doped heavy metal oxyfluoride germanate glasses under 975\,nm excitation have been investigated. The intense green (551 and 529\,nm) and relatively weak red (657\,nm) emissions corresponding to the transitions ^{4}S_{3/2} \to ^{4}I_{15/2},^{2}H_{11/2}\to ^{4}I_{15/2} and ^{4}F_{9/2} \to ^{4}I_{15/2}, respectively, were simultaneously observed at room temperature. The content of PbF_{2} has an important influence on the upconversion luminescence emission. With increasing content of PbF_{2}, the intensities of green (529\,nm) and red (657\,nm) emissions increase slightly, while the green emission (551\,nm) increases markedly. These results suggest that PbF_{2} has an influence on the green (551\,nm) emission more than on the green (529\,nm) and red (657\,nm) emissions.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

This paper considers the coupling analysis of phased antenna array designed to excite fast wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequency. The coupling of the antenna is calculated in slab geometry. The
coupling code based on the variational principle gives the self-consistent current flowing in the antenna, this method has been extended so that it can be applied to a phased antenna array. As an example, this paper analyses the coupling prosperities of a 2×2 phased antenna array. It gives the optimum geometry of antenna array. The fields excited at plasma surface are found to more or less correspond to the antenna current phasing.

A program is developed to calculate the ion energy distributions (IEDs) of Ar_{2}^{+} making use of a simplified kinetic model with a combination of Monte Carlo method. Several coefficients are used to realize good match between the calculated and measured results. Some important assumptions are confirmed: argon excimer ions have short lifetime, hence they are formed in
a short range before the collecting electrode. The excimer ions that encounter collisions will be discarded because they turn to other ion species after they collide with argon atoms. From the calculated results some plasma parameters such as the cross section or neutral density in discharge could be evaluated.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

In this article, mono-dispersed hexagonal structure CdSe nanocrystals with polyhedron shape were prepared by an open solvent thermal reaction. They show a discrete excitonic transition structure in the absorption spectra and the minimal photoluminescence (PL) peak full-width at half-maximum of 19\,nm. The PL quantum yield is about 60%. Transmission electron micrographs,high-resolution transmission electron micrographs, x-ray powder diffraction patterns, UV-vis absorption spectra and PL spectra were obtained for the as-prepared CdSe nanocrystals. The size of the CdSe nanocrystals can be tuned by changing the reaction temperature or time. Due to the improved synthesis method, a different growth mechanism of the CdSe nanocrystals is discussed.

Large-scale silver nanowires with controlled aspect ratio were synthesized via reducing silver nitrate with 1, 2-propanediol in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction were employed to
characterize these silver nanowires. The diameter of the silver nanowires can be readily controlled in the range of 100 to 400 nm by varying the experimental conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results show that there exists no chemical
bond between the silver and the nitrogen atoms. The interaction between PVP and silver nanowires is mainly through the oxygen atom in the carbonyl group.

Time profiles of many gamma-ray bursts consist of distinct pulses, which provides a possibility of characterizing the temporal structure of these bursts. We employ a simple model of highly symmetric
fireballs to analyse the effect of the expansion speed on the light curve arising from different forms of local pulses. The relationship between the ratio r of the FWHM width of the rising phase of the light curve to that of the decaying phase and the Lorentz factor is investigated. The analysis shows that, when the rest frame radiation form is ignored, temporal profiles of the light curve arising from pulses of fireballs will not be affected by the expansion speed (that is,r is almost a constant) as long as the fireball expands relativistically. When the rest frame radiation form is taken into account, there will be a break in the curves of r-\log\Ga. The location of the break depends mainly on the adopted value of the rest frame peak frequency \nu _{\rm 0,p}$. One would reach almost the same result when a jet is considered. In addition, we utilize a sample of 48 individual GRB pulses to check the relationship between the ratio r and the expansion speed Ga. We find no significant correlation between them, and this is consistent with the theoretical analysis.

A first principles study of the electronic properties and bulk modulus (B_{0} of the fcc and bcc transition metals, transition metal carbides and nitrides is presented. The calculations were performed by plane-wave pseudopotential method in the framework of the density functional theory with local density approximation. The density of states and the valence charge densities of these solids are plotted. The results show that B_{0} does not vary monotonically when the number of the valence d electrons increases. B_{0} reaches a maximum and then decreases for each of the four sorts of solids. It is related to the occupation of the bonding and anti-bonding states in the solid. The value of the valence charge density at the midpoint between the two nearest metal atoms tends to be proportional to B_{0}.

Positron annihilation spectroscopy on GaN films grown on SiC substrate with MBE are presented. It is shown that the GaN/SiC interface is rectifying towards positrons, such that positrons can only travel from SiC to GaN and not vice versa. Potential steps seen by the positron at the GaN/SiC interface are calculated from experimental values of electron and positron work function. This ``rectifying'' effect has been successfully mimicked by inserting a thin region of very high electric field in the
Variable Energy Positron Fit (VEPF) analysis. The built-in electric field is attributed to different
positron affinities, dislocation and/or interface defects at the GaN/SiC interface.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The variational method is applied to calculate the dispersion characteristics of disc-loaded waveguide slow-wave structures. The parameters describing the waveguide discontinuities in disc-loaded waveguide are calculated by the variational method. Then the dispersion characteristics of slow-wave structures are obtained using lossless microwave quadrupole theory. Good agreement was observed between results of the variational method and those of field matching method and high frequency structure simulator. In the case of broad band, results of the variational method are better than those of field matching method.

An analytical technique, referred to as the scattering matrix method (SMM),
is developed to analyse the scattering of a planar wave from a conducting
cylinder coated with nonuniform magnetized ferrite. The SMM solution for the
nonuniform ferrite coating can be reduced to the expressions for the
scattering and penetrated coefficients in four particular cases: nonuniform
magnetized ferrite cylinder, uniform magnetized ferrite-coated conducting
cylinder, uniform ferrite cylinder as well as homogeneous dielectric-coated
conducting cylinder. The resonant condition for the nonuniform ferrite
coating is obtained. The distinctive differences in scattering between the
nonuniform ferrite coating and the nonuniform dielectric coating are
demonstrated. The effects of applied magnetic fields and wave frequencies on
the scattering characteristics for two types of the linear profiles are
revealed.

The binding energies of excitons in quantum well
structures subjected to an applied uniform electric field by taking into account the
exciton longitudinal optical phonon interaction is calculated. The binding
energies and corresponding Stark shifts for III--V and II--VI compound
semiconductor quantum well structures have been numerically computed.
The results for GaAs/AlGaAs and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells are given and
discussed. Theoretical results show that the exciton--phonon coupling
reduces both the exciton binding energies and the Stark shifts by screening
the Coulomb interaction. This effect is observable experimentally and cannot
be neglected.

The effect of external noise, which is characterized by
an Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process, on the dynamical localization of
two coupling electrons in a quantum dot array under the action of
an ac electric field is studied. A numerical solution of the stochastic
equations is obtained by averaging over stochastic
trajectories. The results show that the external noise may destroy the
dynamical localization, but the anti-noise capacity of the system
is stronger when the two electrons are localized at the ends of
the quantum dot array.

Pure MgB$_{2}$ bulk samples are successfully synthesized by self-propagating
high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The experiments show that the best
preheating temperature is 250℃, the highest J_{c} values
of the prepared MgB_{2} reach 1.5×10^{6}A/cm^{2} (10K, 0.5T) and 1.7×10^{6}A/cm^{2} (20K, 0T), and the MgB_{2} particle sizes range from 2
to 5\mum. The advantages of this method are that it is simple, economical and
suitable for the manufacture of bulk MgB_{2} materials on industrial scale.

Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes in NaZn_{13}-type compounds La(Fe_{1-x}Co_{x})_{11.9}Si_{1.1}(x=0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) with Curie temperatures of 243\,K, 274\,K, and 301\,K, respectively, are studied. The ferromagnetic ordering is accompanied by a negative lattice expansion. Large magnetic entropy changes in a wide temperature range from \sim 230\,K to \sim 320\,K are achieved. Raising Co content increases the Curie temperature but weakens the gnetovolume effect, thereby causing a decrease in magnetic entropy change. These materials exhibit a metallic character below T_{C}, whereas the electrical resistance decreases abruptly and then recovers the metal-like behaviour above T_{C}. Application of a magnetic field retains the transitions via increasing the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. An isothermal increase in magnetic field leads to an increase in electrical resistance at temperatures near but above T_{C},which is a consequence of the field-induced metamagnetic transition from a paramagnetic state to a ferromagnetic state.

TiO$_{2}$ thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sputtering in a conventional rf magnetron sputtering system. X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission spectrum were measured. The curves of refraction index and extinction coefficient distributions as well as the thickness of films
calculated from transmission spectrum were obtained. The optimization problem was also solved using a method based on a constrained nonlinear programming algorithm.

To improve the performance of double clad high power fibre lasers, inner cladding design plays a significant role. A triangular inner cladding and silica structure second cladding with large air holes to acquire high inner cladding numerical aperture are designed. Single mode and high power output of the fibre lasers need the double clad Yb doped fibre with large core. A fibre with annular refractive index distribution core and low numerical aperture to acquire a large mode area fibre core is designed and fabricated. Furthermore co-doping with aluminium (Al) has been used to improve the solubility of ytterbium (Yb) into silicate network, and the core absorption coefficients of two Yb doped fibres are compared with different Al concentration experimentally.

8000 CROSSDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

To better understand the physical mechanism of the climate change on interdecadal-centennial timescale, this paper focuses on analysing and modelling the evolution characteristics of the climate change. The method of wavelet transform is used to pick out the interdecadal timescale
oscillations from long-term instrumental observations, natural proxy records, and modelling series. The modelling series derived from the most simplified nonlinear climatic model are used to identify whether modifications are concerned with some forcings such as the solar radiation on the climate system. The results show that two major oscillations exist in various observations and model series, namely the 20--30a and the 60--70a timescale respectively, and these quasi-periodicities are
modulated with time. Further, modelling results suggest that the originations of these oscillations are not directly linked with the periodic variation of solar radiations such as the 1-year cycle, the 11-year cycle, and others, but possibly induced by the internal nonlinear effects of the climate system. It seems that the future study on the genesis of the climate change with interdecadal-centennial timescale should focus on the internal nonlinear dynamics in the climate system.

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