We have studied the algebraic structure of the dynamical equations of a rotational relativistic Birkhoff system. It is proven that autonomous and semi-autonomous rotational relativistic Birkhoff equations possess consistent algebraic structure and Lie algebraic structure. In general, non-autonomous rotational relativistic Birkhoff equations possess no algebraic structure, but a type of special non-autonomous rotational relativistic Birkhoff equation possesses consistent algebraic structure and consistent Lie algebraic structure. Then, we obtain the Poisson integrals of the dynamical equations of the rotational relativistic Birkhoff system. Finally, we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

We propose a scheme for the implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two spatially separated entangled pairs and we show that the operation can swap two qubits of these entangled pairs. We discuss the resources of the entangled qubits and classical communication bits required for the optimal implementation of the nonlocal quantum swap operation. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistic implementation of nonlocal swap operation via a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel. The probability of a successful nonlocal swap operation is obtained by introducing a collective unitary transformation.

Using the extended homogeneous balance method, the (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave equations have been solved. Starting from the homogeneous balance method, we have obtained a nonlinear transformation for simplifying a dispersive long-wave equation into a linear partial differential equation. Usually, we can obtain only a type of soliton-like solution. In this paper, we have further found some new multi-soliton solutions and exact travelling solutions of the dispersive long-wave equations from the linear partial equation.

We have investigated the problem of teleporting a three-particle entangled W state and we propose a scheme based on entanglement swapping to complete the teleportation. We also put forward a scheme for the teleportation of a general W state by using nonmaximally entangled quantum channels. The probability of success of the latter scheme is obtained.

A systematic design process of adaptive synchronization and parameter identification of an uncertain Chen chaotic system is provided. With this new and effective method, parameter identification and synchronization of the Chen system, with all the system parameters unknown, can be achieved simultaneously. Theoretical proof and numerical simulation demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

For the nonlinear wave equation with quartic polynomial potential, bifurcation and solitary waves are investigated. Based on the bifurcation and the energy integral of the two-dimensional dynamical system satisfied by the travelling waves, it is very interesting to find different sufficient and necessary conditions in terms of the bifurcation parameter for the existence and coexistence of bright, dark solitary waves and shock waves. The method of direct integration is developed to give all types of solitary wave solutions. Our method is simpler than other newly developed ones. Some results are similar to those obtained recently for the combined KdV－mKdV equation.

A type of multi-mode q-oscillator algebra with q^{2(k+1)}=1 is set up and the associated q_{k}-thermo field dynamics is constructed for all k=1,2,…,∞ in a unified form. It is demonstrated that these q_{k}-thermo field dynamics can all be nicely fitted into the algebraic formulation of statistical mechanics (axiomatized form for statistical physics). This means that we obtain infinitely many realizations of the algebraic scheme, which extend the consideration of Ojima [1981 Ann. Phys. 137 1] and contain the usual thermo field dynamics for the fermionic (k=1) and bosonic (k=∞) systems as special cases. As simple applications, the q_{k}-statistical average of some operators are given.

A rigorous method to solve the Bargmann－Wigner equation for an arbitrary half-integral spin is presented and explicit relativistic wavefunctions for an arbitrary half-integral spin are deduced.

Dielectric barrier discharge is used to study the mechanism of XeI excimer formation in the mixture of Xe and I_{2} at low pressures (<1330 Pa). Fluorescence emission in the spectral region of 200－260 nm is examined. We report on the characteristics of the 253 nm emission intensity which varied with different total pressure. The results indicate that under the present experimental conditions, electron impact is the major reaction producing the excimer XeI(B), interpreted as Xe^{+}+I_{2}^{-}→XeI(B)+ I^{*}, then radiating 253 nm fluorescence from transition B→X. The 253 nm emission increases with the total gas pressure up to a maximum value at a pressure of about 540 Pa, then decreases as the gas pressure is further increased. The 206 nm emission is determined by I^{*} from ionic recombination between Xe^{+} and I_{2}^{-}. This result differs from previous works under other experimental conditions.

We have studied the absorption spectrum of a Doppler-broadened ladder system, where the highest level is coupled into two middle hyperfine sublevels by a strong coherent field. We find that, when the system is considered as homogeneous, either two or three spectral components are observed, depending on the detuning of the coherent field. But when the velocity distribution of atoms is considered, we can always observe one electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window with high dispersion. So the atomic hyperfine structure cannot be an impediment for obtaining EIT.

The supercontinuum (SC) source plays a key role in wavelength division multiplexing over the optical time division multiplexing (WDM/OTDM) transmission system. The SC produced in dispersion decreasing fibre (DDF) is wider and flatter than that produced in dispersion shifted fibre (DSF). In this paper, a SC producing process in DDF is numerically simulated, the effects of pump pulse chirp on the SC width and flatness are initially studied and the corresponding theoretical explanations are given. Particularly, we have analysed and compared the evolutions of the SC along DDF pumped by different chirp pulses. Several valuable conclusions are obtained.

By combining the lattice Boltzmann method with the three-dimensional computer-simulated images of porous media, a new numerical experimental methodology is used to determine the permeability anisotropy ratio of porous media. The results compare well with the laboratory experimental data.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Based on an analytical expression of electron dynamical diffraction derived recently, the exit wavefunctions of non-periodic samples have been calculated. The results have shown that the amplitude and phase obtained by the analytical expression were in good agreement with those obtained using the multi-slice method. Besides, the influence of the higher-order Laue zone on the wavefunction for different sample thickness was studied in detail and the results showed that the exit wavefunction is dominated by the zero-order Laue zone. When the sample is very thin, the influence of the higher-order Laue zone should be considered.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) are employed to investigate the effects of nickel on the crystallization of the amorphous Zr_{70}Cu_{20}Ni_{10} alloy. We have found that the crystallization process of the amorphous Zr_{70}Cu_{20}Ni_{10} alloy is strongly influenced by the addition of nickel. Addition of 10 at% Ni to the Zr_{70}Cu_{30} amorphous alloy makes the crystallization process proceed from a single-stage mode to a double-stage mode. The activation energy for crystallization of the amorphous Zr_{70}Cu_{20}Ni_{10} alloy is calculated to be about 388kJ·mol^{-1} on the basis of the Kissinger equation. The effects of nickel on the crystallization of the amorphous Zr_{70}Cu_{20}Ni_{10} alloy are discussed in terms of the genetics of metals.

Stacking fault energy and stacking fault nucleation energy are defined in terms of the physical nature of stacking faults and stacking fault energy, and the measuring basis for stacking fault energy. Large quantities of experimental results are processed with the aid of a computer and an expression for calculating stacking fault energy has been obtained as γ^{300}_{SF}(mJ·m^{-2})=γ^{0}_{SF}+1.59Ni-1.34Mn+0.06Mn^{2}-1.75Cr+0.01Cr^{2}+15.21Mo-5.59Si-60.69(C+1.2N)^{1/2} + 26.27(C+1.2N)(Cr+Mn+Mo)^{1/2}+0.61[Ni·(Cr+Mn)]^{1/2}.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

We investigate the linear and nonlinear optical responses of dilute anisotropic networks using Green's function formalism [Gu Y et al 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 12847]. For different applied fields, numerical calculations indicate that a large third-order nonlinear enhancement and a broad infrared absorption arise from the geometric anisotropy. We also show the overlap and separation between the absorption peak and nonlinear enhancement peak when the applied field is parallel and perpendicular to the anisotropy, respectively. The results can be understood in terms of the inverse participation ratios with q=2 and the spectral distribution of optical responses.

The temperature dependence of lattice constants a and c of intermetallic compounds RMn_{2}Ge_{2} (R=Sm, Gd) is measured in the temperature range 10－800K by using the x-ray diffraction method. The magnetoelastic anomalies of lattice constants are found at the different kinds of spontaneous magnetic transitions. The transversal and longitudinal magnetostrictions of polycrystalline samples are measured in the pulse magnetic field up to 25T. In the external magnetic field there occurs a first-order field-induced antiferromagnetism－ferromagnetism transition in the Mn sublattice, which gives rise to a large magnetostriction. The magnitude of magnetostrictions is as large as 10^{-3}. The transversal and longitudinal magnetostrictions have the same sign and are almost equal. This indicates that the magnetostriction is isotropic and mainly caused by the interlayer Mn－Mn exchange interaction. The experimental results are explained in the framework of a two-sublattice ferrimagnet with the negative exchange interaction in one of the sublattices by taking into account the lattice constant dependence of interlayer Mn－Mn exchange interaction.

Neodymium doped phosphate glasses have been prepared by the semi-continuous melting technique. Their absorption and emission spectra have been recorded at room temperature. The Judd－Ofelt theory has been applied to evaluate the stimulated emission cross sections of ^{4}F_{3/2}→^{4}I_{11/2} transition for Nd^{3+}. The higher stimulated emission cross section, 4.0×10^{-20}cm^{2}, is obtained. The fluorescence decays of the ^{4}F_{3/2}→^{4}I_{11/2} transition of Nd^{3+} are measured for the samples doped (0.7－10) wt% of Nd_{2}O_{3} at room temperature. The concentration quenching of Nd-doped phosphate glass is mainly attributed to cross-relaxation and energy migration. The site-dependent properties of fluorescence spectra and the fluorescence lifetime of the Nd^{3+}-doped phosphate glass (with 2.2wt%Nd_{2}O_{3}) are studied using laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing techniques, and the site-to-site variations of optical properties are observed at low temperature.

We have found that the nonthermal radiation of a nonstationary Kerr－Newman black hole is affected by interstellar materials. In particular, the interstellar gas deeply influences the average range of nonthermal radiation particles, while the average range depends on the maximum energy of the radiation and the energy extent of the radiation.

Using the Langevin Monte Carlo method, the influence of friction on the directed motion of a Brownian particle driven by an external noise source is investigated. The results show that the existence and change of the environment friction influence the establishment and development of the steady motion of a Brownian particle derived by non-equilibrium fluctuation. The most probable correlation time, which corresponds to the maximum current, is inversely proportional to the friction coefficient. The abnormal transition of the current with different friction appears because of the coupling between the effective ratchet potential and coloured noise intensity.

The domain structure of (PtCoPt)/Si multilayers in the dc demagnetized state has been investigated by magnetic force microscopy. The domain structure is found to change dramatically as the thickness of the non-magnetic Si sublayer (t_{Si}) increases. Together with the analysis of magnetic properties, the variation of the domain period indicates that the domain wall energy decreases. Using the model developed by Draaisma and de Jonge, the domain wall energy is obtained.

Beyond the Lamb－Dicke limit, we propose a simple scheme for generating Schr?dinger cat states of the motion of a trapped two-level ion interacting with a quantized light field in a single-mode cavity.

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