A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method.

This is the second of two consecutive papers focusing on the filtering algorithm for a nonlinear stochastic discrete-time system with linear system state equation. The first paper established a derivative unscented Kalman filter (DUKF) to eliminate the redundant computational load of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) due to the use of unscented transformation (UT) in the prediction process. The present paper studies the error behavior of the DUKF using the boundedness property of stochastic processes. It is proved that the estimation error of the DUKF remains bounded if the system satisfies certain conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that the design of the measurement noise covariance matrix plays an important role in improvement of the algorithm stability. The DUKF can be significantly stabilized by adding small quantities to the measurement noise covariance matrix in the presence of large initial error. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

An efficient conformal locally one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (LOD-CFDTD) method is presented for solving two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic (EM) scattering problems. The formulation for the 2D transverse-electric (TE) case is presented and its stability property and numerical dispersion relationship are theoretically investigated. It is shown that the introduction of irregular grids will not damage the numerical stability. Instead of the staircasing approximation, the conformal scheme is only employed to model the curve boundaries, whereas the standard Yee grids are used for the remaining regions. As the irregular grids account for a very small percentage of the total space grids, the conformal scheme has little effect on the numerical dispersion. Moreover, the proposed method, which requires fewer arithmetic operations than the alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) CFDTD method, leads to a further reduction of the CPU time. With the total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) boundary and the perfectly matched layer (PML), the radar cross section (RCS) of two 2D structures is calculated. The numerical examples verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

We directly introduce a Bell-type inequality for four-qubit systems. Using the inequality we investigate quantum nonlocality of a generic family of states |G_{abcd}> [Phys. Rev. A 65 052112 (2002)] and several canonical four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the inequality is maximally violated by the so called “four-qubit the maximally entangled state |G_{m}>” and it is also violated by four-qubit W state and a special family of states |G_{ab00}>. Moreover, a useful entanglement-nonlocality relationship for the family of states |G_{ab00}> is derived. Finally, we present a scheme of preparation of the state |G_{m} ightangle with linear optics and cross-Kerr nonlinearities.

We give a sufficient condition for detecting the entanglement resource for perfect multiqubit teleportation. The criterion involves only local measurements on some complementary observables and can be experimentally implemented. It is also a necessary condition for full separability of multiqubit states. Moreover, by proving the optimality of teleportation witnesses, we solve the open problem in Phys. Rev. A86, 032315 (2012).

We present a stable entangled light source that integrates the pump laser, entanglement generator, detectors, and electronic control systems. By optimizing the design of the mechanical elements and the optical path, the size of the source is minimized, and the quantum correlations over 6 dB can be directly provided by the entangled source. The compact and stable entangled light source is suitable for practical applications in quantum information science and technology. The presented protocol provides a useful reference for manufacturing products of bright entangled light sources.

Using the well-behaved features of the thermal entangled state representation, we solve the diffusion master equation under the action of a linear resonance force, and then obtain the infinitive operator-sum representation of the density operator. This approach may also be effective for treating other master equations. Moreover, we find that the initial pure coherent state evolves into a mixed thermal state after passing through the diffusion process under the action of the linear resonance force.

Based on the operator Hermite polynomials method (OHPM), we study Stirling numbers in the context of quantum mechanics, i.e., we present operator realization of generating function formulas of Stirling numbers with some applications. As a by-product, we derive a summation formula involving both Stirling number and Hermite polynomials.

We investigate how an optical squeezed chaotic field (SCF) evolves in an amplitude dissipation channel. We have used the integration within ordered product of operators technique to derive its evolution law. We also show that the density operator of SCF can be viewed as a generating field of the squeezed number state.

We present a scheme for implementing locally a nonlocal N-target controlled–controlled gate with unit probability of success by harnessing two (N+1)-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states as quantum channel and N qutrits as catalyser. The quantum network that implements this nonlocal (N+2)-body gate is built entirely of local single-body and two-body gates, and has only (3N+2) two-body gates. This result suggests that both the computational depth of quantum network and the quantum resources required to perform this nonlocal gate might be significantly reduced. This scheme can be generalized straightforwardly to implement a nonlocal N-target and M-control qubits gate.

A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination.

We propose a protocol for directly measuring the concurrence of a two-qubit electronic pure entangled state. To complete this task, we first design a parity-check measurement (PCM) which is constructed by two polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and a charge detector. By using the PCM for three rounds, we can achieve the concurrence by calculating the total probability of picking up the odd parity states from the initial states. Since the conduction electron may be a good candidate for the realization of quantum computation, this protocol may be useful in future solid quantum computation.

We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology.

Nonlinear tunneling is investigated by analytically solving the one-dimensional Gross–Pitaevskii equation (GPE) with a strong rectangular potential barrier. With the help of analytical solutions of the GPE, which can be reduced to the solution of the linear case, we find that only the supersonic solution in the downstream has a linear counterpart. A critical nonlinearity is explored as an up limit, above which no nonlinear tunneling solution exists. Furthermore, the density solution of the critical nonlinearity as a function of the position has a step-like structure.

Hawking radiation of the stationary Kerr–de Sitter black hole is investigated using the relativistic Hamilton–Jacobi method. Meanwhile, extending this work to a non-stationary black hole using Dirac equations and generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, we derived the locations, the temperature of the thermal radiation as well as the maximum energy of the non-thermal radiation. It is found that the surface gravity and the Hawking temperature depend on both time and different angles. An extra coupling effect is obtained in the thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles which is absent from thermal radiation of scalar particles. Further, the chemical potential derived from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particle has been found to be equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of the scalar particle in the non-thermal radiation for the Kerr–de Sitter black hole. It is also shown that for stationary black hole space time, these two different methods give the same Hawking radiation temperature.

The relaxation behavior of complex-disordered systems, such as spin glasses, polymers, colloidal suspensions, structural glasses,and granular media, has not been clarified. Theoretical studies show that relaxation in these systems has a topological origin. In this paper, we focus on the rotational stretched exponential relaxation behavior in complex-disordered systems and introduce a simple phase space model to understand the mechanism of the non-exponential relaxation of these systems. By employing the Monte Carlo simulation method to the model, we obtain the rotational relaxation function as a function of temperature. We show that the relaxation function has a stretched exponential form under the critical temperature while it obeys the Debye law above the critical temperature.

Applications of multifractal analysis to white matter structure changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently received increasing attentions. Although some progresses have been made, there is no evident study on applying multifractal analysis to evaluate the white matter structural changes on MRI for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. In this paper, to explore multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D MRI volumes between normal aging and early AD, we not only extend the traditional box-counting multifractal analysis (BCMA) into the 3D case, but also propose a modified integer ratio based BCMA (IRBCMA) algorithm to compensate for the rigid division rule in BCMA. We verify multifractal characteristics in 3D white matter MRI volumes. In addition to the previously well studied multifractal feature, Δα, we also demonstrated Δf as an alternative and effective multifractal feature to distinguish NC from AD subjects. Both Δα and Δf are found to have strong positive correlation with the clinical MMSE scores with statistical significance. Moreover, the proposed IRBCMA can be an alternative and more accurate algorithm for 3D volume analysis. Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of multifractal analysis, which may contribute to clarify some aspects of the etiology of AD through detection of structural changes in white matter.

Compression and stretching of ring-vortex solitons, which is a novel self-similar solution of (2+1)-dimensional diffraction decreasing waveguide, is investigated analytically and numerically. We obtain the ring-vortex solitons via the similarity transformation method. The distance modulation for the width, the diffraction, and the nonlinear response, strongly affects the form and the behavior of the self-similar vortex, and facilitates the efficient compression of optical waves. This approximate ring-vortex solitons can reflect the real properties of self-similar optical vortex beams during propagation under certain parameter window selection. Specific examples and figures are given to illustrate discussed features. The results obtained in this paper may have potential values for all-optical data-processing schemes and the design of beam compressors and amplifiers.

Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees' movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees' movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), k_{S}^{L}, and k_{S}^{e}, are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate k_{S}^{L} is associated with the maximum k_{S}^{e} of evacuees. The optimal combinations of k_{S}^{L} and k_{S}^{e} were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants' information transmission radius.

Heterovalent Sn_{2}O_{3} nanosheets were fabricated via an oxidation annealing process and the formation mechanism was investigated. The temperature required to complete the phase transformation from Sn_{3}O_{4} to Sn_{2}O_{3} was considered. Two contrasting experiments showed that both oxygen and heating were not necessary conditions for the phase transition. Sn_{2}O_{3} was formed under an argon protective atmosphere by annealing and could also be obtained at room temperature by exposing Sn_{3}O_{4} in atmosphere or dispersing in ethanol. The synthesis mechanism was proposed and discussed. This fundamental research is important for the technological applications of intermediate tin oxide materials.

In this paper, an endoreversible Carnot heat engine with irreversible heat transfer processes is analyzed based on generalized heat transfer law. The applicability of the entropy generation minimization, exergy analyses method, and entransy theory to the analyses is discussed. Three numerical cases are presented. It is shown that the results obtained from the entransy theory are different from those from the entropy generation minimization, which is equivalent to the exergy analyses method. For the first case in which the application preconditions of the entropy generation minimization and entransy loss maximization are satisfied, both smaller entropy generation rate and larger entransy loss rate lead to larger output power. For the second and third cases in which the preconditions are not satisfied, the entropy generation minimization does not lead to the maximum output power, while larger entransy loss rate still leads to larger output power in the third case. For the discussed cases, the concept of entransy dissipation is not applicable for the analyses of output power. The problems in the negative comments on the entransy theory are pointed out and discussed. The related researchers are advised to focus on some new specific application cases to show if the entransy theory is the same as some other theories.

We report the recent advance in our rubidium atomic fountain clock (AFC). The parameters of the Ramsey cavity are optimized by balancing the coupling from the two ports. The temperature control system of the Ramsey interaction region is renovated, and the resonant temperature of the Ramsey cavity is regulated to be slightly above the room temperature. The quality of magnetic environment in the Ramsey interaction region is also improved. A new digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit that controls the local oscillator is adopted to decrease the noise of the oven-controlled crystal oscillator output. As a result, the short-term fractional frequency stability of 2.7 ×10^{-13}τ^{-1/2} and the long-term fractional frequency stability of 1.6 ×10^{-15} at the average time of 32800 s are achieved.

First-principles calculations are used to investigate the migration path of Ag in the HfO_{2}-based resistive random access memory (ReRAM). The formation energy calculation suggests that there are two different sites (site 1 and site 3) for the incorporation of Ag atoms into the HfO_{2} unit cell. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the motion of Ag atom in the HfO_{2} supercell appears to be anisotropic, which is due to the fact that the Ag atom at site 3 moves along the [111] orientation, but the Ag atom at site 1 moves along the [001] orientation. The migration barriers of the Ag atoms hopping between neighboring unit cells are calculated along five different orientations. Difficulty in producing motion of the Ag atom varies with the migration barrier: this motion is minimized along [111] orientation. Furthermore, The optimal circulation path for Ag migration within the HfO_{2} supercells is obtained, and is found to be approximately along the [111] orientation. Therefore, it is proposed that the positive voltage should be applied along this orientation, the conduction filament may form more easily, which could improve the response time and reduce the power consumption in ReRAM applications.

Using the frequency-domain theory, we investigate the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process of an atom in two-color laser fields. When both photon energies of the two-color laser fields are much smaller than the atomic ionization threshold, the ATI spectrum depends on the angle between the two lasers' polarization directions. While when the photon energy of one laser is comparable with or larger than the atomic ionization threshold, the ATI spectrum is independent of the angle, and only several dips appear at certain angles. By analyzing the contributions of different quantum channels, we find that, for the case that both frequencies of the two color lasers are low, the quantum interferences between the channels are strong, and hence the spectrum changes with the angle between the two lasers' polarization directions. While for the case that the frequency of one of the two color lasers is high, the contributions of the channels to the ATI spectrum decrease dramatically with increasing channel order, hence the interferences between the channels disappear, and the ATI spectrum has a step-like structure, which is independent of the angle between the two lasers' polarizations. These results can shed light on the study of the corresponding relation between classical and quantum mechanisms of the matter–laser interaction in high-frequency laser fields.

We present an efficient and realizable scheme for the generation of an ultrashort single attosecond (as) pulse from H atom with a 800-nm fundamental laser field combined with a terahertz (THz) field. The high-order harmonic generation (HHG) can be obtained by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation accurately and efficiently with time-dependent generalized pseudo-spectral (TDGPS) method. The result shows that the plateau of high-order harmonics is extended and the broadband spectra can be produced by the combined laser pulse, which can be explained by the corresponding ionization probability. The time–frequency analysis and semi-classical three-step model are also presented to further investigate this mechanism. Besides, by the superposition of the harmonics near the cutoff region, an isolated 133-as pulse can be obtained.

The crystal structure of L-glutamine is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. We utilize plane-wave density functional theory lattice-dynamics calculations within the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA), Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE), PBE for solids (PBEsol), PBE with Wu–Cohen exchange (WC), and dispersion-corrected PBE, to investigate the effect of these intermolecular contacts on the absorption spectra of glutamine in the terahertz frequency range. Among these calculations, the solid-state simulated results obtained using the WC method exhibit a good agreement with the measured absorption spectra, and the absorption features are assigned with the help of WC. This indicates that the vibrational modes of glutamine were related to the combination of intramolecular and intermolecular motions, the intramolecular modes were dominated by rocking or torsion involving functional groups; the intermolecular modes mainly result from the translational motions of individual molecules, and the rocking of the hydrogen-bonded functional groups.

The first-order correct-boundary Coulomb–Born distorted-wave approximation is used to study the double-electron capture by protons from the ground-state helium atoms at intermediate and high impact energies. The differential double capture cross sections are obtained as a function of the projectile scattering angle and the total cross sections as a function of the impact energy. In the considered range of impact energy, our calculation shows that although the results are not so sensitive to the static inter-electronic correlations in the initial channel, the strong final-state correlations have a large effect on the magnitudes of the double capture cross sections. The calculated differential and integral cross sections are compared with their available experimental values. The comparison shows a good agreement between the present calculations and the measurements. The comparison of the integral cross sections shows that the present approach is compatible with other theories.

The partial and total photorecombination cross sections of the ground-state C V ion in the KLL and KLM resonant energy regions were calculated in detail by using the Dirac atomic R-matrix code based on a fully relativistic R-matrix method. Meanwhile, the principal resonant lines in each photorecombination channel have been classified according to the calculated transition energies and probabilities from the KLL and KLM resonant states to the 1s^{2}nl (n=2, 3 and l=s, p, d) final states. The validity of these calculations is assessed by comparison with previously published experimental and theoretical data. The good agreement between the present calculated results and those obtained using different approaches confirms the accuracy of the present results. In addition, it is found that the damping effect can be neglected for the KLL resonant, but not for the KLM resonant.

ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS

Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating at the interface between a dielectric medium and a silver thin film by a focused Gaussian beam in a classical Kretschmann prism setup is studied theoretically. We find that the center of the transmitted Gaussian evanescent wave has a giant lateral shift relative to the incident Gaussian beam center for a wide range of incident angle and Gaussian beam wavelength to excite SPPs, which can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than the silver film thickness. The phenomenon is closely related with the conventional Goos–Hänchen effect for total internal reflection of light beam, and it is called the transmission Goos–Hänchen shift. We find that this lateral shift depends heavily on the excitation wavelength, incident angle, and the silver layer thickness. Finite-difference time-domain simulations show that this transmission Goos–Hänchen shift is induced by a unique dynamical process of excitation, transport, and leakage of SPPs.

A laser at 578 nm is phase-locked to an optical frequency comb (OFC) which is optically referenced to a subhertz-linewidth laser at 1064 nm. Coherence is transferred from 1064 nm to 578 nm via the OFC. By comparing with a cavity-stabilized laser at 578 nm, the absolute linewidth of 1.1 Hz and the fractional frequency instability of 1.3× 10^{-15} at an averaging time of 1 s for each laser at 578 nm have been determined, which is limited by the performance of the reference laser for the OFC.

We study the relationship between electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) and Autler–Townes (AT) splitting in a cascade three-level Doppler-broadened system. By comparing the absorption spectrum with the fluorescence excitation spectrum, it is found that for a Doppler-broadened system, EIT resonance cannot be explained as the result of quantum interference, unlike the case of a homogeneously broadened system. Instead, the macroscopic polarization interference plays an important role in determining the spectra of EIT and AT splitting, which can be explained within the same framework when being detected by the absorption spectra.

In this work, we experimentally demonstrate an image information transfer between two channels by using slow light based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a solid. The probe optical image is slowed due to steep dispersion induced by EIT. By applying an additional control field to an EIT-driven medium, the slowed image is transferred into two information channels. Image intensities between two information channels can be controlled by adjusting the intensities of the control fields. The similarity of output images is further analyzed. This image information transfer allows for manipulating images in a controlled fashion, and will be important in further information processing.

High harmonic generation (HHG) driven by intense frequency-comb laser fields can be dramatically enhanced via multiphoton resonance by tuning the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) shift, without increasing the driving intensity. However, the multiphoton-resonant enhancement (MRE) factor in the realistic atomic hydrogen is much smaller than that in a two-level system. To study the deviation, we present a theoretical investigation of the multiphoton resonance dynamics of three-level systems driven by intense frequency-comb laser fields. The many-mode Floquet theorem (MMFT) is employed to provide a nonperturbative and exact treatment of the interaction between the quantum system and the laser fields. The investigations show that the dipole interaction of a two-level system with the third level affects the multiphoton resonance dynamics and enhances the HHG spectra. It is the dipole interaction of the excited level of the two-level system with other levels that results in the smaller MRE factor in the realistic atomic system.

Noble metal nanoantenna could effectively enhance light absorption and increase detection sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a periodic Ag diamond nanoantenna array to increase the absorption of thin-film solar cells and to improve the detection sensitivity via localized surface plasmon resonance. The effect of nanoantenna arrays on the absorption enhancement is theoretically investigated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with manipulating the spectral response by geometrical parameters of nanoantennas. A maximum absorption enhancement factor of 1.51 has been achieved in this study. In addition, the relation between resonant wavelength (intensity reflectivity) and refractive index is discussed in detail. When detecting the environmental index using resonant wavelengths, a maximum detection sensitivity of about 837 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and a resolution of about 10^{-3} RIU can be achieved. Moreover, when using the reflectivity, the sensitivity can be as high as 0.93 AU/RIU. Furthermore, we also have theoretically studied the effectiveness of nanoantennas in distinguishing chemical reagents, solution concentrations, and solution allocation ratios by detecting refractive index. From the results presented in this paper, we conclude that this work might be useful for biosensor detection and other types of detections.

In this paper, the influences of the dispersion distribution in the cavity on the output pulse properties of the all-normal-dispersion (ANDi) fiber laser are investigated. Our simulations show that, as the relative length of the dispersion fiber increases, the temporal width and the spectral bandwidth of the output pulse for an ANDi fiber laser with fixed total cavity dispersion or fiber length are decreased, while the pulse energy is enhanced and the compressed pulse width is increased. These simulation predictions have been proved by our experimental results. The reason may be that the nonlinear phase shift accumulated in the nonlinear fiber is more than that in the dispersion fiber if they have the same length.

Due to laser-induced damage, the aperture of optics is one of the main factors limiting the output capability of high-power laser facilities. Because of the general difficulty in achieving large-aperture optics, an alternative solution is to tile some small-aperture ones together. We propose an accurate, stable, and automatic method of array element tiling and verify it on a double-pass 1 × 2 tiled-grating compressor in the XG-III laser facility. The test results show the accuracy and stability of the method. This research provides an efficient way to obtain large-aperture optics for high-power laser facilities.

Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results.

Fluidized beds have been widely used for processing granular materials. In this paper, we study the effect of plasma on the fluidization behavior of a bubbling fluidized bed with an atmospheric pressure plasma discharger. Experiment results show that the bubbling fluidized bed is stabilized with the discharge of plasma. When the discharge current reaches a minimum stabilization current C_{ms}, air bubbles in the bed will disappear and the surface fluctuation is completely suppressed. A simplified model is proposed to consider the effect of electric Coulomb force generated by the plasma. It is found that the Coulomb force will propel the particles to move towards the void area, so that the bubbling fluidized bed is stabilized with a high enough plasma discharge.

A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives.

A novel nanoscale watermill for the unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is proposed and explored by molecular dynamics simulations. In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive a water chain confined inside the SWNT, the charge and the tube together serving as a nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found, and the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping the water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and it reaches its maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of hydrogen bonds in the water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically as the frequency increases from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonance phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for the design of nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

Nonlinear interaction of laser and electron–positron–ion plasmas is investigated by invoking the variational principle and numerical simulation, in terms of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with inhomogeneities effect. It is shown that the plasma inhomogeneity has great influence on the laser beam dynamics. The laser beam can be self-trapped, focused, or defocused depending on the inhomogeneity character. The linearly decreasing axial plasma density makes the laser beam defocus, while the linearly increasing axial plasma density results in self-trapping of the beam. The self-focusing of the trapped beam is found in a high-density region. For the Gaussian types of density distribution, the beam field submits nonlinearly oscillating regime. The results provide an efficient way to manipulate the dynamics of laser beam propagating in plasma.

NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) have many biomedical applications due to their excellent mechanical and biocompatible properties. However, nickel in the alloy may cause allergic and toxic reactions, which limit some applications. In this work, titanium oxynitride films were deposited on NiTi samples by high vacuum magnetron sputtering for various nitrogen and oxygen gas flow rates. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal the presence of different phases in the titanium oxynitride thin films. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping of samples after immersion in simulated body fluids (SBF) shows that Ni is depleted from the surface and cell cultures corroborate the enhanced biocompatibility in vitro.

This paper describes a long-term operation of the 2.45-GHz microwave proton source at Peking University. The DC proton beam of 50–55 mA with energy of 35 keV has been run for 306 hours continuously. Total beam availability, defined as 35-keV beam-on time divided by elapsed time, is higher than 99%. Water cooling machine failures cause all the downtime, and no plasma generator failure or high voltage breakdown is observed. The longest uninterrupted run time is 122 hours.

The role of pulse parameters on nanoparticle property is investigated self-consistently based on a couple of fluid model and aerosol dynamics model in a capacitively coupled parallel-plate acetylene (C_{2}H_{2}) discharge. In this model, the mass continuity equation, momentum balance equation, and energy balance equation for neutral gas are taken into account. Thus, the thermophoretic force arises when a gas temperature gradient exists. The typical results of this model are positive and negative ion densities, electron impact collisions rates, nanoparticle density, and charge distributions. The simulation is performed for duty ratio 0.4/0.7/1.0, as well as pulse modulation frequency from 40 kHz to 2.7 MHz for pure C_{2}H_{2} discharges at a pressure of 500 mTorr. We find that the pulse parameters, especially the duty ratio, have a great affect on the dissociative attachment coefficient and the negative density. More importantly, by decreasing the duty ratio, nanoparticles start to diffuse to the wall. Under the action of gas flow, nanoparticle density peak is created in front of the pulse electrode, where the gas temperature is smaller.

This work presents an optical method using the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. We especially diagnose a pure nitrogen gas subjected to a point to plane corona discharge, and visualize the density spatial map. The interelectrode distance equals 6 mm and the variation of the optical path has been measured at different pressures: 220 Torr, 400 Torr, and 760 Torr. The interferograms are recorded with a CCD camera, and the numerical analysis of these interferograms is assured by the inverse Abel transformation. The nitrogen density is extracted through the Gladstone–Dale relation. The obtained results are in close agreement with values available in the literature.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Helix unwinding in ferroelectric liquid crystals induced by an electric field is theoretically studied on the basis of the continuum theory. By applying a weak electric field tilted to the smectic layers, the contribution of the dielectric interaction energy density to the total free energy density is increased. Approximation methods are used to calculate the free energy for different tilt angles between the electric field and the smectic layers. The obtained results suggest selecting the optimal number of pitches in the film that matches to the minimum of the free energy.

To study the room-temperature stable defects induced by electron irradiation, commercial borosilicate glasses were irradiated by 1.2 MeV electrons and then ultraviolet (UV) optical absorption (OA) spectra were measured. Two characteristic bands were revealed before irradiation, and they were attributed to silicon dangling bond (E'-center) and Fe^{3+} species, respectively. The existence of Fe^{3+} was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. After irradiation, the absorption spectra revealed irradiation-induced changes, while the content of E'-center did not change in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region. The slightly reduced OA spectra at 4.9 eV was supposed to transform Fe^{3+} species to Fe^{2+} species and this transformation leads to the appearance of 4.3 eV OA band. By calculating intensity variation, the transformation of Fe was estimated to be about 5% and the optical absorption cross section of Fe^{2+} species is calculated to be 2.2 times larger than that of Fe^{3+} species. Peroxy linkage (POL, ≡Si–O–O–Si≡), which results in a 3.7 eV OA band, is speculated not to be from Si–O bond break but from Si–O–B bond, Si–O–Al bond, or Si–O–Na bond break. The co-presence defect with POL is probably responsible for 2.9-eV OA band.

We report the microstructure evolution of copper (Cu) nm-sized atomic islands on silicone oil surfaces in the ambient atmosphere. The origin of these nearly free sustaining atomic islands is explained by a three-stage growth model. The first stage is the nucleation and growth of atomic granules. Subsequently, the compact atomic islands grow by the aggregation of the atomic granules. Finally, they adhere to each other and form branched atomic islands. During the characteristic evolution, the atomic granules reconstruct and the average height of the atomic islands increases from 7.0± 1.0 nm to 13.0± 1.0 nm. The detailed evolution mechanism of the Cu atomic islands is presented.

The electric field effect in ultrathin zigzag graphene nanoribbons containing only three or four zigzag carbon chains is studied by first-principles calculations, and the change of conducting mechanism is observed with increasing in-plane electric field perpendicular to the ribbon. Wider zigzag graphene nanoribbons have been predicted to be spin-splitted for both valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) with an applied electric field and become half-metal due to the vanishing band gap of one spin with increasing applied field. The change of VBM for the ultrathin zigzag graphene nanoribbons is similar to that for the wider ones when an electric field is applied. However, in the ultrathin zigzag graphene nanoribbons, there are two kinds of CBMs, one is spin-degenerate and the other is spin-splitted, and both are tunable by the electric field. Moreover, the two CBMs are spatially separated in momentum space. The conducting mechanism changes from spin-degenerate CBM to spin-splitted CBM with increasing applied electric field. Our results are confirmed by density functional calculations with both LDA and GGA functionals, in which the LDA always underestimates the band gap while the GGA normally produces a bigger band gap than the LDA.

We propose a scaling theory for single gate AlInSb/InSb high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by solving the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation. In our model, the effective conductive path effect (ECPE) is taken into account to overcome the problems arising from the device scaling. The potential in the effective conducting path is developed and a simple scaling equation is derived. This equation is solved to obtain the minimum channel potential Ø_{deff,min} and the new scaling factor α to model the subthreshold behavior of the HEMTs. The developed model minimizes the leakage current and improves the subthreshold swing degradation of the HEMTs. The results of the analytical model are verified by numerical simulation with a Sentaurus TCAD device simulator.

The structural, electronic, and elastic properties of ZnSe_{1-x}S_{x} for the zinc blende structures have been studied by using the density functional theory. The calculations were performed using the plane wave pseudopotential method, as implemented in Quantum ESPRESSO. The exchange-correlation potential is treated with the local density approximation pz-LDA for these properties. Moreover, LDA+U approximation is employed to treat the “d” orbital electrons properly. A comparative study of the band gap calculated within both LDA and LDA+U schemes is presented. The analysis of results show considerable improvement in the calculation of band gap. The inclusion of compositional disorder increases the values of all elastic constants. In this study, it is found that elastic constants C_{11}, C_{12}, and C_{44} are mainly influenced by the compositional disorder. The obtained results are in good agreement with literature.

Cascading failure can cause great damage to complex networks, so it is of great significance to improve the network robustness against cascading failure. Many previous existing works on load-redistribution strategies require global information, which is not suitable for large scale networks, and some strategies based on local information assume that the load of a node is always its initial load before the network is attacked, and the load of the failure node is redistributed to its neighbors according to their initial load or initial residual capacity. This paper proposes a new load-redistribution strategy based on local information considering an ever-changing load. It redistributes the loads of the failure node to its nearest neighbors according to their current residual capacity, which makes full use of the residual capacity of the network. Experiments are conducted on two typical networks and two real networks, and the experimental results show that the new load-redistribution strategy can reduce the size of cascading failure efficiently.

A model and its simulations are presented to describe the effects of energy dissipation on anisotropic systems. When the current electromigration is constant, energy dissipation depends on lattice constants, resistivity, and the angles along the longitudinal and transversal directions. It is shown that an orientation variation of the grain can significantly influence the energy dissipation for some anisotropic materials. Based on calculations for the grain model, the mechanism of grain growth and microstructure evolution under electromigration is explained. Theoretical implications about material selection and reliability are derived.

To obtain thermal contact resistance (TCR) between the vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) and the heat sink, we derived the relationship between the total thermal resistance and the contact force imposed on the VDMOS. The total thermal resistance from the chip to the heat sink is measured under different contact forces, and the TCR can be extracted nondestructively from the derived relationship. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the simulation results.

We studied the system of pure Rashba spin–orbit coupled Bose gas with an in-plane magnetic field. Based on the mean field theory, we obtained the zero temperature phase diagram of the system which exhibits three phases, plane wave (PW) phase, striped wave (SW) phase, and zero momentum (ZM) phase. It was shown that with a growing in-plane field, both SW and ZM phases will eventually turn into the PW phase. Furthermore, we adopted the Bogoliubov theory to study the excitation spectrum as well as the sound speed.

Structural properties of polymers confined in nanocylinders are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, which is successfully used to consider the conformational property of constrained polymers. The conformational properties of the polymers close to the walls exhibit different features. The density profiles of polymers are enhanced near the wall of the nanocylinder, which shows that the packing densities differ near the wall and far from the wall. The highest densities near the wall of the nanocylinder decrease with increasing radius of the nanocylinder. Furthermore, the density excess is not only near the wall of the nanocylinder, but also shifts to the center of the nanocylinder at lower temperatures. The radius of gyration and the bond length of polymers in the nanocylinder show that the polymer chains tend to extend along the axis of the nanocylinder in highly confined nanocylinder and contract at lower temperature. Our results are very helpful in understanding the packing induced physical behaviors of polymers in nanocylinders, such as glass transition, crystallization, etc.

A new method to visualize the large-scale crystal grain morphology of organic polycrystalline films is proposed. First, optical anisotropic transmittance images of polycrystalline zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) films vacuum deposited by weak epitaxial growth (WEG) method were acquired with polarized optical microscopy (POM). Then morphology properties including crystal grain size, distribution, relative orientation, and crystallinity were derived from these images by fitting with a transition dipole model. At last, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging was carried out to confirm the fitting and serve as absolute references. This method can be readily generalized to other organic polycrystalline films, thus providing an efficient way to access the large-scale morphologic properties of organic polycrystalline films, which may prove to be useful in industry as a film quality monitoring method.

Adsorption behavior of Fe atoms on a metal-free naphthalocyanine (H_{2}Nc) monolayer on Ag(111) surface at room temperature has been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy combined with density functional theory (DFT) based calculations. We found that the Fe atoms were adsorbed on the centers of H_{2}Nc molecules and formed Fe–H_{2}Nc complexes at low coverage. DFT calculations show that Fe sited in the center of the molecule is the most stable configuration, in good agreement with the experimental observations. After an Fe–H_{2}Nc complex monolayer was formed, the extra Fe atoms self-assembled to Fe clusters of uniform size and adsorbed dispersively at the interstitial positions of Fe–H_{2}Nc complex monolayer. Therefore, the H_{2}Nc monolayer grown on Ag(111) could be a good template to grow dispersed magnetic metal atoms and clusters at room temperature for further investigation of their magnetism-related properties.

We report scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) studies on iron-based superconductors of Ba_{1-x}K_{x}Fe_{2}As_{2} and nearly optimally doped Fe(Te,Se). Mode-like features were observed universally outside the superconducting gaps in the tunneling spectra, which are similar to our previous observations in other samples and can be ascribed to the interaction between electrons and spin excitations. Furthermore, an almost linear relationship between the superconducting gaps and the superconducting transition temperatures was noted and should also be taken into account in understanding the mechanism of iron-based superconductors.

Temperature dependence of magnetic switching processes with multiple jumps in Fe/MgO (001) films is investigated by magnetoresistance measurements. When the temperature decreases from 300 K to 80 K, the measured three-jump hysteresis loops turn into two-jump loops. The temperature dependence of the fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy constant K_{1}, domain wall pinning energy, and an additional uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant K_{U} are responsible for this transformation. The strengths of K_{1} and domain wall pinning energy increase with decreasing temperature, but K_{U} remains unchanged. Moreover, magnetization reversal mechanisms, with either two successive or two separate 90° domain wall propagation, are introduced to explain the multi-jump magnetic switching process in epitaxial Fe/MgO(001) films at different temperatures.

An efficient method based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been developed to characterize silicon intercalated graphene grown on single crystalline Ir(111) thin films. By combining analyses of the phase image, force curves, and friction–force mapping, acquired by AFM, the locations and coverages of graphene and silicon oxide can be well distinguished. We can also demonstrate that silicon atoms have been successfully intercalated between graphene and the substrate. Our method gives an efficient and simple way to characterize graphene samples with interacted atoms and is very helpful for future applications of graphene-based devices in the modern microelectronic industry, where AFM is already widely used.

Microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cell with graded band gap microcrystalline silicon oxide (μc-SiO_{x}:H) buffer layer is prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and exhibits improved performance compared with the cell without it. The buffer layer moderates the band gap mismatch by reducing the barrier of the p/i interface, which promotes the nucleation of the i-layer and effectively eliminates the incubation layer, and then enhances the collection efficiency of the cell in the short wavelength region of the spectrum. The p/i interface defect density also decreases from 2.2× 10^{12} cm^{-2} to 5.0× 10^{11} cm^{-2}. This graded buffer layer allows to simplify the deposition process for the μc-Si:H solar cell application.

Low frequency noise has been investigated at room temperature for asymmetric double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DBMTJs), where the coupling between the top and middle CoFeB layers is antiferromagnetic with a 0.8-nm thin top MgO barrier of the CoFeB/MgO/CoFe/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB DBMTJ. At enough large bias, 1/f noise dominates the voltage noise power spectra in the low frequency region, and is conventionally characterized by the Hooge parameter α_{mag}. With increasing external field, the top and bottom ferromagnetic layers are aligned by the field, and then the middle free layer rotates from antiparallel state (antiferromagnetic coupling between top and middle ferromagnetic layers) to parallel state. In this rotation process α_{mag} and magnetoresistance-sensitivity-product show a linear dependence, consistent with the fluctuation dissipation relation. With the magnetic field applied at different angles (θ) to the easy axis of the free layer, the linear dependence persists while the intercept of the linear fit satisfies a cos(θ) dependence, similar to that for the magnetoresistance, suggesting intrinsic relation between magnetic losses and magnetoresistance.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

We investigate the charge and spin gaps, and the spin structure in half-filled one-dimensional Hubbard superlattices with one repulsive site and L_{0} free sites per unit cell. For odd L_{0}, it is correlated metal at the particle–hole symmetric point, and then turns into band insulator beyond this point. For even L_{0}, the system has a Mott insulator phase around the particle–hole symmetric point and undergoes a metal–insulator transition with on-site repulsion U increasing. For large U, there exists a multiperiodic spin structure, which results from the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) correlation between the nearest neighboring repulsive sites for odd (even) L_{0}.

Using first principles calculations combined with the quasiharmonic approach, we study the effects of temperature on the elastic constants, generalized stacking fault energies, and generalized planar fault energies of Ni_{3}Al. The antiphase boundary energies, complex stacking fault energies, superlattice intrinsic stacking fault energies, and twinning energies decrease slightly with temperature. Temperature dependent anomalous yield stress of Ni_{3}Al is predicted by the energy-based criterion based on elastic anisotropy and antiphase boundary energies. It is found that p increases with temperature and this can give a more accurate description of the anomalous yield stress in Ni_{3}Al. Furthermore, the predicted twinnablity of Ni_{3}Al is also decreasing with temperature.

PrCo_{5} nanoflakes with strong texture and high coercivity of 8.15 kOe were prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling with heat-treated starting powder. The thickness and length of the as-milled nanoflakes are mainly in the ranges of 50–100 nm and 0.5–3 μm, respectively. The x-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate that the heat treatment can increase the single phase and crystallinity of the PrCo_{5} compound, and combined with the demagnetization curves, indicate that the single phase and crystallinity are important for preparing high-coercivity and strong-textured rare earth permanent magnetic nanoflakes. In addition, the coercivity mechanism of the as-milled PrCo_{5} nanoflakes is studied by the angle dependence of coercivity for an aligned sample and the field dependence of coercivity, isothermal (IRM) and dc demagnetizing (DCD) remanence curves for an unaligned sample. The results indicate that the coercivity is dominated by co-existing mechanisms of pinning and nucleation. Furthermore, exchange coupling and dipolar coupling also co-exist in the sample.

We theoretically study the structural, electronic, and optical properties of lithium niobate under pressure using the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory by CASTEP code. It was found that there is a phase transition from the R3c structure to the Pnma structure at a pressure of 18.7 GPa. The Pnma structure was dynamically stable according to the calculation of phonon dispersion. From the charge density distributions, there exist covalent interactions along the Nb–O bond. The hybridization between O 2p and Nb 4d orbital in the Pnma phase increases with increasing pressure, while it is not changed in the R3c phase. With increasing pressure, the average Nb–O bond length decreases and the Nb–O bond population increases, indicating the increased covalent character between Nb and O atoms under high pressure at Pnma phase, which leads to the increased hybridization between O 2p and Nb 4d orbitals. Furthermore, the optical dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, electron energy, loss and reflectivity are calculated.

A novel trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS) device with a high-k material introduced into the gate insulator is reported, which is named high-k TMBS. By simulation with Medici, it is found that the high-k TMBS can have 19.8% lower leakage current while maintaining the same breakdown voltage and forward turn-on voltage compared with the conventional regular trench TMBS.

By using the first-principles calculations, structural and electronic properties of Au and Ti adsorbed WS_{2} monolayers are studied systematically. For Au-adsorbed WS_{2}, metallic interface states are induced in the middle of the band gap across the Fermi level. These interface states origin mainly from the Au-6s states. As to the Ti adsorbed WS_{2}, some delocalized interface states appear and follow the bottom of conduction band. The Fermi level arises into the conduction band and leads to the n-type conducting behavior. The n-type interface states are found mainly come from the Ti-3d and W-5d states due to the strong Ti–S hybridization. The related partial charge densities between Ti and S atoms are much higher and increased by an order of magnitude as compared with that of Au-adsorbed WS_{2}. Therefore, the electron transport across the Ti-adsorbed WS_{2} system is mainly by the resonant transport, which would further enhances the electronic transparency when monolayer WS_{2} contacts with metal Ti. These investigations are of significant importance in understanding the electronic properties of metal atom adsorption on monolayer WS_{2} and offer valuable references for the design and fabrication of 2D nanodevices.

Surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam can be transformed into coherent and tunable light radiation waves with power enhancement in the simple structure of a metal film with a dielectric medium loading. In this paper, the process of the radiation transformation of this radiation, and the dependencies of the radiation characteristics on the parameters of the structure and the electron beam are studied in detail. The radiation power enhancement is greatly influenced by the beam energy and the film thickness in the infrared to ultraviolet frequency region. Up to 122 times radiation power enhancement and 6.5% radiation frequency tuning band can be obtained by optimizing the beam energy and the parameters of the film.

A novel nanolaser structure based on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide is proposed and investigated. The coupling between the metal nanowire and the high-index semiconductor nanowire with optical gain leads to a strong field enhancement in the air gap region and low propagation loss, which enables the realization of lasing at the deep subwavelength scale. By optimizing the geometric parameters of the structure, a minimal lasing threshold is achieved while maintaining the capacity of ultra-deep subwavelength mode confinement. Compared with the previous coupled nanowire pair based hybrid plasmonic structure, a lower threshold can be obtained with the same geometric parameters. The proposed nanolaser can be integrated into a miniature chip as a nanoscale light source and has the potential to be widely used in optical communication and optical sensing technology.

A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage.

Parameter extraction is an important step for circuit simulation methods that are based on physical models of semiconductor devices. A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes is proposed in this paper. By employing a set of analytical formulas, this approach extracts all of the necessary physical parameters of the diode chip in a unique way. It then extracts the package parasitic parameters with a curve-fitting method. To validate the proposed approach, a model HSMS-282c commercial Schottky diode is taken as an example. Its physical parameters are extracted and used to simulate the diode's electrical characteristics. The simulated results based on the extracted parameters are compared with the measurements and a good agreement is obtained, which verifies the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach.

Modulation of the Schottky barrier heights was successfully demonstrated for WN_{x}/p-Ge and WN_{x}/n-Ge contacts by increasing the nitrogen component in the WN_{x} films. The WN_{0.38}/p-Ge contact exhibits rectifying characteristic and an apparent Schottky barrier of 0.49 eV while the WN_{0.38}/n-Ge Schottky contact exhibits quasi-Ohmic current–voltage characteristics. Dipoles formed at the contact interface by the difference of the Pauling electronegativities of Ge and N are confirmed to alleviate the Fermi-level pinning effect.

The time and temperature dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias stress (PBS) and the following recovery process are investigated in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. It is found that the time dependence of threshold voltage shift can be well described by a stretched exponential equation in which the time constant τ is found to be temperature dependent. Based on Arrhenius plots, an average effective energy barrier E_{τstress}= 0.72 eV for the PBS process and an average effective energy barrier E_{τrecovery}= 0.58 eV for the recovery process are extracted respectively. A charge trapping/detrapping model is used to explain the threshold voltage shift in both the PBS and the recovery process. The influence of gate bias stress on transistor performance is one of the most critical issues for practical device development.

The effect of interfacial coupling on rectification in an organic co-oligomer spin diode is investigated theoretically by considering spin-independent and spin-resolved couplings respectively. In the case of spin-independent coupling, an optimal interfacial coupling strength with a significant enhanced rectification ratio is found, whose value depends on the structural asymmetry of the molecule. In the case of spin-resolved coupling, we found that only the variation of the interfacial coupling with specific spin is effective to modulate the rectification, which is due to the spin-filtering property of the central asymmetric magnetic molecule. A transition of the spin-current rectification between parallel spin-current rectification and antiparallel spin-current rectification may be observed with the variation of the spin-resolved interfacial coupling. The interfacial effect on rectification is further analyzed from the spin-dependent transmission spectrum at different biases.

A modified spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique was developed for the fabrication of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{x} (Bi-2212) superconducting bulks with better intergrain connections. The influences of the modified SPS process on the microstructures, intergrain connections, and related superconducting properties were systematically analyzed. The modified SPS process can not only increase the final density of the bulk samples but also enhance the texture structures. Clean grain boundaries were obtained instead of the intergrain amorphous layers. Therefore the intergranular properties were obviously improved. Due to the better intergrain connections and the stronger flux pinning properties, the critical current densities of the Bi-2212 bulks obtained via the modified SPS process were greatly increased. The obtained improvements imply the possibility for the modified SPS technique to be used for enhancing the superconducting properties of the Bi-2212 tapes.

The magnetic properties of CoFeB thin films grown on flexible polyimide substrates were investigated using a magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer. In-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in the virgin state. The strain induced by bending the flexible substrate was applied on the sample to change the magnetic properties of CoFeB. The strain induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy changed linearly with the deformation by about 8.41×10^{4} erg/cm^{3} at 1% of deformation. Our results prove the magnetic properties of CoFeB grown on flexible polyimide substrate can be tuned effectively by bending, which could be important for future flexible spintronics.

In the present work we reported the phase formation, microstructure, magnetocaloric effect and hydrogenation behavior of La-rich La_{1.7}Fe_{11.6}Si_{1.4} alloy. In this off-stoichiometric La(Fe,Si)_{13} alloy, the NaZn_{13}-type La(Fe,Si)_{13} matrix phase shows faceted grains, with the Cr_{5}B_{3}-type La_{5}Si_{3} used as the secondary phase distributed intergranularly. Such a peculiar morphology quickly forms upon one day annealing. In La_{1.7}Fe_{11.6}Si_{1.4} alloy, we have observed a significant field dependence of magnetostructural transition temperature (～ 6.3 K/T), resulting in a large and table-like entropy change (ΔS～ 18 J/kg·K in 2 T) over a broad temperature range (～ 10 K). Upon hydrogenation, the maximum value of ΔS keeps almost unchanged, while the Curie temperature increases up to 350 K. These results indicate that the investigated off-stoichiometric La(Fe,Si)_{13} alloy is a promising magnetic material for magnetic refrigerators.

A new FePt nanostructure with stripe-like patterns has been prepared by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. AAO templates anodized under low voltages (7 V) demonstrate self-organized, maze-like patterns, different from the conventional porous structures obtained at high voltages. FePt thin films deposited on such templates tend to replicate the morphology of the templates. Although there is no obvious spatial ordering, the dimensions of the FePt nano-stripes are highly uniform, due to the constrained growth along the transverse direction of the AAO pattern. The magnetic properties are strongly influenced by this unique morphology. While continuous films demonstrate strong exchange coupling, the dominant interaction in FePt nano-stripes with the same nominal thickness is magnetostatic. The morphology also dictates the magnetization reversal behaviors, with thin films dominated by domain nucleation; while nano-stripes incline to reverse their magnetization by spin rotation. Our work demonstrates that self-organized AAO templates can be used to control the morphology and magnetic behavior of FePt materials.

The nonlinear thermo–magneto–mechanical magnetostrictive constitutive and the linear thermo–mechanical-electric piezoelectric constitutive are adopted in this paper. The bias magnetic field and ambient temperature are equivalent to a magnetic source and a thermo source, respectively. An equivalent circuit, which contains a magnetic source and a thermo source at the input, for the thermo–magneto–electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric (ME) laminates, is established. The theoretical models of the output voltage and static ME coefficient for ME laminates can be derived from this equivalent circuit model. The predicted static ME coefficient versus temperature curves are in excellent agreement with the experimental data available both qualitatively and quantitatively. It confirms the validity of the proposed model. Then the models are adopted to predict variations in the output voltages and ME coefficients in the laminates under different ambient temperatures, bias magnetic fields, and the volume ratios of magnetostrictive phases. This shows that the output voltage increases with both increasing temperature and increasing volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases; the ME coefficient decreases with increasing temperature; the ME coefficient shows an initial sharp increase and then decreases slowly with the increase in the bias magnetic field, and there is an optimum volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases that maximize the ME coefficient. This paper can not only provide a new idea for the study of the thermo–magneto–electric coupling characteristics of ME laminates, but also provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of ME laminates, operating under different sensors.

An eighth-order Landau–Devonshire theory is constructed to investigate the piezoelectric and electro–optic properties of tetragonal (1-x)Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_{3}–xPbTiO_{3} single crystals (x=0.38 and x=0.4). The dielectric stiffness coefficients of the Landau potential are obtained by fitting to the dielectric properties and the phase transition temperature between cubic phase and tetragonal phase. It is indicated that tetragonal (1-x)Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_{3}–xPbTiO_{3} single crystals have the first-order cubic-tetragonal phase transitions. The dielectric constants are in great agreement with the experimental results. The piezoelectric coefficients d_{33} and d_{31} at room temperature are about 145 pC/N and -62 pC/N respectively which are smaller than that of (1-x)Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_{3}–xPbTiO_{3} single crystals around the morphotropic phase boundary. Moreover, tetragonal (1-x)Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_{3}–xPbTiO_{3} single crystals have the linear electro–optic coefficients r_{c}=33.7 pm/V and r_{c}=28.8 pm/V for x=0.38 and x=0.4, respectively which are in accordance with the measurements.

A theoretical study of polar and semi/non-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different internal surface polarization charges, which can be grown on Si substrates, is conducted by using APSYS software. In comparison with polar structure LEDs, the semi-polar structure exhibits a higher concentration of electrons and holes and radiative recombination rate, and its reduced built-in polarization field weakens the extent of band bending which causes the shift of peak emission wavelength. So the efficiency droop of semi-polar InGaN/GaN LEDs declines obviously and the optical power is significantly improved. In comparison with non-polar structure LEDs, although the concentration of holes and electrons as well as the radiative recombination rate of the semi-polar structure are better in the last two quantum wells (QWs) approaching the p-GaN side, the uniformity of distribution of carriers and radiative recombination rate for the non-polar structure is better. So the theoretical analysis indicates that the removal of the internal polarization field in the MQWs active regions for non-polar structure LEDs contributes to the uniform distribution of electrons and holes, and decreases the electron leakage. Thus it enhances the radiative recombination rate, and further improves the IQEs and optical powers, and shows the best photoelectric properties among these three structures.

The linear optical properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) with oxygen vacancy are investigated with first-principles density functional theory calculations. We use Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof (HSE06) functional to calculate the linear optical properties because of its accuracy in the band gap calculation. Compared with the perfect KDP, we found that due to the defect states located at the band gap, the defective KDP with oxygen vacancy has new optical adsorption within the energy region from 4.8 eV to 7.0 eV (the corresponding wavelength region is from 258 nm to 177 nm). As a result, the oxygen vacancy can decrease the damage threshold of KDP crystal. It may give a direction to the KDP production for laser system.

A real-time quantitative optical method to characterize crack propagation in colloidal photonic crystal film (CPCF) is developed based on particle deformation models and previous real-time crack observations. The crack propagation process and temperature dependence of the crack propagation rate in CPCF are investigated. By this method, the crack propagation rate is found to slow down gradually to zero when cracks become more numerous and dense. Meanwhile, with the temperature increasing, the crack propagation rate constant decreases. The negative temperature dependence of the crack propagation rate is due to the increase of van der Waals attraction, which finally results in the decrease of resultant force. The findings provide new insight into the crack propagation process in CPCF.

When ultra-thin graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are deposited on the SiO_{2}/Si substrate, it is found that their colors are dependent on the thickness of GIC flakes. The sample colors of ultrathin GIC flakes can no longer provide qualitative information on the stage index. Here, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy is thus applied to study the doping inhomogeneity and staging of ultra-thin GICs by FeCl_{3} intercalation. The G band intensity of stage-1 GIC flakes is strongly enhanced by 532-nm laser excitation, while that of stage-2 and stage-3 flakes exhibits strong intensity enhancement for 785-nm laser excitation. The near-infrared lasers are suggested to probe the doping inhomogeneity and staging of ultra-thin GIC flakes.

SPECIAL TOPIC --- Non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matters

INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Bi_{2}Te_{3} single crystals were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. The effect of the vacuum on the growth of Bi_{2}Te_{3} single crystals was studied with varying the oxygen content by controlling the air pressure in the silica tube. High quality Bi_{2}Te_{3} single crystals have been obtained and there is no influence on the growth by an extremely small amount of oxygen in a high vacuum at 1.0 × 10^{-3} Pa. As the air pressure is increased at 1.0 × 10^{-2} Pa, oxygen only mainly impacts on the growth of the surface for the prepared samples. Micron-sized rod-like structure and flower-like clusters are observed on the surface. For the samples prepared at 1.0 × 10^{-1} Pa, x-ray diffraction data show that the yellow part on the surface is Bi_{2}TeO_{5}, while the Bi_{2}Te_{3} single crystal is still the major phase as the inside part. More interestingly, various crystal morphologies are observed by scanning electron microscope for Bi_{2}Te_{3} near the boundary between Bi_{2}Te_{3} and Bi_{2}TeO_{5}. Possible growth mechanisms for Bi_{2}Te_{3} with different morphologies are discussed in detail.

A combination of self-aligned fluoride-based plasma treatment and post-gate rapid thermal annealing was developed to fabricate a novel 120-nm T-shaped gate normally-off metamorphic Al_{0.49}In_{0.51}As/Ga_{0.47}In_{0.53}As HEMT device on a Si substrate grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A shift of the threshold voltage, from -0.42 V to 0.11 V was obtained and the shift can be effectively adjusted by the process parameter of CF_{4} plasma treatment. Furthermore, a side benefit of reducing the leakage current of the device up to two orders of magnitude was also observed. E-mode transistors with 120 nm gate length own f_{T} up to 160 GHz and f_{max} of 140 GHz. These characteristics imply the potential of the fluoride-based plasma treatment technology for the fabrication of monolithic enhancement/depletion-mode mHEMTs, which also encourage the massive production with this low-cost technology.

Ag- and Sn-doped In_{2}S_{3} thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. The doping was realized by thermal diffusion. The influences of Ag and Sn impurities on the electrical, structural, morphological, and optical properties of the In_{2}S_{3} films were investigated. In all deposited samples, the x-ray diffraction spectra revealed the formation of cubic In_{2}S_{3} phase. A significant increase in the crystallite size was observed after Ag doping, while the doping of Sn slightly decreased the crystallite size. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy verified the diffusion of Ag and Sn into the In_{2}S_{3} films after annealing. The optical study illustrated that Ag doping resulted in a reduction of the optical band gap while Sn doping led to a widening of the gap. Optical properties were investigated to determine the optical constants. Besides, it was found that the resistivity decreases significantly either after Ag or Sn incorporation. The study demonstrates that the Sn-doped In_{2}S_{3} thin films are more suitable for buffer layer application in solar cells than the Ag-doped In_{2}S_{3} thin films.

A new method was developed based on the electron beam vacuum dispersion (EBVD) technology to prepare the PTFE polymer coating of the new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal sensor for testing liquor products. The new method was applied in the new EBVD equipment which we designed. A real-time system monitoring the polymer coating's thickness was designed for the new EBVD equipment according to the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle, playing an important role in preparing stable and uniform PTFE polymer coatings of the same thickness. 30 pieces of PTFE polymer coatings on the surface of the quartz crystal basis were prepared with the PTFE polymer ultrafine powder (purity ≥ 99.99%) as the starting material. We obtained 30 pieces of new PTFE polymer sensors. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure of the PTFE polymer coating's column clusters was studied. One sample from the 30 pieces of new PTFE polymer sensors was analysed by SEM in four scales, i.e., 400×, 1000×, 10000×, and 25000×. It was shown that under the condition of high bias voltage and low bias current, uniformly PTFE polymer coating could be achieved, which indicates that the new EBVD equipment is suitable for mass production of stable and uniform polymer coating.

Tip splitting instability of cellular interface morphology in directional solidification is analyzed based on the bias field method proposed recently by Glicksman. The physical mechanism of tip instability is explained by analyzing the interface potential, the tangential energy flux, and the normal energy flux. A rigorous criterion for tip-splitting instability is established analytically, i.e., the ratio of the cellular tip radius to the cellular width α > √3/2/π≈0.3899, which is in good agreement with simulation results. This study also reveals that the cellular tip splitting instability is attributable to weak Gibbs–Thomson energy acting on the interface.

A quantitative cellular automaton model is used to study the cell-to-dendrite transition (CDT) in directional solidification. We give a detailed description of the CDT by carefully examining the influence of the physical parameters, including: the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient Γ, the solute diffusivity D_{l}, the solute partition coefficient k_{0}, and the liquidus slope m_{l}. It is found that most of the parameters agree with the Kurz and Fisher (KF) criterion, except for k_{0}. The intrinsic relations among the critical velocity V_{cd}, the cellular primary spacing λ_{c, max}, and the critical spacing λ_{cd} are investigated.

Monodisperse AuPd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with different compositions are synthesized by using oleylamine (OAm) as reducing reagent, stabilizer, and solvent. To obtain AuPd solid solution NPs, Pd–OAm and Au–OAm precursors are firstly prepared by mixing OAm with Palladium (II) acetylacetonate (Pd(acac)_{2}) and HAuCl_{4}, respectively. Then Pd–OAm and Au–OAm precursor solutions are injected into a hot oleylamine solution to form AuPd NPs. The size of these NPs ranges from 6.0 to 8.0 nm and the composition is controlled by varying the precursor ratio. The AuPd NPs are loaded onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to make catalysts. Alloy NPs show high electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation in the alkaline media. Their catalytic activity for methanol oxidation is found to be dependent on the NP composition. As the Pd component increases, the peak current densities during the forward scan gradually increase and reach the maximum at AuPd_{2}. The enhancement of alloy NPs for methanol oxidation can be attributed to a synergistic effect of Au and Pd on the surface of alloy NPs.

The cycling performance, impedance variation, and cathode surface evolution of the Li/LiCoO_{2} cell using LiFSI–KFSI molten salt electrolyte are reported. It is found that this battery shows poor cycling performance, with capacity retention of only about 67% after 20 cycles. It is essential to understand the origin of the instability. It is noticed that the polarization voltage and the impedance of the cell both increase slowly upon cycling. The structure and the properties of the pristine and the cycled LiCoO_{2} cathodes are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the LiCoO_{2} particles are corroded by this molten salt electrolyte, and the decomposition by-product covers the surface of the LiCoO_{2} cathode after 20 cycles. Therefore, the surface side reaction explains the instability of the molten salt electrolyte with LiCoO_{2}.

Precise control over the photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum dots (QDs) is important for their practical applications. We show that the PL of individual CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs can be effectively enhanced and continuously modulated by electrochemically manipulating the electron transfer (ET) between the QDs and the attached redox-active ligands such as 2-mercaptoethanol (BME). We found that i) the ET from BME to the QDs' surface trap states suppresses the blinking of the QDs, ii) the ET from the QDs' conduction band to the oxidization product results in dimmed PL when BME is oxidized, and iii) further oxidization of BME results in a significant PL brightening. The single particle measurements help us unveil the important features hidden in ensemble measurements and understand the underlying mechanism of the PL modulation. The results also suggest a simple yet efficient method to produce bright and non-blinking QDs and offer opportunities for further development of high resolution fluorescent bioimaging and nanodevices.

Crystallographic dynamics of blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) mixed with [6-6-]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC_{61}BM) treated by thermal annealing or by adding solvent 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) are characterized by 2D-grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (2D-GIXRD). The results show that the P3HT chains are primarily oriented with the thiophene ring edge-on to the substrate, with a small fraction of chains oriented plane-on. The interplanar spacing becomes narrow after being treated by DIO, and the coherence length of the P3HT crystallites increases after being treated by thermal annealing or DIO, which is accompanied by a change in the orientation angle of the P3HT lamellae. The increased ordering of P3HT packing induced by thermal annealing or adding DIO contributes to enhanced photovoltaic performance.

We constructed a 36-channel magnetocardiography (MCG) system based on low-T_{c} direct current (DC) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers operated inside a magnetically shielded room (MSR). Weakly damped SQUID magnetometers with large Steward–McCumber parameter β_{c} (β_{c} ≈ 5), which could directly connect to the operational amplifier without any additional feedback circuit, were used to simplify the readout electronics. With a flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient ∂V/∂Ø larger than 420 μV/Ø_{0}, the SQUID magnetometers had a white noise level of about 5.5 fT·Hz^{-1/2} when operated in MSR. 36 sensing magnetometers and 15 reference magnetometers were employed to realize software gradiometer configurations. The coverage area of the 36 sensing magnetometers is 210× 210 mm^{2}. MCG measurements with a high signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB were done successfully using the developed system.

Drain-modulated generation current I_{DMG} induced by interface traps in an n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFET) is investigated. The formation of I_{DMG} ascribes to the change of the Si surface potential φ_{s}. This change makes the channel suffer transformation from the inversion state, depletion I state to depletion II state. The simulation result agrees with the experiment in the inversion and depletion I states. In the depletion II state, the theoretical curve goes into saturation, while the experimental curve drops quickly as V_{D} increases. The reason for this unconformity is that the drain-to-gate voltage V_{DG} lessens φ_{s} around the drain corner and controls the falling edge of the I_{DMG} curve. The experiments of gate-modulated generation and recombination currents are also applied to verify the reasonability of the mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a theoretical model of the I_{DMG} falling edge is set up in which I_{DMG} has an exponential attenuation relation with V_{DG}. Finally, the critical fitting coefficient t of the experimental curves is extracted. It is found that t=80 mV=3kT/q. This result fully shows the accuracy of the above mechanism.

A backside illuminated mesa-structure InGaAs/InP modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (MUTC-PD) with wide bandwidth and high saturation power is fabricated and investigated. The device structure is optimized to reduce the capacitance and resistance. For the 22-μm-diameter device, the maximum responsivity at 1.55 μm is 0.5 A/W, and the 3-dB cutoff frequency reaches up to 28 GHz. The output photocurrent at the 1-dB compression point is measured to be 54 mA at 25 GHz, with a corresponding output radio frequency (RF) power of up to 15.5 dBm. The saturation characteristics of the MUTC-PD are also verified by the electric field simulation, and electric field collapse is found to be the cause of the saturation phenomenon.

We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method.

As the device size decreases, the soft error induced by space ions is becoming a great concern for the reliability of integrated circuits (ICs). At present, the body biasing technique is widely used in highly scaled technologies. In the paper, using the three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, we analyze the effect of the body biasing on the single-event charge collection in deep N-well technology. Our simulation results show that the body biasing mainly affects the behavior of the source, and the effect of body biasing on the charge collection for the nMOSFET and pMOSFET is quite different. For the nMOSFET, the RBB will increase the charge collection, while the FBB will reduce the charge collection. For the pMOSFET, the effect of RBB on the SET pulse width is small, while the FBB has an adverse effect. Moreover, the differenceof the effect of body biasing on the charge collection is compared in deep N-well and twin well.

A backward wave amplifier (BWA) in a terahertz regime with a novel slow-wave structure (SWS) composed of multi parallel grating pins inside a rectangular waveguide is analyzed. The multi-pin rectangular waveguide SWS possesses good performance and is compatible with micro-fabrication technologies. The dispersion and interaction impedance of the multi-pin SWS are presented. The stopbands of the modes cling together in a Brillouim zone. The SWS has a high interaction impedance that is suitable for the interaction of multi cylindrical beams. The design, which is based on three parallel pins supporting the wave–beam interaction with four cylindrical beams, is verified by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. A BWA with the central frequency at 340 GHz is demonstrated, and the output power is more than 100 mW. A tuning frequency range of 15 GHz (333–348 GHz) is obtained with a gain of more than 20 dB.

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