Testing the validity of the Ehrenfest theorem beyond simple static systems: Caldirola-Kanai oscillator driven by a time-dependent force
Non-relativistic scattering amplitude for a new multi-parameter exponential-type potential
New useful special function in quantum optics theory
By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method[Fan H Y and Zhan D H 2014Chin. Phys. B 23 060301] we find a new special function which is useful in quantum optics theory, whose expansion involving both power-series and Hermite polynomials, i.e.,
(n!m!(-1)l/l!(n-l)!(m-l)!)Hn-l(x)ym-l≡ϑn, m(x, y).
By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method and the technique of integration within ordered product of operators (IWOP) we derive its generating function. The circumstance in which this new special function appears and is applicable is considered.
Quantum speed limits of a qubit system interacting with a nonequilibrium environment
Scheme for preparation of multi-partite entanglement of atomic ensembles
Quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states with entanglement swapping
Transferring information through a mixed-five-spin chain channel
Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum broadcast communication and authentication protocol with a quantum one-time pad
Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack
We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward.
Decoherence suppression for three-qubit W-like state using weak measurement and iteration method
Demonstration of a cold atom beam splitter on atom chip
We report an experimental demonstration of a new scheme to split cold atoms on an atom chip. The atom chip consists of a U-wire and a Z-wire. The cold atom cloud is initially loaded and prepared in the Z-trap, which is split into two separate parts by switching on the current of the U-wire. The two separate atom clouds have a distance more than one millimeter apart from each other and show almost symmetrical profiles, corresponding to about a 50/50 splitting ratio.
Influence of the colored noise on determining the period of a torsion pendulum
Based on statistical properties, two typical models are considered to calculate the uncertainties for some random noise sequences on the period extraction of a torsion pendulum, which is important and instructive in the measurement of gravitational constant G with the time-of-swing method. An expression of the uncertainty for the period measurement is obtained, which is dependent on the ratio Δt/(1/λ) where Δt is the interval of the sample time and 1/λ is the length of the correlation time. The result of processing experimental data shows that as the interval of the sample time Δt gradually shortens, the uncertainty of the period becomes smaller, and further when the ratio Δt/(1/λ) is less than 1, the uncertainty remains substantially unchanged.
Robust pre-specified time synchronization of chaotic systems by employing time-varying switching surfaces in the sliding mode control scheme
Study of a ternary blend system for bulk heterojunction thin film solar cells
Experimental research on spectrum and imaging of continuous-wave terahertz radiation based on interferometry
Band structure, Fermi surface, elastic, thermodynamic, and optical properties of AlZr3, AlCu3, and AlCu2Zr: First-principles study
Diode laser using narrow bandwidth interference filter at 852 nm and its application in Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter
FDTD simulation study of size/gap and substrate-dependent SERS activity study of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles
Understanding charge transfer of Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from metal surfaces with high work function
Effects of collision energy and rotational quantum number on stereodynamics of the reactions: H(2S)+NH(v=0, j=0, 2, 5, 10)→N(4S)+H2
Effects of 5f-elements on electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of gold superatom model
Utra-thin anisotropic transmitting metasurface for polarization beam splitter application
Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in saturable media
Enhanced chiral response from the Fabry-Perot cavity coupled meta-surfaces
The circular dichroism (CD) signal of a two-dimensional (2D) chiral meta-surface is usually weak, where the difference between the transmitted (or reflected) right and left circular polarization is barely small. We present a general method to enhance the reflective CD spectrum, by adding a layer of reflective film behind the meta-surface. The light passes through the chiral meta-surface and propagates towards the reflector, where it is reflected back and further interacts with the chiral meta-surface. The light is reflected back and forth between these two layers, forming a Fabry-Perot type resonance, which interacts with the localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) mode and greatly enhances the CD signal of the light wave leaving the meta-surface. We numerically calculate the CD enhancing effect of an L-shaped chiral meta-surface on a gold film in the visible range. Compared with the single layer meta-surface, the L-shaped chiral meta-surface has a CD maximum that is dramatically increased to 1. The analysis of reflection efficiency reveals that our design can be used to realize a reflective circular polarizer. Corresponding mode analysis shows that the huge CD originates from the hybrid mode comprised of FP mode and LSPR. Our results provide a general approach to enhancing the CD signal of a chiral meta-surface and can be used in areas like biosensing, circular polarizer, integrated photonics, etc.
Ultra-broadband and high-efficiency polarization conversion metasurface with multiple plasmon resonance modes
Locating the position of objects in non-line-of-sight based on time delay estimation
Quantum polarization fluctuations of partially coherent dark hollow beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence atmosphere
Time gap for temporal cloak based on spectral hole burning in atomic medium
We demonstrate the possibility of creating a time gap in the slow light based on spectral hole burning in a four-level Doppler broadened sodium atomic system. A time gap is also observed between the slow and the fast light in the hole burning region and near the burnt hole region, respectively. A cloaking time gap is attained in microseconds and no distortion is observed in the transmitted pulse. The width of the time gap is observed to vary with the inverse Doppler effect in this system. Our results may provide a way to create multiple time gaps for a temporal cloak.
High power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser
980-nm all-fiber mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber oscillator based on semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and its amplifier
Comparison of the compensation effects of fiber nonlinear impairments with mid-span optical phase conjugation between PDM CO-OFDM system and PDM QPSK system
Spectral modulation of third-harmonic generation by molecular alignment and preformed plasma
We demonstrate spectral modulation of third-harmonic generation from molecular alignment effects. The third harmonic spectrum is broadened or narrowed under different influences of cross-phase modulations originating from various molecular alignment revivals. Furthermore, the spectrum and spatial distribution of the generated third harmonic pulse change dramatically in the presence of a preformed plasma. Under the influence of a preformed plasma, a narrower third harmonic spectrum is observed, and the conical third-harmonic pulse increases while the axial part decreases. The investigation provides an effective method to modulate the spectral characteristic and spatial distribution of third-harmonic generation from intense femtosecond filament.
Controllable soliton propagation based on phase-front curvature in asymmetrical nonlocal media
The influence of phase-front curvature on the dynamical behavior of the fundamental mode soliton during its transmission in asymmetrical nonlocal media is studied in detail and the phase-front curvature can be imposed on the fundamental mode soliton by reshaping or phase imprinting technologies. By changing the phase-front curvature or its imposed position, controllable soliton propagation in asymmetrical nonlocal media can be achieved.
High contrast all-optical diode based on direction-dependent optical bistability within asymmetric ring cavity
Apodized grating coupler using fully-etched nanostructures
Effect of radiation-induced color centers absorption in optical fibers on fiber optic gyroscope for space application
A new brain stimulation method: Noninvasive transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation
We investigate transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation (TMAS) for noninvasive brain neuromodulation in vivo. TMAS as a novel technique uses an ultrasound wave to induce an electric current in the brain tissue in the static magnetic field. It has the advantage of high spatial resolution and penetration depth. The mechanism of TMAS onto a neuron is analyzed by combining the TMAS principle and Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The anesthetized rats are stimulated by TMAS, resulting in the local field potentials which are recorded and analyzed. The simulation results show that TMAS can induce neuronal action potential. The experimental results indicate that TMAS can not only increase the amplitude of local field potentials but also enhance the effect of focused ultrasound stimulation on the neuromodulation. In summary, TMAS can accomplish brain neuromodulation, suggesting a potentially powerful noninvasive stimulation method to interfere with brain rhythms for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
The anisotropy of free path in a vibro-fluidized granular gas
The free path of a vibro-fluidized two-dimensional (2D) inelastic granular gas confined in a rectangular box is investigated by 2D event-driven molecular simulation. By tracking particles in the simulation, we analyze the local free path. The probability distribution of the free path shows a high tail deviating from the exponential prediction. The anisotropy of the free path is found when we separate the free path to x and y components. The probability distribution of y component is exponential, while x component has a high tail. The probability distribution of angle between the relative velocity and the unit vector joined two particle centers deviates from the distribution of two random vectors, indicating the existence of the dynamic heterogeneities in our system. We explain these results by resorting to the kinetic theory with two-peak velocity distribution. The kinetic theory agrees well with the simulation result.
Improved algorithm for solving nonlinear parabolized stability equations
Achieving acoustic cloak by using compressible background flow
We propose a scheme of acoustic spherical cloaking by means of background irrotational flow in compressible fluid. The background flow forms a virtual curved spacetime and directs the sound waves to bypass the cloaked objects. To satisfy the laws of real fluid, we show that spatially distributed mass source and momentum source are necessary to supply. The propagation of sound waves in this system is studied via both geometric acoustics approximation and full wave approach. The analytic solution of sound fields is obtained for plane wave incidence. The results reveal the effect of phase retardation (or lead) in comparison with the ordinary transformation-acoustic cloak. In addition, the ability of cloaking is also evaluated for unideal background flows by analyzing the scattering cross section.
Theoretical analysis of the EAST 4-strap ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna with variational theory
A new ignition hohlraum design for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion
In this paper, a six-cylinder-port hohlraum is proposed to provide high symmetry flux on capsule. It is designed to ignite a capsule with 1.2-mm radius in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Flux symmetry and laser energy are calculated by using three-dimensional view factor method and laser energy balance in hohlraum. Plasma conditions are analyzed based on the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. There is no Ylm (l≤4) asymmetry in the six-cylinder-port hohlraum when the influences of laser entrance holes (LEHs) and laser spots cancel each other out with suitable target parameters. A radiation drive with 300 eV and good flux symmetry can be achieved by using a laser energy of 2.3 MJ and peak power of 500 TW. According to the simulations, the electron temperature and the electron density on the wall of laser cone are high and low, respectively, which are similar to those of outer cones in the hohlraums on National Ignition Facility (NIF). And the laser intensity is also as low as those of NIF outer cones. So the backscattering due to laser plasma interaction (LPI) is considered to be negligible. The six-cyliner-port hohlraum could be superior to the traditional cylindrical hohlraum and the octahedral hohlraum in both higher symmetry and lower backscattering without supplementary technology at an acceptable laser energy level. It is undoubted that the hohlraum will add to the diversity of ICF approaches.
Magnetostatic interaction in electrodeposited Ni/Au multilayer nanowire arrays
First-principles calculation of the structural, electronic, elastic, and optical properties of sulfur-doping ε-GaSe crystal
Influence of shockwave profile on ejecta from shocked Pb surface: Atomistic calculations
Investigation of mechanical properties of twin gold crystal nanowires under uniaxial load by molecular dynamics method
Edge effects on the characteristics of uranium diffusion on graphene and graphene nanoribbons
The first principles density-functional theoretical calculations of U adatom adsorption and diffusion on a planar graphene and quasi-one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are performed. An energetic preference is found for U adatom diffusing to the hollow sites of both graphene and GNRs surface. A number of U distinctive diffusion paths either perpendicular or parallel to the ribbon growth direction are examined. The edge effects are evidenced by the calculated energy barriers of U adatom diffusion on armchair and zigzag nanoribbons surfaces. The calculation results indicate that the diffusion of U adatom from the inner site toward the edge site is a feasible process, particularly in zigzag GNR. It is viable to control the initial morphology of nuclear carbon material to retard the diffusion and concentration of nuclides.
Structural, elastic, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of MgAgSb investigated by density functional theory
Near-zero thermal expansion of In2(1-x)(HfMg)xMo3O12 with tailored phase transition
Influence of surface scattering on the thermal properties of spatially confined GaN nanofilm
Gallium nitride (GaN), the notable representative of third generation semiconductors, has been widely applied to optoelectronic and microelectronic devices due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we investigate the surface scattering effect on the thermal properties of GaN nanofilms. The contribution of surface scattering to phonon transport is involved in solving a Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). The confined phonon properties of GaN nanofilms are calculated based on the elastic model. The theoretical results show that the surface scattering effect can modify the cross-plane phonon thermal conductivity of GaN nanostructures completely, resulting in the significant change of size effect on the conductivity in GaN nanofilm. Compared with the quantum confinement effect, the surface scattering leads to the order-of-magnitude reduction of the cross-plane thermal conductivity in GaN nanofilm. This work could be helpful for controlling the thermal properties of GaN nanostructures in nanoelectronic devices through surface engineering.
Collective diffusion in carbon nanotubes: Crossover between one dimension and three dimensions
Stable structure and optical properties of fused silica with NBOHC-E' defect
Numerical and experimental study of the mesa configuration in high-voltage 4H-SiC PiN rectifiers
Advantages of using gold hollow nanoshells in cancer photothermal therapy
Spin-controlled directional launching of surface plasmons at the subwavelength scale
In this paper, we demonstrate a spin-controlled directional launching of surface plasmons at the subwavelength scale. Based on the principle of optical spin's effect for the geometric phase of light, the nanostructures were designed. The inclination of the structures decides the spin-related geometric phase and their relative positions decide the distance-related phase. Hence, the propagation direction of the generated surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be controlled by the spin of photons. Numerical simulations by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method have verified our theoretical prediction. Our structure is fabricated on the Au film by using a focused ion beam etching technique. The total size of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) launcher is 320 nm by 180 nm. The observation of the SPP launching by using scanning near-field optical microscopy is in agreement with our theory and simulations. This result may provide a new way of spin-controlled directional launching of SPP.
Impurity effect on surface states of Bi (111) ultrathin films Hot!
The surface impurity effect on the surface-state conductivity and weak antilocalization (WAL) effect has been investigated in epitaxial Bi (111) films by magnetotransport measurements at low temperatures. The surface-state conductivity is significantly reduced by the surface impurities of Cu, Fe, and Co. The magnetotransport data demonstrate that the observed WAL is robust against deposition of nonmagnetic impurities, but it is quenched by the deposition of magnetic impurities which break the time reversal symmetry. Our results help to shed light on the effect of surface impurities on the electron and spin transport properties of a 2D surface electron systems.
Groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS HEMT with combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
Study on influences of TiN capping layer on time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristic of ultra-thin EOT high-k metal gate NMOSFET with kMC TDDB simulations
Temperature- and voltage-dependent trap generation model in high-k metal gate MOS device with percolation simulation
Self-aligned-gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor with titanium nitride gate
Vortex quasi-crystals in mesoscopic superconducting samples Hot!
There seems to be a one to one correspondence between the phases of atomic and molecular matter (AMOM) and vortex matter (VM) in superfluids and superconductors. Crystals, liquids, and glasses have been experimentally observed in both AMOM and VM. Here, we propose a vortex quasi-crystal state which can be stabilized due to boundary and surface energy effects for samples of special shapes and sizes. For finite sized pentagonal samples, it is proposed that a phase transition between a vortex crystal and a vortex quasi-crystal occurs as a function of magnetic field and temperature as the sample size is reduced.
Entanglement in a two-spin system with long-range interactions
Magnetocaloric and magnetic properties of La2NiMnO6 double perovskite
Magnetoelectric memory effect in the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrZnMgFe12O22
We report on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrZnMgFe12O22, which undergoes transitions from a collinear ferrimagnetic phase to a proper screw phase at 310 K and to a longitudinal conical phase at 45 K. Magnetic and electric measurements revealed that the magnetic structure with spiral spin order can be modified by applying a magnetic field, resulting in magnetically controllable electric polarization.It was observed that BaSrZnMgFe12O22 exhibits an anomalous magnetoelectric memory effect: the ferroelectric state can be partially recovered from the paraelectric phase with collinear spin structure by reducing magnetic field at 20 K. We ascribe this memory effect to the pinning of multiferroic domain walls, where spin chirality and structure are preserved even in the nonpolar collinear spin state.
Electron trapping properties at HfO2/SiO2 interface, studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy and theoretical analysis
Electron trapping properties at the HfO2/SiO2 interface have been measured through Kelvin Probe force microscopy, between room temperature and 90℃. The electron diffusion in HfO2 shows a multiple-step process. After injection, electrons diffuse quickly toward the HfO2/SiO2 interface and then diffuse laterally near the interface in two sub-steps: The first is a fast diffusion through shallow trap centers and the second is a slow diffusion through deep trap centers. Evolution of contact potential difference profile in the fast lateral diffusion sub-step was simulated by solving a diffusion equation with a term describing the charge loss. In this way, the diffusion coefficient and the average life time at different temperatures were extracted. A value of 0.57 eV was calculated for the activation energy of the shallow trap centers in HfO2.
Enhanced energy storage behaviors in free-standing antiferroelectric Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O3 thin membranes
Free-standing antiferroelectric Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O3 (PZT(95/5)) thin film is fabricated on 200-nm-thick Pt foil by using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that free-standing PZT(95/5) film possesses an a-axis preferred orientation. The critical electric field for the 300-nm-thick free-standing PZT(95/5) film transiting from antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phases is increased to 770 kV/cm, but its saturation polarization remains almost unchanged as compared with that of the substrate-clamped PZT(95/5) film. The energy storage density and energy efficiency of the substrate-clamped PZT(95/5) film are 6.49 J/cm3 and 54.5%, respectively. In contrast, after removing the substrate, the energy storage density and energy efficiency of the free-standing PZT(95/5) film are enhanced up to 17.45 J/cm3 and 67.9%, respectively.
Exciton-phonon interaction in Al0.4Ga0.6N/Al0.53Ga0.47N multiple quantum wells
Microtrap on a concave grating reflector for atom trapping
Ultra-wideband reflective polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface
Preparation of patterned boron nanowire films with different widths of unit-cell and their field emission properties
Large-area patterned films of boron nanowires (BNWs) are fabricated at various densities by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Different widths of unit-cell of Mo masks are used as templates. The widths of unit-cell of Mo masks are 100 μm, 150 μm, and 200 μm, respectively. The distance between unit cells is 50 μm. The BNWs have an average diameter of about 20 nm and lengths of 10 μm-20 μm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that each nanowire has a β-tetragonal structure with good crystallization. Field emission measurements of the BNW films show that their turn-on electric fields decrease with width of unit-cell increasing.
Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications
Effects of Mg on diamond growth and properties in Fe-C system under high pressure and high temperature condition
Correlation of polishing-induced shallow subsurface damages with laser-induced gray haze damages in fused silica optics
Laser-induced damage in fused silica optics greatly restricts the performances of laser facilities. Gray haze damage, which is always initiated on ceria polished optics, is one of the most important damage morphologies in fused silica optics. In this paper, the laser-induced gray haze damages of four fused silica samples polished with CeO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, and colloidal silica slurries are investigated. Four samples all present gray haze damages with much different damage densities. Then, the polishing-induced contaminant and subsurface damages in four samples are analyzed. The results reveal that the gray haze damages could be initiated on the samples without Ce contaminant and are inclined to show a tight correlation with the shallow subsurface damages.
Novel Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag@Ni trepang-like nanocomposites: High-efficiency and magnetic recyclable catalysts for organic dye degradation
Metallic spherical anechoic chamber for antenna pattern measurement
Compensation of body shake errors in terahertz beam scanning single frequency holography for standoff personnel screening
In the terahertz (THz) band, the inherent shake of the human body may strongly impair the image quality of a beam scanning single frequency holography system for personnel screening. To realize accurate shake compensation in imaging processing, it is quite necessary to develop a high-precision measure system. However, in many cases, different parts of a human body may shake to different extents, resulting in greatly increasing the difficulty in conducting a reasonable measurement of body shake errors for image reconstruction. In this paper, a body shake error compensation algorithm based on the raw data is proposed. To analyze the effect of the body shake on the raw data, a model of echoed signal is rebuilt with considering both the beam scanning mode and the body shake. According to the rebuilt signal model, we derive the body shake error estimated method to compensate for the phase error. Simulation on the reconstruction of point targets with shake errors and proof-of-principle experiments on the human body in the 0.2-THz band are both performed to confirm the effectiveness of the body shake compensation algorithm proposed.
Fabrication of Al/AlOx/Al junctions using pre-exposure technique at 30-keV e-beam voltage
We fabricate high-quality Al/AlOx/Al junctions using improved bridge and bridge-free techniques at 30-keV e-beam voltage, in which the length of undercut and the size of junction can be well controlled by the pre-exposure technique. The dose window is 5 times as large as that used in the usual Dolan bridge technique, making this technique much more robust. Similar results, comparable with those achieved using a 100-keV e-beam writer, are obtained, which indicate that the 30-keV e-beam writer could be an economic choice for the superconducting qubit fabrication.
Modeling of trap-assisted tunneling on performance of charge trapping memory with consideration of trap position and energy level
In this work, the trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) mechanism is modeled as a two-step physical process for charge trapping memory (CTM). The influence of the TAT mechanism on CTM performance is investigated in consideration of various trap positions and energy levels. For the simulated CTM structure, simulation results indicate that the positions of oxide traps related to the maximum TAT current contribution shift towards the substrate interface and charge storage layer interface during time evolutions in programming and retention operations, respectively. Lower programming voltage and retention operations under higher temperature are found to be more sensitive to tunneling oxide degradation.
Improvement in the electrical performance and bias-stress stability of dual-active-layered silicon zinc oxide/zinc oxide thin-film transistor
Analysis of the damage threshold of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse
Improved performance of near UV light-emitting diodes with a composition-graded p-AlGaN irregular sawtooth electron-blocking layer
Effect of a force-free end on the mechanical property of a biopolymer–A path integral approach
We study the effect of a force-free end on the mechanical property of a stretched biopolymer. The system can be divided into two parts. The first part consists of the segment counted from the fixed point (i.e., the origin) to the forced point in the biopolymer, with arclength Lf. The second part consists of the segment counted from the forced point to the force-free end with arclength ΔL. We apply the path integral technique to find the relationship between these two parts. At finite temperature and without any constraint at the end, we show exactly that if we focus on the quantities related to the first part, then we can ignore the second part completely. Monte Carlo simulation confirms this conclusion. In contrast, the effect for the quantities related to the second part is dependent on what we want to observe. A force-free end has little effect on the relative extension, but it affects seriously the value of the end-to-end distance if ΔL is comparable to Lf.
Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells
Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections
Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened.
Optimized routing strategy for complex network with multiple priorities