Hamiltonian structure, Darboux transformation for a soliton hierarchy associated with Lie algebra so(4, C)
New solutions from nonlocal symmetry of the generalized fifth order KdV equation
Harmonic signal extraction from noisy chaotic interference based on synchrosqueezed wavelet transform
For the harmonic signal extraction from chaotic interference, a harmonic signal extraction method is proposed based on synchrosqueezed wavelet transform (SWT). First, the mixed signal of chaotic signal, harmonic signal, and noise is decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode-type functions by synchrosqueezed wavelet transform (SWT) then the instantaneous frequency of intrinsic mode-type functions is analyzed by using of Hilbert transform, and the harmonic extraction is realized. In experiments of harmonic signal extraction, the Duffing and Lorenz chaotic signals are selected as interference signal, and the mixed signal of chaotic signal and harmonic signal is added by Gauss white noises of different intensities. The experimental results show that when the white noise intensity is in a certain range, the extracting harmonic signals measured by the proposed SWT method have higher precision, the harmonic signal extraction effect is obviously superior to the classical empirical mode decomposition method.
Fractional-order LβCα filter circuit network
Inverse problem of quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians
Wave–particle duality in a Raman atom interferometer
Decay of N-qubit GHZ states in Pauli channels
Population dynamics of excited atoms in non-Markovian environments at zero and finite temperature
The population dynamics of a two-atom system, which is in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs or in two independent Ohmic reservoirs respectively, where the reservoirs are at zero temperature or finite temperature, is studied by using the time-convolutionless master-equation method. The influences of the characteristics and temperature of a non-Markovian environment on the population of the excited atoms are analyzed. We find that the population trapping of the excited atoms is related to the characteristics and the temperature of the non-Markovian environment. The results show that, at zero temperature, the two atoms can be effectively trapped in the excited state both in the Lorentzian reservoirs and in the Ohmic reservoirs. At finite temperature, the population of the excited atoms will quickly decay to a nonzero value.
An optimized encoding method for secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement and its extension
Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song's encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song's schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states.
Faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on hyperentanglement against collective noise
Decoherence in optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm
Two-color laser modulation of magnetic Feshbach resonances
The stability of Majorana fermion in correlated quantum wire
In this paper, we investigate the effect of the Coulomb interaction between electrons on the stability of Majorana fermion in a heterostructure of s-wave superconductor and quantum wire. In particular, by using the bosonization method and the renormalization group technique, we show that interplay between the so-called umklapp electron–electron scattering process and the superconducting proximity effect plays an extremely important role in determining the phase diagram of the system. We find that, at half-filling, the strong umklapp scattering process suppresses not only the superconducting pairing interaction and hence, destabilizes Majorana fermion in the quantum wire, but aslo results in a Mott insulating state. However, if the proximity effect is sufficiently strong, the topological superconducting phase can still survive and support Majorana fermion in the heterostructure. Furthermore, the existence of a critical Luttinger liquid phase is also found in a narrow region of parameters.
Chaotic dynamics and its analysis of Hindmarsh–Rose neurons by Shil'nikov approach
Fractional-order systems without equilibria: The first example of hyperchaos and its application to synchronization
Secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos. At the transmitter end, the state variables of the coupled map lattice system are divided into two groups: one is used as the key to encrypt the plaintext in the N-shift encryption function, and the other is used to mix with the output of the N-shift function to further confuse the information to transmit. At the receiver end, the receiver lattices are driven by the received signal to synchronize with the transmitter lattices and an inverse procedure of the encoding is conducted to decode the information. Numerical simulation and experiment based on the TI TMS320C6713 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) show the feasibility and the validity of the proposed scheme.
Molecular modeling of oscillating GHz electric field influence on the kinesin affinity to microtubule
Design and fabrication of structural color by local surface plasmonic meta-molecules
Piecewise spectrally band-pass for compressive coded aperture spectral imaging
Spectral properties of endohedrally confined helium atom
Based on the B-spline basis method, the properties of the helium atom confined inside an endohedral environment, such as buckminster fullerene, are studied. In our calculations, the endohedral environment is a parabolic potential well. In this situation, the phenomenon of “mirror collapse” is exhibited for energy levels of a confined helium atom. The “giant resonance” of oscillator strength of the dipole transition emerges with the variation of depth of the confining well. The physical mechanisms of these phenomena are analyzed in this paper.
Electric dipole moment function and line intensities for the ground state of carbon monxide
Electron impact excitation of helium atom
A method to deal with the electron impact excitation cross sections of an atom from low to high incident energies are presented. This method combines the partial wave method and the first Born approximation (FBA), i.e., replacing the several lowest partial wave cross sections of the total cross sections within FBA by the corresponding exact partial wave cross sections. A new set of codes are developed to calculate the FBA partial wave cross sections. Using this method, the convergent e–He collision cross sections of optical-forbidden and optical-allowed transitions at low to high incident energies are obtained. The calculation results demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the method.
State-to-state quantum dynamics of the N(4S)+H2 (X1Σ+)→NH(X3∑-)+H(2S) reaction and its reaction mechanism analysis
Photodetachment of H- near a hard wall with arbitrary laser polarization direction
Optically pumped quantum Mx–MR magnetometer with high oscillating magnetic field
Branching ratios of autoionization from Eu 4f76p1/26d [J] autoionizing states
Study on the A2Π3/2u, B2Δ3/2u, and X2Π3/2g states of Cl2+ including its isotopologues
Atomic motion in the magneto–optical trap consisting of partially spatially coherent laser
Rb atom motion in a magneto–optical trap (MOT) consisting of a partially spatially coherent laser (PSCL) is investigated theoretically. The spatial coherence of the laser is controlled by the electro–optic crystal. The instantaneous spatial distribution of the dissipative force induced by the PSCL on an Rb atom is varying with time stochastically. The simulated results indicate that compared with a fully coherent laser, the spatial coherent laser has effects on the atomic trajectories; however, the capture velocity and the escape velocity are kept the same. The main reason is that the spatial coherence of the laser fluctuates temporally and spatially, but the average photon scattering rate varies little, which makes the total number of atoms and the atomic density distribution unchanged.
Compensating for excess micromotion of ion crystals
Switchable multi-wavelength fiber laser based on modal interference
Characteristic of femtosecond laser-pulsed digital holography
Strong violations of locality by testing Bell's inequality with improved entangled-photon systems
Double transmission peaks electromagnetically induced transparency induced by simultaneously exciting the electric and magnetic resonance in one unit cell
Plasma induced by pulsed laser and fabrication of silicon nanostructures
Passive harmonic mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using CVD-grown few-layer MoS2 as a saturable absorber
Effect of pulse width on near-infrared supercontinuum generation in nonlinear fiber amplifier
Compact, temperature-stable multi-gigahertz passively modelocked semiconductor disk laser
Optical coherence transfer over 50-km spooled fiber with frequency instability of 2×10-17 at 1 s
We demonstrate coherent transfer of an ultra-stable optical frequency at 192.8 THz over 50-km spooled fiber. Random phase noise induced by environmental disturbance through fiber is detected and suppressed by feeding a correctional signal into an acousto-optic modulator. After being compensated, the fiber-induced frequency instability is 2×10-17 at 1-s averaging time and reaches 8×10-20 after 16 h. The noise floor of the compensation system could be as low as 2×10-18 at 1-s averaging time.
Evolution of dark solitons in the presence of Ramangain and self-steepening effect
Control over hysteresis curves and thresholds of optical bistability in different semiconductor double quantum wells
Optimizational 6-bit all-optical quantization with soliton self-frequency shift and pre-chirp spectral compression techniques based on photonic crystal fiber
In this paper, we optimize a proposed all-optical quantization scheme based on soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and pre-chirp spectral compression techniques. A 10m-long high-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is used as an SSFS medium relevant to the power of the sampled optical pulses. Furthermore, a 10m-long dispersion flattened hybrid cladding hexagonal-octagonal PCF (6/8-PCF) is utilized as a spectral compression medium to further enhance the resolution. Simulation results show that 6-bit quantization resolution is still obtained when a 100m-long dispersion-increasing fiber (DIF) is replaced by a 6/8-PCF in spectral compression module.
Estimation of random errors for lidar based on noise scale factor
Estimation of random errors, which are due to shot noise of photomultiplier tube (PMT) or avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors, is very necessary in lidar observation. Due to the Poisson distribution of incident electrons, there still exists a proportional relationship between standard deviation and square root of its mean value. Based on this relationship, noise scale factor (NSF) is introduced into the estimation, which only needs a single data sample. This method overcomes the distractions of atmospheric fluctuations during calculation of random errors. The results show that this method is feasible and reliable.
Comparison between iterative wavefront control algorithm and direct gradient wavefront control algorithm for adaptive optics system
Effects of core position of locally resonant scatterers on low-frequency acoustic absorption in viscoelastic panel
Locally resonant sonic materials, due to their ability to control the propagation of low-frequency elastic waves, have become a promising option for underwater sound absorption materials. In this paper, the finite element method is used to investigate the absorption characteristics of a viscoelastic panel periodically embedded with a type of infinite-long non-coaxially cylindrical locally resonant scatterers (LRSs). The effect of the core position in the coating layer of the LRS on the low-frequency (500 Hz–3000 Hz) sound absorption property is investigated. With increasing the longitudinal core eccentricity e, there occur few changes in the absorptance at the frequencies below 1500 Hz, however, the absorptance above 1500 Hz becomes gradually better and the valid absorption (with absorptance above 0.8) frequency band (VAFB) of the viscoelastic panel becomes accordingly broader. The absorption mechanism is revealed by using the displacement field maps of the viscoelastic panel and the steel slab. The results show two typical resonance modes. One is the overall resonance mode (ORM) caused by steel backing, and the other is the core resonance mode (CRM) caused by LRS. The absorptance of the viscoelastic panel by ORM is induced mainly by the vibration of the steel slab and affected little by core position. On the contrary, with increasing the core eccentricity, the CRM shifts toward high frequency band and decouples with the ORM, leading to two separate absorption peaks and the broadened VAFB of the panel.
Direct numerical simulation of viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid turbulent channel flow with heat transfer
On the ascent of infinite dimensional Hamiltonian operators
A novel method of evaluating the lift force on the bluff body based on Noca's flux equation
Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate
In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C–O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C–C or C–H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells.
Particle-in-cell simulation for different magnetic mirror effects on the plasma distribution in a cusped field thruster
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure study of MnFeP0.56Si0.44 compound
The MnFeP0.56Si0.44 compound is investigated by x-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. It crystallizes in Fe2P-type structure with the lattice parameters a =b = 5.9823(0) Å and c = 3.4551(1) Å and undergoes a first-order phase transition at the Curie temperature of 255 K. The Fe K edge and Mn K edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra show that Mn atoms mainly reside at 3g sites, while 3f sites are occupied by Fe atoms. The distances between the absorbing Fe atom and the first and second nearest neighbor Fe atoms in a 3f-layer shift from 2.65 Å and 4.01 Å in the ferromagnetic state to 2.61 Å and 3.96 Å in the paramagnetic phase. On the other hand, the distance between the 3g-layer and 3f-layer changes a little as 2.66 Å–2.73 Å below the Curie temperature and 2.68 Å–2.75 Å above it.
Irradiation effects of graphene and thin layer graphite induced by swift heavy ions Hot!
Graphene and thin graphite films deposited on SiO2/Si are irradiated by swift heavy ions (209Bi, 9.5 MeV/u) with the fluences in a range of 1011 ions/cm2–1012 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Both pristine and irradiated samples are investigated by Raman spectroscopy. For pristine graphite films, the "blue shift" of 2D bond and the "red shift" of G bond with the decrease of thickness are found in the Raman spectra. For both irradiated graphene and thin graphite films, the disorder-induced D peak and D' peak are detected at the fluence above a threshold Φth. The thinner the film, the lower the Φth is. In this work, the graphite films thicker than 60 nm reveal defect free via the absence of a D bond signal under the swift heavy ion irradiation till the fluence of 2.6×1012 ions/cm2. For graphite films thinner than 6 nm, the area ratios between D peak and G peak increase sharply with reducing film thickness. It concludes that it is much easier to induce defects in thinner films than in thicker ones by swift heavy ions. The intensities of the D peak and D' peak increase with increasing ion fluence, which predicts the continuous impacting of swift heavy ions can lead to the increasing of defects in samples. Different defect types are detected in graphite films of different thickness values. The main defect types are discussed via the various intensity ratios between the D peak and D' peak (HD/HD').
Analytical model for describing ion guiding through capillaries in insulating polymers
Accurate calculations of the high-pressure elastic constants based on the first-principles
First-principles verification of CuNNi3 and ZnNNi3 as phonon mediated superconductors
Bending-induced phase transition in monolayer black phosphorus
Bending-induced phase transition in monolayer black phosphorus is investigated through first principles calculations. By wrapping the layer into nanotubes along armchair and zigzag directions with different curvatures, it is found that phase transitions of the tubes occur when radius of curvature is smaller than 5 Å in bending along the zigzag direction, while the tubes remain stable along the armchair direction. Small zigzag tubes with odd numbered monolayer unit cells tend to transfer toward armchair-like phases, but the tubes with even numbered monolayer unit cells transfer into new complex bonding structures. The mechanism for the bending-induced phase transition is revealed by the comprehensive analyses of the bending strain energies, electron density distributions, and band structures. The results show significant anisotropic bending stability of black phosphorus and should be helpful for its mechanical cleavage fabrication in large size.
Surface-charge-governed electrolyte transport in carbon nanotubes
Improvement of variational approach in an interacting two-fermion system
Contact angle hysteresis in electrowetting on dielectric
Structured dark-field imaging for single nano-particles
In this work, we extensively describe and demonstrate the structured dark-field imaging (SDFI). SDFI is a newly proposed x-ray microscopy designed for revealing the fine features below Rayleigh resolution, in which different orders of scattered x-ray photons are collected by changing the numerical aperture of the condenser. Here, the samples of single particles are discussed to extend the scope of the SDFI technique reported in a previous work (Chen J, Gao K, Ge X, et al. 2013 Opt. Lett. 38 2068). In addition, the details of the newly invented algorithm are explained, which is able to calculate the intensity of any pixel on the image plane rapidly and reliably.
Indenter size effect on the reversible incipient plasticity of Al (001) surface: Quasicontinuum study
Silicene: from monolayer to multilayer–A concise review
Silicene, a newly isolated silicon allotrope with a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice structure, is predicted to have electronic properties similar to those of graphene, including the existence of signature Dirac fermions. Furthermore, the strong spin–orbit interaction of Si atoms potentially makes silicene an experimentally accessible 2D topological insulator. Since 2012, silicene films have been experimentally synthesized on Ag (111) and other substrates, motivating a burst of research on silicene. We and collaborators have employed STM investigations and first principles calculations to intensively study the structure and electronic properties of silicene films on Ag (111), including monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer silicenes, as well as hydrogenation of silicene.
A review of the growth and structures of silicene on Ag (111)
Ag (111) is currently the most often used substrate for growing silicene films. Silicene forms a variety of different phases on the Ag (111) substrate. However, the structures of these phases are still not fully understood so far. In this brief review we summarize the growth condition and resulting silicene phases on Ag (111), and discuss the most plausible structural model and electronic property of individual phases. The existing debates on silicene on Ag (111) system are clarified as mush as possible.
Fabrication and properties of silicene and silicene–graphene layered structures on Ir (111)
Silicene, a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structure similar to graphene, has been successfully fabricated on various substrates. This work will mainly review the syntheses and the corresponding properties of silicene and silicene–graphene layered structures on Ir (111) substrates. For silicene on Ir (111), the buckled (√3×√3) silicene/(√7×√7) Ir (111) configuration and its electronic structure are fully discussed. For silicene–graphene layered structures, silicene layer can be constructed underneath graphene layer by an intercalation method. These results indicate the possibility of integrating silicene with graphene and may link up with potential applications in nanoelectronics and related areas.
Chemical modification of silicene
Silicene is a two-dimensional (2D) material, which is composed of a single layer of silicon atoms with sp2–sp3 mixed hybridization. The sp2–sp3 mixed hybridization renders silicene excellent reactive ability, facilitating the chemical modification of silicene. It has been demonstrated that chemical modification effectively enables the tuning of the properties of silicene. We now review all kinds of chemical modification methods for silicene, including hydrogenation, halogenation, organic surface modification, oxidation, doping and formation of 2D hybrids. The effects of these chemical modification methods on the geometrical, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of silicene are discussed. The potential applications of chemically modified silicene in a variety of fields such as electronics, optoelectronics, and magnetoelectronics are introduced. We finally envision future work on the chemical modification of silicene for further advancing the development of silicene.
Silicene spintronics–A concise review
Spintronics involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. The fascinating spin-resolved properties of graphene motivate numerous researchers to study spintronics in graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials. Silicene, the silicon analog of graphene, is considered to be a promising material for spintronics. Here, we present a review of theoretical advances with regard to spin-dependent properties, including the electric field-and exchange field-tunable topological properties of silicene and the corresponding spintronic device simulations.
Modulation of electronic properties with external fields in silicene-based nanostructures
This work reviews our recent works about the density functional theory (DFT) calculational aspects of electronic properties in silicene-based nanostructures with the modulation of external fields, such as electric field, strain, etc. For the two-dimensional (2D) silicene-based nonostructures, the magnetic moment of Fe-doped silicene shows a sharp jump at a threshold electric field, which indicates a good switching effect, implying potential applications as a magnetoelectric (ME) diode. With the electric field, the good controllability and sharp switching of the magnetism may offer a potential applications in the ME devices. For the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, the silicene nanoribbons with sawtooth edges (SSiNRs) are more stable than the zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) and show spin-semiconducting features. Under external electric field or uniaxial compressive strain, the gapless spin-semiconductors are gained, which is significant in designing qubits for quantum computing in spintronics. The superlattice structures of silicene-based armchair nanoribbons (ASiSLs) is another example for 1D silicene nanostructures. The band structures of ASiSLs can be modulated by the size and strain of the superlattices. With the stain increased, the related energy gaps of ASiSLs will change, which are significantly different with that of the constituent nanoribbons. The results suggest potential applications in designing quantum wells.
Growth mechanism and modification of electronic and magnetic properties of silicene
Silicene, a monolayer of silicon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has been undergoing rapid development in recent years due to its superior electronic properties and its compatibility with mature silicon-based semiconductor technology. The successful synthesis of silicene on several substrates provides a solid foundation for the use of silicene in future microelectronic devices. In this review, we discuss the growth mechanism of silicene on an Ag (111) surface, which is crucial for achieving high quality silicene. Several critical issues related to the electronic properties of silicene are also summarized, including the point defect effect, substrate effect, intercalation of alkali metal, and alloying with transition metals.
Silicene on substrates: A theoretical perspective
Silicene, as the silicon analog of graphene, is successfully fabricated by epitaxially growing it on various substrates. Like free-standing graphene, free-standing silicene possesses a honeycomb structure and Dirac-cone-shaped energy band, resulting in many fascinating properties such as high carrier mobility, quantum spin Hall effect, quantum anomalous Hall effect, and quantum valley Hall effect. The existence of the honeycomb crystal structure and the Dirac cone of silicene is crucial for observation of its intrinsic properties. In this review, we systematically discuss the substrate effects on the atomic structure and electronic properties of silicene from a theoretical point of view, especially with emphasis on the changes of the Dirac cone.
Electronic structure of silicene
In this topical review, we discuss the electronic structure of free-standing silicene by comparing results obtained using different theoretical methods. Silicene is a single atomic layer of silicon similar to graphene. The interest in silicene is the same as for graphene, in being two-dimensional and possessing a Dirac cone. One advantage of silicene is due to its compatibility with current silicon electronics. Both empirical and first-principles techniques have been used to study the electronic properties of silicene. We will provide a brief overview of the parameter space for first-principles calculations. However, since the theory is standard, no extensive discussion will be included. Instead, we will emphasize what empirical methods can provide to such investigations and the current state of these theories. Finally, we will review the properties computed using both types of theories for free-standing silicene, with emphasis on areas where we have contributed. Comparisons to graphene is provided throughout.
Silicene transistors–A review
Free standing silicene is a two-dimensional silicon monolayer with a buckled honeycomb lattice and a Dirac band structure. Ever since its first successful synthesis in the laboratory, silicene has been considered as an option for post-silicon electronics, as an alternative to graphene and other two-dimensional materials. Despite its theoretical high carrier mobility, the zero band gap characteristic makes pure silicene impossible to use directly as a field effect transistor (FET) operating at room temperature. Here, we first review the theoretical approaches to open a band gap in silicene without diminishing its excellent electronic properties and the corresponding simulations of silicene transistors based on an opened band gap. An all-metallic silicene FET without an opened band gap is also introduced. The two chief obstacles for realization of a silicene transistor are silicene's strong interaction with a metal template and its instability in air. In the final part, we briefly describe a recent experimental advance in fabrication of a proof-of-concept silicene device with Dirac ambipolar charge transport resembling a graphene FET, fabricated via a growth-transfer technique.
Domain boundaries in silicene: Density functional theory calculations on electronic properties
By using density functional theory (DFT)-based first-principles calculations, the structural stability and electronic properties for two kinds of silicene domain boundaries, forming along armchair edge and zigzag edge, have been investigated. The results indicate that a linkage of tetragonal and octagonal rings (4|8) appears along the armchair edge, while a linkage of paired pentagonal and octagonal rings (5|5|8) appears along the zigzag edge. Different from graphene, the buckling properties of silicene lead to two mirror symmetrical edges of silicene line-defect. The formation energies indicate that the 5|5|8 domain boundary is more stable than the 4|8 domain boundary. Similar to graphene, the calculated electronic properties show that the 5|5|8 domain boundaries exhibit metallic properties and the 4|8 domain boundaries are half-metal. Both domain boundaries create the perfect one-dimensional (1D) metallic wires. Due to the metallic properties, these two kinds of nanowires can be used to build the silicene-based devices.
Comparison of electronic structure between monolayer silicenes on Ag (111)
Antiferromagnetic and topological states in silicene: A mean field study
Low-temperature charged impurity scattering-limited conductivity in relatively high doped bilayer graphene
Spin pumping through magnetic impurity effect Hot!
We propose a simple adiabatic quantum spin pump to generate pure spin current. The spin pump is driven by an ac gate voltage and a time-dependent magnetic impurity potential. It is found that the total pumped spin per cycle exhibits oscillations, whose magnitude decays exponentially with changing strength of the impurity potential. The proposed method may be useful for spintronic applications.
Tunable multiple plasmon resonances and local field enhancement of nanocrescent/nanoring structure
Charge trapping behavior and its origin in Al2O3/SiC MIS system
Charge trapping behavior and its origin in Al2O3/SiC MOS structure are investigated by analyzing the capacitance–voltage (C–V) hysteresis and the chemical composition of the interface. The C–V hysteresis is measured as a function of oxide thickness series for an Al2O3/SiC MIS capacitor. The distribution of the trapped charges, extracted from the C–V curves, is found to mainly follow a sheet charge model rather than a bulk charge model. Therefore, the electron injection phenomenon is evaluated by using linear fitting. It is found that most of the trapped charges are not distributed exactly at the interface but are located in the bulk of the Al2O3 layers, especially close to the border. Furthermore, there is no detectable oxide interface layer in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. In addition, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) analysis shows that the width of the Al2O3/SiC interface is less than 1 nm. It could be concluded that the charge trapping sites in Al2O3/SiC structure might mainly originate from the border traps in Al2O3 film rather than the interface traps in the interfacial transition layer.
Hetero-epitaxy of Lg=0.13-μm metamorphic AlInAs/GaInAs HEMT on Si substrates by MOCVD for logic applications
Influence of the AlGaN barrier thickness on polarization Coulomb field scattering in an AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor
Evolution of structure and magnetic properties in PrCo5 magnet for high energy ball milling in ethanol
Magnetization plateaus and frequency dispersion of hysteresis on frustrated dipolar array
Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of graphene-oxide(GO)/polyaniline nanocomposite with gold nanoparticles
Influence of Al3+ doping on the energy levels and thermal property of the 3.5MgO·0.5MgF2·GeO2:Mn4+ red-emitting phosphor
Photoluminescence of rare-earth ion (Eu3+, Tm3+, and Er3+)-doped and co-doped ZnNb2O6 for solar cells
Visible converted emissions produced at an excitation of 286 nm in ZnNb2O6 ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu3+, Tm3+, Er3+ or a combination of these ions) were investigated with the aim of increasing the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells. The structure of RE:ZnNb2O6 ceramics was confirmed by x-ray diffraction patterns. The undoped ZnNb2O6 could emit a blue emission under 286-nm excitation, which is attributed to the self-trapped excitons' recombination of the efficient luminescence centers of edge-shared NbO6 groups. Upon 286-nm excitation, Eu:ZnNb2O6, Tm:ZnNb2O6, and Er:ZnNb2O6 ceramics showed blue, green, and red emissions, which correspond to the transitions of 5D0→7FJ (J = 1-4) (Eu3+), 1G4 → 3H6 (Tm3+), and 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 (Er3+), respectively. The calculated CIE chromaticity coordinates of Eu:ZnNb2O6, Tm:ZnNb2O6, and Er:ZnNb2O6 are (0.50, 0.31), (0.14, 0.19), and (0.29, 0.56), respectively. RE ionco- doped ZnNb2O6 showed a combination of characteristic emissions. The chromaticity coordinates of Eu/Tm:ZnNb2O6, Eu/Er:ZnNb2O6, and Tm/Er:ZnNb2O6 were calculated to be (0.29, 0.24), (0.45, 0.37), and (0.17, 0.25).
Theoretical study of the effects of vacancy and oxygen impurity on Ti2GaC
A superhigh discharge capacity induced by a synergetic effect between high-surface-area carbons and a carbon paper current collector in a lithium–oxygen battery
This paper invesitages the synergetic effect between high-surface-area carbons, such as Ketjan Black (KB) or Super P (SP) carbon materials, and low-surface-area carbon paper (CP) current collectors and it also examines their influence on the discharge performance of nonaqueous Li–O2 cells. Ultra-large specific discharge capacities are found in the KB/CP cathodes, which are much greater than those observed in the individual KB or CP cathodes. Detailed analysis indicates that such unexpectedly large capacities result from the synergetic effect between the two components. During the initial discharges of KB or SP materials, a large number of superoxide radical (O2·-) species in the electrolytes and Li2O2 nuclei at the CP surfaces are formed, which activate the CP current collectors to contribute considerable capacities. These results imply that CP could be a superior material for current collectors in terms of its contribution to the overall discharge capacity. On the other hand, we should be careful to calculate the specific capacities of the oxygen cathodes when using CP as a current collector; i.e., ignoring the contribution from the CP may cause overstated discharge capacities.
Path integral Monte Carlo study of (H2)n@C70 (n=1,2,3)
The path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method is employed to study the thermal properties of C70 with one, two, and three H2 molecules confined in the cage, respectively. The interaction energies and vibrationally averaged spatial distributions under different temperatures are calculated to evaluate the stabilities of (H2)n@C70 (n=1, 2, 3). The results show that (H2)2@C70 is more stable than H2@C70. The interaction energy slowly changes in a large temperature range, so temperature has little effect on the stability of the system. For H2@C70 and (H2)2@C70, the interaction energies keep negative; however, when three H2 molecules are in the cage, the interaction energy rapidly increases to a positive value. This implies that at most two H2 molecules can be trapped by C70. With an increase of temperature, the peak of the spatial distribution gradually shifts away from the center of the cage, but the maximum distance from the center of H2 molecule to the cage center is much smaller than the average radius of C70.
Effects of Fe additive on diamond crystallization from carbonyl nickel powders-C system under HPHT condition
Molecular dynamics simulation on generalized stacking fault energies of FCC metals under preloading stress
Microwave dielectric properties of Nextel-440 fiber fabrics with pyrolytic carbon coatings in the temperature range from room temperature to 700 ℃
Switching mechanism for TiO2 memristor and quantitative analysis of exponential model parameters
The memristor, as the fourth basic circuit element, has drawn worldwide attention since its physical implementation was released by HP Labs in 2008. However, at the nano-scale, there are many difficulties for memristor physical realization. So a better understanding and analysis of a good model will help us to study the characteristics of a memristor. In this paper, we analyze a possible mechanism for the switching behavior of a memristor with a Pt/TiO2/Pt structure, and explain the changes of electronic barrier at the interface of Pt/TiO2. Then, a quantitative analysis about each parameter in the exponential model of memristor is conducted based on the calculation results. The analysis results are validated by simulation results. The efforts made in this paper will provide researchers with theoretical guidance on choosing appropriate values for (α, β, χ, γ) in this exponential model.
Effects of back gate bias on radio-frequency performance in partially depleted silicon-on-inslator nMOSFETs
Single-event response of the SiGe HBT in TCAD simulations and laser microbeam experiment
Low frequency noise and radiation response in the partially depleted SOI MOSFETs with ion implanted buried oxide
Influence of white light illumination on the performance of a-IGZO thin film transistor under positive gate-bias stress
Theoretical study of interactions between striated cylindrical particles and membrane Hot!
The interaction of nanoparticles with cell membranes is of great importance because of their potential biomedical applications. In this paper, we investigate the adhesion of stripe-patterned cylinders to a fluid membrane with a full consideration of the Helfrich free energy. Three situations are considered: one striated cylindrical particle, two pure cylindrical particles, and two Janus cylindrical particles. It is found that, with the adhesion of a single sparse striated cylinder, there are a variety of steady-states with energy barriers and the stable state is determined by the pattern of the cylinder. However, when the particle is densely striped, it has no effect on the stable state. By comparing the wrapping degree of two cylindrical particles with that of a single cylindrical particle, we find that two pure cylindrical particles can promote or suppress their interaction with the membrane under different situations. However, two Janus cylindrical particles can only inhibit their interaction with the membrane. Besides, this interaction is related to a first-order transition which is a shallow-to-deep wrapping transition for two pure cylinders while it is a shallow-to-half wrapping transition for two Janus cylinders. Furthermore, the position where the transition happens as a function of adhesion energy is given for fixed membrane tension and the precondition of the transition is presented.
Stability of focal adhesion enhanced by its inner force fluctuation
Cells actively sense and respond to mechanical signals from the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions. By representing a single focal adhesion as a cluster of slip bonds, it has been demonstrated that the cluster often became unstable under fluctuated forces. However, an unusual case was also reported, where the stability of the cluster might be substantially enhanced by a fluctuated force with a relatively low fluctuation frequency and high fluctuation amplitude. Such an observation cannot be explained by the conventional fracture theory of fatigue. Here, we intensively investigate this intriguing observation by carrying out systematic parametric studies. Our intensive simulation results indicate that stability enhancement of this kind is in fact quite robust, which can be affected by the stochastic features of a single bond and the profile of the fluctuated forces such as the average value of bond force. We then suggest that the fluctuation of traction force within a focal adhesion might enhance its stability in a certain way.
Theoretical investigation on generating terahertz radiation from gas plasma induced by three-color ultrashort lasers
Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum
Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases.
Establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the safe and efficient steady-following state
Oscillatory Shannon entropy in the process of equilibration of nonequilibrium crystalline systems
A study of the early warning signals of abrupt change in the Pacific decadal oscillation