Lie symmetry theorem of fractional nonholonomic systems
Third-order nonlinear differential operators preserving invariant subspaces of maximal dimension
Bäcklund transformations for the Burgers equation via localization of residual symmetries
Dynamic investigation of the finite dissolution of silicon particles in aluminum melt with a lower dissolution limit
Leaderless and leader-following consensus of linear multi-agent systems
Confined subdiffusion in three dimensions
A meshless scheme for partial differential equations based on multiquadric trigonometric B-spline quasi-interpolation
Based on the multiquadric trigonometric B-spline quasi-interpolant, this paper proposes a meshless scheme for some partial differential equations whose solutions are periodic with respect to the spatial variable. This scheme takes into account the periodicity of the analytic solution by using derivatives of a periodic quasi-interpolant (multiquadric trigonometric B-spline quasi-interpolant) to approximate the spatial derivatives of the equations. Thus, it overcomes the difficulties of the previous schemes based on quasi-interpolation (requiring some additional boundary conditions and yielding unwanted high-order discontinuous points at the boundaries in the spatial domain). Moreover, the scheme also overcomes the difficulty of the meshless collocation methods (i.e., yielding a notorious ill-conditioned linear system of equations for large collocation points). The numerical examples that are presented at the end of the paper show that the scheme provides excellent approximations to the analytic solutions.
A theorem for quantum operator correspondence to the solution of the Helmholtz equation
Localization and recurrence of a quantum walk in a periodic potential on a line
Controllable preparation of two-mode entangled coherent states in circuit QED
Promote entanglement trapping in photonic band gaps
Non-Markovianity of the Heisenberg XY spin environment with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Quantum correlation switches for dipole arrays
Experimental realization of one-dimensional optical quantum walks
Three-dimensional solitons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates Hot!
We investigate a kind of solitons in the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with axisymmetric configurations in the R2× S1 space. The corresponding topological structure is referred to as Hopfion. The spin texture differs from the conventional three-dimensional (3D) skyrmion and knot, which is characterized by two homotopy invariants. The stability of the Hopfion is verified numerically by evolving the Gross-Pitaevskii equations in imaginary time.
Elementary analysis of interferometers for wave–particle duality test and the prospect of going beyond the complementarity principle
A distinct method to show a quantum object behaving both as wave and as particle is proposed and described in some detail. We make a systematic analysis using the elementary methodology of quantum mechanics upon Young's two-slit interferometer and the Mach-Zehnder two-arm interferometer with the focus placed on how to measure the interference pattern (wave nature) and the which-way information (particle nature) of quantum objects. We design several schemes to simultaneously acquire the which-way information for an individual quantum object and the high-contrast interference pattern for an ensemble of these quantum objects by placing two sets of measurement instruments that are well separated in space and whose perturbation of each other is negligibly small within the interferometer at the same time. Yet, improper arrangement and cooperation of these two sets of measurement instruments in the interferometer would lead to failure of simultaneous observation of wave and particle behaviors. The internal freedoms of quantum objects could be harnessed to probe both the which-way information and the interference pattern for the center-of-mass motion. That quantum objects can behave beyond the wave-particle duality and the complementarity principle would stimulate new conceptual examination and exploration of quantum theory at a deeper level.
State-dependent event-triggered control of multi-agent systems
Static and adaptive feedback control for synchronization of different chaotic oscillators with mutually Lipschitz nonlinearities
Enhancing the precision of phase estimation by weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal
Equivalent comparison and analysis between different nominal frequencies
A pressure calibration method for a portable wide-access “panoramic” cell
Spectral analysis of the UFBG-based acousto–optical modulatorin V-I transmission matrix formalism
Digital coherent detection research on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry with simplex pulse codes
Effect of Re on stacking fault nucleation under shear strain in Ni by atomistic simulation
Novel copper redox-based cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries Hot!
Layered oxides of P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.66O2, P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.50Ti0.16O2, and O'3-type NaCu0.67Sb0.33O2 were synthesized and evaluated as cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The first two materials can deliver a capacity of around 70 mAh/g. The Cu2+ is oxidized to Cu3+ during charging, and the Cu3+ goes back to Cu2+ upon discharging. This is the first demonstration of the highly reversible change of the redox couple of Cu2+/Cu3+ with high storage potential in secondary batteries.
Broadband time-resolved elliptical crystal spectrometer for X-ray spectroscopic measurements in laser-produced plasmas
Electron impact excitation of Ni-like gold studied by Dirac R-matrix method
We calculate the electron impact excitation of Ni-like gold by using the Dirac R-matrix theory, and the corresponding collision strengths and effective collision strengths are obtained. In the calculations of the level energy, (1s22s22p6)3s23p63d10, 3s23p63d94l, 3s23p53d104l, and 3s3p63d104l (l=0,1,2,3) configurations are included and 107 fine-structure levels are generated. In the calculations of the collision strengths, only the first 59 levels are included. Comparisons are made with the distorted wave (DW) results of Zeng et al. for both collision strengths and effective collision strengths. For the collision strengths, the two sets of calculations are in excellent agreement for most of the transitions. However, because of the inclusion of the resonances, our effective collision strengths are generally several times larger than those of Zeng et al.. The accuracy of our calculations is assessed.
Polarization effect in (e, 2e) reaction process for Ar (3s) in coplanar asymmetric geometry
Electron momentum spectroscopy of NF3
The electronic structure of nitrogen trifluoride was investigated by combining the high-resolution electron momentum spectroscopy with the high-level calculations. The experimental binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of each orbital were compared with the results of Hartree-Fock, density functional theory (DFT), and symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction (SAC-CI) methods. SAC-CI and DFT-B3LYP with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set can well reproduce the binding energy spectra and the observed momentum distributions of the valence orbitals except 1a2 and 4e orbitals. It was found that the calculated momentum distributions using DFT-B3LYP are even better than those using the high-level SAC-CI method.
Dissociative ionization cross sections of CO2 at electron impact energy of 5 keV
The dissociative ionization of CO2 induced by 5 keV electrons in two-body and three-body dissociative channels of CO22+ and CO23+ is identified by the ion-ion coincidence- method using a momentum imaging spectrometer. The partial ionization cross sections (PICSs) of different ionic fragments are measured and the results generally agree with the calculations made by a semi-empirical approach. Furthermore, the PICSs of the dissociative channels are also obtained by carefully considering the detection efficiency of the micro-channel plates and the total transmission efficiency of the time of flight system.
Enhancement of electromagnetically induced transparency cooling by an optical cavity
We theoretically investigate an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) cooling method by introducing a high finesse cavity. We find that the quantum destructive interference that is induced by the EIT effect and the cavity coupling can eliminate all of the heating effects in the cooling process by choosing appropriate parameters. Compared with the EIT cooling scheme, a lower final temperature can be obtained under the same conditions in our scheme.
Systematically investigating the polarization gradient cooling in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms
An iterative analytic-numerical method for scattering from a target buried beneath a rough surface
An efficiently iterative analytical-numerical method is proposed for two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly electric conducting (PEC) target buried under a dielectric rough surface. The basic idea is to employ the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) to accelerate the boundary integral method (BIM). Below the rough surface, an iterative system is designed between the rough surface and the target. The KA is used to simulate the initial field on the rough surface based on the Fresnel theory, while the target is analyzed by the boundary integral method to obtain a precise result. The fields between the rough surface and the target can be linked by the boundary integral equations below the rough surface. The technique presented here is highly efficient in terms of computational memory, time, and versatility. Numerical simulations of two typical models are carried out to validate the method.
Bidirectional reflectance distribution function modeling of one-dimensional rough surface in the microwave band
In this study, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a one-dimensional conducting rough surface and a dielectric rough surface are calculated with different frequencies and roughness values in the microwave band by using the method of moments, and the relationship between the bistatic scattering coefficient and the BRDF of a rough surface is expressed. From the theory of the parameters of the rough surface BRDF, the parameters of the BRDF are obtained using a genetic algorithm. The BRDF of a rough surface is calculated using the obtained parameter values. Further, the fitting values and theoretical calculations of the BRDF are compared, and the optimization results are in agreement with the theoretical calculation results. Finally, a reference for BRDF modeling of a Gaussian rough surface in the microwave band is provided by the proposed method.
White emission from Tm3+/Tb3+/Eu3+ co-doped fluoride zirconate under ultraviolet excitation
Electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-mode optomechanical system
We study a three-mode double-cavity optomechanical system in which an oscillating membrane of perfect reflection is inserted between two fixed mirrors of partial transmission. We find that electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be realized and controlled in this optomechanical system by adjusting the relative intensity and the relative phase between left-hand and right-hand input (probe and coupling) fields. In particular, one perfect EIT window is seen to occur when the two probe fields are exactly out of phase and the EIT window's width is very sensitive to the relative intensity of two coupling fields. Our numerical findings may be extended to achieve optomechanical storage and switching schemes applicable in quantum information processing.
Non-contact angle measurement based on parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry
We present a novel precise angle measurement scheme based on parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry (PLFI), which outputs two parallel laser beams and thus their displacement difference reflects the angle variation of the target. Due to its ultrahigh sensitivity to the feedback light, PLFI realizes the direct non-contact measurement of non-cooperative targets. Experimental results show that PLFI has an accuracy of 8" within a range of 1400". The yaw of a guide is also measured and the experimental results agree with those of the dual-frequency laser interferometer Agilent 5529A.
Statistical properties of the photoelectron energy spectrum generated by an intense laser pulse and a continuous X-ray
This study shows that the photoelectron energy spectrum generated by an intense laser pulse in the presence of a continuous X-ray has interesting and useful statistical properties. The total photoionization production is linearly proportional to the time duration of the laser pulse and the square of the beam size. The spectral double energy-integration is an intrinsic value of the laser-assisted X-ray photoionization, which linearly depends on the laser intensity and which quantitatively reflects the strengths of the laser-field modulation and the quantum interference between photoelectrons. The spectral energy width also linearly depends on the laser intensity. These linear relationships suggest new methods for the in-situ measurement of laser intensity and pulse duration with high precision.
Fiber optical parametric oscillator based on photonic crystal fiber pumped with all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb：fiber laser
We demonstrate a cost effective, linearly tunable fiber optical parametric oscillator based on a home-made photonic crystal fiber pumped with a mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser, providing linely tuning ranges from 1018 nm to 1038 nm for the idler wavelength and from 1097 nm to 1117 nm for the signal wavelength by tuning the pump wavelength and the cavity length. In order to obtain the desired fiber with a zero dispersion wavelength around 1060 nm, eight samples of photonic crystal fibers with gradually changed structural parameters are fabricated for the reason that it is difficult to accurately customize the structural dimensions during fabrication. We verify the usability of the fabricated fiber experimentally via optical parametric generation and conclude a successful procedure of design, fabirication, and verification. A seed source of home-made all-normal-dispersion mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser with 38.57 ps pulsewidth around the 1064 nm wavelength is used to pump the fiber optical parametric oscillator. The wide picosecond pulse pump laser enables a larger walk-off tolerance between the pump light and the oscillating light as well as a longer photonic crystal fiber of 20 m superior to the femtosecond pulse lasers, resulting in a larger parametric amplification and a lower threshold pump power of 15.8 dBm of the fiber optical parametric oscillator.
High-Q cavity based on gradated one-dimensional photonic crystal
A high quality-factor (Q) cavity based on a one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal with gradated elliptical holes was designed using FDTD simulation. Different gradient profiles of the mirror holes were found to correspond to different Q-values of the cavities. A simple strategy is proposed to construct high-Q cavities by using an S-shaped gradient profile for the elliptical holes' minor axes, such as a cosine function or Gaussian function. Using such a strategy, a Q value exceeding two million is obtained with only ten mirror holes in a cavity.
High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with optimized ultra-short taper
A novel high-efficiency focusing non-uniform grating coupler is proposed to couple light into or off silicon photonic chips for large-scale silicon photonic integration. This kind of grating coupler decreases the transition length of the linking taper between the grating and the single-mode waveguide by at least 80%. The radian of the grating lines and the size of the taper are optimized to improve the coupling efficiency. An experimental coupling efficiency of ～ 68% at 1556.24 nm is obtained after optimization and the whole size of the grating is 12 μm × 30 μm, with a very short taper transition of ～ 15 μm long.
Reversal of thermal rectification in one-dimensional nonlinear composite system
Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, a comprehensive study of the asymmetric heat conduction in the composite system consisting of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model and Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model is conducted. The calculated results show that in a larger system, the rectifying direction can be reversed only by adjusting the thermal bias. Moreover, the rectification reversal depends critically on the system size and the properties of the interface. The mechanisms of the two types of asymmetric heat conduction induced by nonlinearity are discussed. Considering the novel asymmetric heat conduction in the system, it may possess possible applications to manage the thermal rectification in situ directionally without re-building the structure.
Collector optimization for tradeoff between breakdown voltage and cut-off frequency in SiGe HBT
As is well known, there exists a tradeoff between the breakdown voltage BV CEO and the cut-off frequency fT for a standard heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). In this paper, this tradeoff is alleviated by collector doping engineering in the SiGe HBT by utilizing a novel composite of P+ and N- doping layers inside the collector-base (CB) space-charge region (SCR). Compared with the single N-type collector, the introduction of the thin P+ layers provides a reverse electric field weakening the electric field near the CB metallurgical junction without changing the field direction, and the thin N- layer further effectively lowers the electric field near the CB metallurgical junction. As a result, the electron temperature near the CB metallurgical junction is lowered, consequently suppressing the impact ionization, thus BVCEO is improved with a slight degradation in fT. The results show that the product of fT× BV CEO is improved from 309.51 GHz·V to 326.35 GHz·V.
Noether's theorem for non-conservative Hamilton system based on El-Nabulsi dynamical model extended by periodic laws
This paper focuses on the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities for both holonomic and nonholonomic systems based on a new non-conservative dynamical model introduced by El-Nabulsi. First, the El-Nabulsi dynamical model which is based on a fractional integral extended by periodic laws is introduced, and El-Nabulsi-Hamilton's canonical equations for non-conservative Hamilton system with holonomic or nonholonomic constraints are established. Second, the definitions and criteria of El-Nabulsi-Noether symmetrical transformations and quasi-symmetrical transformations are presented in terms of the invariance of El-Nabulsi-Hamilton action under the infinitesimal transformations of the group. Finally, Noether's theorems for the non-conservative Hamilton system under the El-Nabulsi dynamical system are established, which reveal the relationship between the Noether symmetry and the conserved quantity of the system.
A new model for film bulk acoustic wave resonators
Based on cavity resonance and sandwich composite plate theory, this paper presents a universal three-dimensional (3D) theoretical model for frequency dispersion characterization and displacement profile shapes of the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBARs). This model provides results of FBAR excited thickness-extensional and flexure modes, and the result of frequency dispersion is proposed in which the thicknesses and impedance of the electrodes and the piezoelectric material are taken into consideration; its further simplification shows good agreement with the modified Butterworth-Van-Dyke (MBVD) model. The displacement profile reflects the vibration stress distribution of electrode shapes and the lateral resonance effect, which depends on the axis ratio of the electrode shapes a/b. The results are consistent with the 3D finite element method modeling and laser interferometry measurement in general.
Bifurcation phenomena and control for magnetohydrodynamic flows in a smooth expanded channel
Experimental studies on flow visualization and velocity field of compression ramp with different incoming boundary layers
Propulsive matrix of a helical flagellum
We study the propulsion matrix of bacterial flagella numerically using slender body theory and the regularized Stokeslet method in a biologically relevant parameter regime. All three independent elements of the matrix are measured by computing propulsive force and torque generated by a rotating flagellum, and the drag force on a translating flagellum. Numerical results are compared with the predictions of resistive force theory, which is often used to interpret micro-organism propulsion. Neglecting hydrodynamic interactions between different parts of a flagellum in resistive force theory leads to both qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between the theoretical prediction of resistive force theory and the numerical results. We improve the original theory by empirically incorporating the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and propose new expressions for propulsive matrix elements that are accurate over the parameter regime explored.
Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress
Measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating contact line using an AFM-based dual-mode mechanical resonator
Near equilibrium dynamics and one-dimensional spatial-temporal structures of polar active liquid crystals
We systematically explore near equilibrium, flow-driven, and flow-activity coupled dynamics of polar active liquid crystals using a continuum model. Firstly, we re-derive the hydrodynamic model to ensure the thermodynamic laws are obeyed and elastic stresses and forces are consistently accounted. We then carry out a linear stability analysis about constant steady states to study near equilibrium dynamics around the steady states, revealing long-wave instability inherent in this model system and how active parameters in the model affect the instability. We then study model predictions for onedimensional (1D) spatial-temporal structures of active liquid crystals in a channel subject to physical boundary conditions. We discuss the model prediction in two selected regimes, one is the viscous stress dominated regime, also known as the flow-driven regime, while the other is the full regime, in which all active mechanisms are included. In the viscous stress dominated regime, the polarity vector is driven by the prescribed flow field. Dynamics depend sensitively on the physical boundary condition and the type of the driven flow field. Bulk-dominated temporal periodic states and spatially homogeneous states are possible under weak anchoring conditions while spatially inhomogeneous states exist under strong anchoring conditions. In the full model, flow-orientation interaction generates a host of planar as well as out-of-plane spatial-temporal structures related to the spontaneous flows due to the molecular self-propelled motion. These results provide contact with the recent literature on active nematic suspensions. In addition, symmetry breaking patterns emerge as the additional active viscous stress due to the polarity vector is included in the force balance. The inertia effect is found to limit the long-time survival of spatial structures to those with small wave numbers, i.e., an asymptotic coarsening to long wave structures. A rich set of mechanisms for generating and limiting the flow structures as well as the spatial-temporal structures predicted by the model are displayed.
Microwave propagation with the gas breakdown
Effects of some parameters on the divertor plasma sheath characteristics and fuel retention in castellated tungsten tile gaps
Castellation of plasma facing components is foreseen as the best solution for ensuring the lifetime of future fusion devices. However, the gaps between the resulting surface elements can increase fuel retention and complicate fuel removal issues. To know how the fuel is retained inside the gaps, the plasma sheath around the gaps needs to be understood first. In this work, a kinetic model is used to study plasma characteristics around the divertor gaps with the focus on the H+ penetration depth inside the poloidal gaps, and a rate-theory model is coupled to simulate the hydrogen retention inside the tungsten gaps. By varying the magnetic field strength and plasma temperature, we find that the H+ cyclotron radius has a significant effect on the penetration depth. Besides, the increase of magnetic field inclination angle can also increase the penetration depth. It is found in this work that parameters as well as the penetration depth strongly affect fuel retention in tungsten gaps.
Electronic dynamic behavior in inductively coupled plasmas with radio-frequency bias
The inflexion point of electron density and effective electron temperature curves versus radio-frequency (RF) bias voltage is observed in the H mode of inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The electron energy probability function (EEPF) evolves first from a Maxwellian to a Druyvesteyn-like distribution, and then to a Maxwellian distribution again as the RF bias voltage increases. This can be explained by the interaction of two distinct bias-induced mechanisms, that is: bias-induced electron heating and bias-induced ion acceleration loss and the decrease of the effective discharge volume due to the sheath expansion. Furthermore, the trend of electron density is verified by a fluid model combined with a sheath module.
Determining the sum of flexoelectric coefficients in nematic liquid crystals by the capacitance method
Localized deep levels in AlxGa1-xN epitaxial films with various Al compositions Hot!
By using high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy (HT-DLTS) and other electrical measurement techniques, localized deep levels in n-type AlxGa1-xN epitaxial films with various Al compositions (x= 0, 0.14, 0.24, 0.33, and 0.43) have been investigated. It is found that there are three distinct deep levels in AlxGa1-xN films, whose level position with respect to the conduction band increases as Al composition increases. The dominant defect level with the activation energy deeper than 1.0 eV below the conduction band closely follows the Fermi level stabilization energy, indicating that its origin may be related to the defect complex, including the anti-site defects and divacancies in AlxGa1-xN films.
Direct-bandgap electroluminescence from tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells at room temperature
Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on a Ge-on-Si virtual substrate using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition on an n+-Si (001) substrate. Direct-bandgap electroluminescence from the MQWs light emitting diode was observed at room temperature. The quantum confinement effect of the direct-bandgap transitions is in good agreement with the theoretical calculated results. The redshift mechanism of emission wavelength related to the thermal effect is discussed.
Comparison of total dose effects on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors induced by different swift heavy ion irradiation
The degradations in NPN silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) were fully studied in this work, by means of 25-MeV Si, 10-MeV Cl, 20-MeV Br, and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, respectively. Electrical parameters such as the base current (IB), current gain (β), neutral base recombination (NBR), and Early voltage (VA) were investigated and used to evaluate the tolerance to heavy ion irradiation. Experimental results demonstrate that device degradations are indeed radiation-source-dependent, and the larger the ion nuclear energy loss is, the more the displacement damages are, and thereby the more serious the performance degradation is. The maximum degradation was observed in the transistors irradiated by 10-MeV Br. For 20-MeV and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, an unexpected degradation in IC was observed and Early voltage decreased with increasing ion fluence, and NBR appeared to slow down at high ion fluence. The degradations in SiGe HBTs were mainly attributed to the displacement damages created by heavy ion irradiation in the transistors. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed and investigated in detail.
Anti-plane problem analysis for icosahedral quasicrystals under shear loadings
Moiré patterns and step edges on few-layer graphene grown on nickel films
Ferromagnetism in one-dimensional Hubbard model induced by the next-nearest-neighbor hopping at electron density 3/2
Ferromagnetism in the one-dimensional Hubbard model with the next-nearest-neighbor hopping is explored by using the exact-diagonalization method in a small cluster and the equation-of-motion method in the thermodynamic limit with electron density n=3/2. With these two complementary methods, it is found that an intermediate value of the next-nearest-neighbor hopping amplitude t1 tends to stabilize the fully polarized ferromagnetic state under the condition that the on-site coulomb interaction U is sufficiently large in our model. The ground-state phase diagram of the model is presented in the t1-U plane.
First-principles study of the effects of selected interstitial atoms on the generalized stacking fault energies, strength, and ductility of Ni
We analyze the influences of interstitial atoms on the generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE), strength, and ductility of Ni by first-principles calculations. Surface energies and GSFE curves are calculated for the <112> (111) and <101> (111) systems. Because of the anisotropy of the single crystal, the addition of interstitials tends to promote the strength of Ni by slipping along the <101> direction while facilitating plastic deformation by slipping along the <112> direction. There is a different impact on the mechanical behavior of Ni when the interstitials are located in the slip plane. The evaluation of the Rice criterion reveals that the addition of the interstitials H and O increases the brittleness in Ni and promotes the probability of cleavage fracture, while the addition of S and N tends to increase the ductility. Besides, P, H, and S have a negligible effect on the deformation tendency in Ni, while the tendency of partial dislocation is more prominent with the addition of N and O. The addition of interstitial atoms tends to increase the high-energy barrier γmax, thereby the second partial resulting from the dislocation tends to reside and move on to the next layer.
Effects of shape and dopant on structural, optical absorption, Raman, and vibrational properties of silver and copper quantum clusters：A density functional theory study
Zero-field splitting parameters and local structures for tetragonal Cr2+ centers in Cr2+-doped ZnSe semiconductors
Radio-frequency transistors from millimeter-scale graphene domains
Graphene is a new promising candidate for application in radio-frequency (RF) electronics due to its excellent electronic properties such as ultrahigh carrier mobility, large threshold current density, and high saturation velocity. Recently, much progress has been made in the graphene-based RF field-effect transistors (RF-FETs). Here we present for the first time the high-performance top-gated RF transistors using millimeter-scale single graphene domain on a SiO2/Si substrate through a conventional microfabrication process. A maximum cut-off frequency of 178 GHz and a peak maximum oscillation frequency of 35 GHz are achieved in the graphene-domain-based FET with a gate length of 50 nm and 150 nm, respectively. This work shows that the millimeter-scale single graphene domain has great potential applications in RF devices and circuits.
Probing the thermoelectric transport properties of n-type Bi2Te3 close to the limit of constitutional undercooling
Extraordinary optical transmission through a subwavelength composite hole-pillar array
Polarization dependence of the light coupling to surface plasmons in an Ag nanoparticle & Ag nanowire system
Polarization dependence of the coupling of excitation light to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) was investigated in a Ag nanoparticle-nanowire waveguide system (a Ag nanoparticle attached to a Ag nanowire). It was found that under the illumination of excitation light on the nanoparticle-nanowire junction, the coupling efficiency of light to SPPs depends on the polarization of the excitation light. Theoretical simulations revealed that it is the local near-field coupling between the nanoparticle and the nanowire that enhances the incident light to excite the nanowire SPPs. Because the shapes of the Ag nanoparticles differ, the local field intensity, and thus the excitement of the nanowire SPPs, vary with the polarization of the excitation light.
Effect of gate length on the parameter degradation relations of PMOSFET under NBTI stress
Impact of substrate injected hot electrons on hot carrier degradation in a 180-nm NMOSFET
Although hot carriers induced degradation of NMOSFETs has been studied for decades, the role of hot electron in this process is still debated. In this paper, the additional substrate hot electrons have been intentionally injected into the oxide layer to analyze the role of hot electron in hot carrier degradation. The enhanced degradation and the decreased time exponent appear with the injected hot electrons increasing, the degradation increases from 21.80% to 62.00% and the time exponent decreases from 0.59 to 0.27 with Vb decreasing from 0 V to -4 V, at the same time, the recovery also becomes remarkable and which strongly depends on the post stress gate bias Vg. Based on the experimental results, more unrecovered interface traps are created by the additional injected hot electron from the breaking Si-H bond, but the oxide trapped negative charges do not increase after a rapid recovery.
Resistive switching characteristics of Ti/ZrO2/Pt RRAM device
In this paper, the bipolar resistive switching characteristic is reported in Ti/ZrO2/Pt resistive switching memory devices. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament composed of oxygen vacancies. The conduction mechanisms for low and high resistance states are dominated by the ohmic conduction and the trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. The effect of a set compliance current on the switching parameters is also studied: the low resistance and reset current are linearly dependent on the set compliance current in the log-log scale coordinate; and the set and reset voltage increase slightly with the increase of the set compliance current. A series circuit model is proposed to explain the effect of the set compliance current on the resistive switching behaviors.
F4-TCNQ concentration dependence of the current–voltage characteristics in the Au/P3HT:PCBM:F4-TCNQ/n-Si (MPS) Schottky barrier diode
Multiferroicity in B-site ordered double perovskite Y2MnCrO6
Self-biased magnetoelectric responses in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites with different high-permeability alloys
We comparatively investigate the influence of various high-permeability alloys on the hysteretic and remanent resonant magnetoelectric (ME) response in a composite of magnetostrictive nickel (Ni) and piezoelectric Pb(Zr1-x, Tix)O3 (PZT). In order to implement this comparative research, Co-based amorphous alloy (CoSiB), Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy (FeCuNbSiB) and Fe-based amorphous alloy (FeSiB) are used according to different magnetostriction (λs) and saturation magnetization (μ0Ms) characteristics. The bending and longitudinal resonant ME voltage coefficients (αME,b and αME,l) are observed comparatively for CoSiB/Ni/PZT, FeCuNbSiB/Ni/PZT, and FeSiB/Ni/PZT composites. The experimental data indicate that the FeSiB/Ni/PZT composite has the largest remanent self-biased αME,b and αME,l due to the largest magnetic grading of λs and μ0 Ms in the FeSiB/Ni layer. When the number of FeSiB foils is four, the maximum remanent αME,b and αME,l at zero bias magnetic field are 57.8 V/cm·Oe and 107.6 V/cm·Oe, respectively. It is recommended that the high-permeability alloy is supposed to have larger λs and μ0 Ms for obtaining a larger remanent self-biased ME responses in ME composite with high-permeability alloy.
Dimension effects on the dielectric properties of fine BaTiO3 ceramics
Analysis of flatband voltage shift of metal/high-k/SiO2/Si stack based on energy band alignment of entire gate stack
Enhanced ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism in Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 heterostructure grown by pulsed laser deposition
High sensitivity gravimetric sensor made of unidirectional carbon fiber epoxy composite on (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3 single crystal substrate
Preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotube-Fe composites and their application as light weight and broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers
Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-Fe composites were prepared via the metal organic chemical vapor deposition by depositing iron pentacarbonyl on the surface of MWCNTs. The structural and morphological analyses demonstrated that Fe nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs. The electromagnetic properties of the MWCNTs were significantly changed, and the absorbing capacity evidently improved after the Fe deposition on the MWCNT surface. A minimum reflection loss of -29.4 dB was observed at 8.39 GHz, and the less than -10 dB bandwidth was about 10.6 GHz, which covered the whole X band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and the whole Ku band (12.4-18 GHz), indicating that the MWCNT-Fe composites could be used as an effective microwave absorption material.
Homogeneity analysis of sculptured thin films deposited in symmetric style through glancing angle deposition technique
The symmetric deposition technique is often used to improve the uniformity of sculptured thin film (STF). In this paper, optical properties of STF with the columnar angles ± β are analyzed theoretically, based on the characteristic matrix method for extraordinary waves. Then, the transmittances of uniformity monolayer and bilayer STF in symmetrical style are calculated to show the effect of the bilayer structure on the optical properties of STF. The inhomogeneity of STF is involved in analyzing the differences in transmittance and phase retardation between monolayer and bilayer STF deposited in symmetric style. The results show that optical homogeneity of STF can be improved by depositing in symmetric style at the normal incidence, but it is not the same case as the oblique incidence.
Effects of interface roughness on photoluminescence full width at half maximum in GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements have been performed for a set of GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells (QWs). The experimental results show that the optical full width at half maximum (FWHM) increases relatively rapidly with increasing Al composition in the AlxGa1-xN barrier, and increases only slightly with increasing GaN well width. A model considering the interface roughness is used to interpret the experimental results. In the model, the FWHM's broadening caused by the interface roughness is calculated based on the triangle potential well approximation. We find that the calculated results accord with the experimental results well.
Fabrication and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra of Zn-Cu-In-S quaternary nanocrystals
A series of Zn-Cu-In-S nanocrystals (ZCIS NCs) are prepared and the optical properties of the ZCIS NCs are tuned by adjusting the reaction time. It is interesting to observe that the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZCIS NCs show a redshift with decreasing intensity at low temperature (50-280 K) and a blueshift at high temperature (318-403 K). The blueshift can be explained by the thermally active phonon-assisted tunneling from the excited states of the low-energy emission band to the excited states of the high-energy emission band.
Tri-band transparent cross-polarization converters using a chiral metasurface
A chiral metasurface is proposed to realize a tri-band polarization angle insensitive cross-polarization converter. The unit cell of the chiral metamaterial is composed by four twisted anisotropic structure pairs in four-fold rotation symmetry. The simulation results show that this device can work at 9.824 GHz, 11.39 GHz, and 13.37 GHz with low loss and a high polarization conversion ratio (PCR) of more than 99%. The proposed design can transmit the co-polarization wave at 14.215 GHz, like a frequency selective surface. The study of the current and electric fields distributions indicates that the cross-polarization transmission is due to electric dipole coupling.
Evolution of nitrogen structure in N-doped diamond crystal after high pressure and high temperature annealing treatment
In this paper, we have reported an investigation on the evolution of nitrogen structures in diamond crystals which contain nitrogen donor atoms in the range of 1500 ppm-1600 ppm following an annealing treatment at a high pressure of about 6.5 GPa and high temperatures of 1920 K-2120 K. The annealing treatment was found to completely transform nitrogen atoms originally arranged in a single substitutional form (C-center), into a pair form (A-center), indicated from infrared (IR) spectra. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra revealed that a small fraction of nitrogen atoms remained in C-center form, while some nitrogen atoms in A-center form were further transformed into N3 and H3 center structures. In addition, PL spectra have revealed the existence of two newly observed nitrogen-related structures with zero phonon lines at 611 nm and 711 nm. All these findings above are very helpful in understanding the formation mechanism of natural diamond stones of the Ia-type, which contains nitrogen atoms in an aggregated form.
Transport of ions through a (6,6) carbon nanotube under electric fields
Threshold flux-controlled memristor model and its equivalent circuit implementation
Modeling a memristor is an effective way to explore the memristor properties due to the fact that the memristor devices are still not commercially available for common researchers. In this paper, a physical memristive device is assumed to exist whose ionic drift direction is perpendicular to the direction of the applied voltage, upon which, corresponding to the HP charge-controlled memristor model, a novel threshold flux-controlled memristor model with a window function is proposed. The fingerprints of the proposed model are analyzed. Especially, a practical equivalent circuit of the proposed model is realized, from which the corresponding experimental fingerprints are captured. The equivalent circuit of the threshold memristor model is appropriate for various memristors based breadboard experiments.
Memristance controlling approach based on modification of linear M-q curve
Superconducting quantum interference devices with different damped junctions operated in directly coupled current- and voltage-bias modes
Optical response of Al/Ti bilayer transition edge sensors
Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation
Impact of nitrogen plasma passivation on the interface of germanium MOS capacitor
Nitrogen plasma passivation (NPP) on (111) germanium (Ge) was studied in terms of the interface trap density, roughness, and interfacial layer thickness using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The results show that NPP not only reduces the interface states, but also improves the surface roughness of Ge, which is beneficial for suppressing the channel scattering at both low and high field regions of Ge MOSFETs. However, the interfacial layer thickness is also increased by the NPP treatment, which will impact the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling and thus degrade the device performance gain from the improvement of the surface morphology and the interface passivation. To obtain better device performance of Ge MOSFETs, suppressing the interfacial layer regrowth as well as a trade-off with reducing the interface states and roughness should be considered carefully when using the NPP process.
A two-dimensional analytical model for channel potential and threshold voltage of short channel dual material gate lightly doped drain MOSFET
An analytical model for the channel potential and the threshold voltage of the short channel dual-material-gate lightly doped drain (DMG-LDD) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is presented using the parabolic approximation method. The proposed model takes into account the effects of the LDD region length, the LDD region doping, the lengths of the gate materials and their respective work functions, along with all the major geometrical parameters of the MOSFET. The impact of the LDD region length, the LDD region doping, and the channel length on the channel potential is studied in detail. Furthermore, the threshold voltage of the device is calculated using the minimum middle channel potential, and the result obtained is compared with the DMG MOSFET threshold voltage to show the improvement in the threshold voltage roll-off. It is shown that the DMG-LDD MOSFET structure alleviates the problem of short channel effects (SCEs) and the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) more efficiently. The proposed model is verified by comparing the theoretical results with the simulated data obtained by using the commercially available ATLASTM 2D device simulator.
Experimental clarification of orientation dependence of germanium PMOSFETs with Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stack
An extensive and complete experimental investigation with a full layout design of the channel direction was carried out for the first time to clarify the orientation dependence of germanium p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (PMOSFETs). By comparison of gate trans-conductance, drive current, and hole mobility, we found that the performance trend with the substrate orientation for Ge PMOSFET is (110) > (111) ～ (100), and the best channel direction is (110)/. Moreover, the (110) device performance was found to be easily degraded as the channel direction got off from the  orientation, while (100) and (111) devices exhibited less channel orientation dependence. This experimental result shows good matching with the simulation reports to give a credible and significant guidance for Ge PMOSFET design.
Theoretical and experimental analysis of the effects of the series resistance on luminous efficacy in GaN-based light emitting diodes
Improved device reliability in organic light emitting devices by controlling the etching of indium zinc oxide anode
Applicability of initial optimal maternal and fetal electrocardiogram combination vectors to subsequent recordings
A series of experiments are conducted to confirm whether the vectors calculated for an early section of a continuous non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) recording can be directly applied to subsequent sections in order to reduce the computation required for real-time monitoring. Our results suggest that it is generally feasible to apply the initial optimal maternal and fetal ECG combination vectors to extract the fECG and maternal ECG in subsequent recorded sections.
Development of MEMS-based micro capacitive tactile probe
In this paper, a micro capacitive sensor with nanometer resolution is presented for ultra-precision measurement of micro components, which is fabricated by the MEMS (micro electromechanical systems) non-silicon technique. Based on the sensor, a micro capacitive tactile probe is constructed by stylus assembly and packaging design for dimension metrology on micro/nano scale, in which a data acquiring system is developed with AD7747. Some measurements of the micro capacitive tactile probe are performed on a nano positioning and measuring machine (NMM). The measurement results show good linearity and hysteresis with a range of 11.6 μm and resolution of better than 5 nm. Hence, the micro capacitive tactile probe can be integrated on NMM to realize measurement of micro structures with nanometer accuracy.
Coupling of two-dimensional atomistic and continuum models for dynamic crack
A concurrent multiscale method of coupling atomistic and continuum models is presented in the two-dimensional system. The atomistic region is governed by molecular dynamics while the continuum region is represented by constructing the mass and stiffness matrix dependent on the coarsening of the grids, which ensures that they merge seamlessly. The low-pass phonon filter embedded in the handshaking region is utilized to effectively eliminate the spurious reflection of high-frequency phonons, while keeping the low-frequency phonons transparent. These schemes are demonstrated by numerically calculating the reflection and transmission coefficient, and by the further application of dynamic crack propagation subjected to mode-I tensile loading.
Realization of conformal doping on multicrystalline silicon solar cells and black silicon solar cells by plasma immersion ion implantation
Emitted multi-crystalline silicon and black silicon solar cells are conformal doped by ion implantation using the plasma immersion ion implantation (PⅢ) technique. The non-uniformity of emitter doping is lower than 5%. The secondary ion mass spectrometer profile indicates that the PⅢ technique obtained 100-nm shallow emitter and the emitter depth could be impelled by furnace annealing to 220 nm and 330 nm at 850 ℃ with one and two hours, respectively. Furnace annealing at 850 ℃ could effectively electrically activate the dopants in the silicon. The efficiency of the black silicon solar cell is 14.84% higher than that of the mc-silicon solar cell due to more incident light being absorbed.
Effects of acetone-soaking treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells based on P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction
The improvement of the acetone-soaking treatment to the performance of polymer solar cells based on the P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction is reported. Undergoing acetone-soaking, the PCBM does not distribute uniformly in the vertical direction, a PCBM enrichment layer forms on the top of the active layer, which is beneficial to the collection of the carriers and blocking the inverting diffusion carriers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the PCBM weight ratio on the top of the active layer increases by 20% after the acetone-soaking treatment. Due to the nonuniform distribution of PCBM, the short-circuit current density, the open-circuit voltage, and the fill factor are enhanced significantly. Finally, the power conversion efficiency of the acetone-soaking device increases by 31% compared with the control device.
Transport path optimization algorithm based on fuzzy integrated weights
Natural disasters cause significant damage to roads, making route selection a complicated logistical problem. To overcome this complexity, we present a method of using a trapezoidal fuzzy number to select the optimal transport path. Using the given trapezoidal fuzzy edge coefficients, we calculate a fuzzy integrated matrix, and incorporate the fuzzy multi-weights into fuzzy integrated weights. The optimal path is determined by taking two sets of vertices and transforming undiscovered vertices into discoverable ones. Our experimental results show that the model is highly accurate, and requires only a few measurement data to confirm the optimal path. The model provides an effective, feasible, and convenient method to obtain weights for different road sections, and can be applied to road planning in intelligent transportation systems.
Optimization of robustness of network controllability against malicious attacks
Dynamic evolutionary community detection algorithms based on the modularity matrix
Global stability of a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on networks with individual awareness
Recent research results indicate that individual awareness can play an important influence on epidemic spreading in networks. By local stability analysis, a significant conclusion is that the embedded awareness in an epidemic network can increase its epidemic threshold. In this paper, by using limit theory and dynamical system theory, we further give global stability analysis of a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on networks with awareness. Results show that the obtained epidemic threshold is also a global stability condition for its endemic equilibrium, which implies the embedded awareness can enhance the epidemic threshold globally. Some numerical examples are presented to verify the theoretical results.
Derivation of baroclinic Ertel-Rossby invariant-based thermally-coupled vorticity equation in moist flow