Segregation of alloying atoms at a tilt symmetric grain boundary in tungsten and their strengthening and embrittling effects
We investigate the segregation behavior of alloying atoms (Sr, Th, In, Cd, Ag, Sc, Au, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ti) near Σ3 (111)  tilt symmetric grain boundary (GB) in tungsten and their effects on the intergranular embrittlement by performing first-principles calculations. The calculated segregation energies suggest that Ag, Au, Cd, In, Sc, Sr, Th, and Ti prefer to occupy the site in the mirror plane of the GB, while Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn intend to locate at the first layer nearby the GB core. The calculated strengthening energies predict Sr, Th, In, Cd, Ag, Sc, Au, Ti, and Zn act as embrittlers while Cu, Cr, and Mn act as cohesion enhancers. The correlation of the alloying atom's metal radius with strengthening energy is strong enough to predict the strengthening and embrittling behavior of alloying atoms; that is, the alloying atom with larger metal radius than W acts as an embrittler and the one with smaller metal radius acts as a cohesion enhancer.